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Full text of "The Automotor Journal: First Half 1904"

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Supplement to " The Automotor Journal? Januaty 2/, /905.] 



I 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL: 



%\\ Jllustrairtr Ueeklg Journal. 



• . - • 



VOL. IX 

FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1904. 



&0ntu)n : 

F. KING AND CO. (LIMITED), 44, ST. MARTIN'S LANE, 

CHARING CROSS, W.C. 

r 

1904. 



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353301 



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Supplement to " The Automat or Journal? fan. 2i> fQO^.] 



INDEX TO VOL. IX. 



Ai 



_ ^BINGDON SILENCER, 313. 

Accidents, 823, 1204, 1225. 

Accumulators, 12, 21, 32, 145, 152, 313, 3^5, 

935- 

Achilles system, 169. 

Adam-Boudin Boat, 52, 75. 

Adams- Farwell Car, 1326. 

Ader system, 42. 

Aero Club I see also Aeronautics), 1 168, 1309. 

Aeronautical Institute, 530, 709. 

Aeronautics, 39, 75, 86, 94, 104, 127, 148, 
163, 237, 261, 266, 300, 355, 418, 446, 472, 
500, 529, 538, 601, 680, 696, 709, 748, 777, 
813, 817, 856, 886, 960, 1025, 1031, 1084, 
1143, 1168, 1194, 1205, 1242. 1275, 1321, 
1332, 1360. 1394, 1420, 1487, 1551- 

Aeroplanes (see Aeronautics). 

Agricultural Hall Exhibition, 324, 344, 373, 
407, 441, 1390. 

Albany Cars and system, 184, 223. 

Alcohol as fuel, 127, 389, 414, 444. 

Alcohol and duty, 544, 1062, 1338. 

A I Ida ys system, 211, 252, 1035, 1076, 1097. 

Alps, Over the, 802, 839, 844, 869, 889. 

Aluminium, 325. 

Alvarez Aeroplane, 1243. 

Ambulance Motor, An, 1430. 

American Records, 48. 

American trials and races, 942, 970, 973, 986. 
988. 

Anglian cars, 1040, 1131. 

Anti-motor Crusade, 842, 867. 

Anti-shock device, 63, 66, 265. 

Anti-skid trials, &c. (see Side-slip). 

Antwerp, 384. 

Appeal cases, 786, 816. 

Archdeacon, M., 148, 237, 261, 472, 529, 
1 194, 1360. 

Ardennes Circuit, 715, 740, 781, 832, 860, 
884, 905. 

Argentina, 946, 1400. 

Argyll cars, 1085. 

Ariel system, 258, 687, 731, 1387. 

Aries system, 1470. 

Arras meeting, 684. 

Aston hill-climb, 1162. 

Automobile Club Journal, 32, 55. 

Automobile Club of Great Britain and 
Ireland — 
Committee election, 231, 238, 263, 272, 

275, 3°2» 317, 328, 332, 348. 
Committees, 377. 
Exhibition question, 103, 121, 161, 193, 

199. 
Founder Members' Dinner, 1343, 1344, 

1357. 
General meeting, 332. 
Hundred miles trials, 234, 478, 633, 989. 
I^ong distance trials, 1392, 1453. 



Automobile Club (contd.) — 

Papers, 122, 151, 232, 290, 314, 348, 413, 
414, 444, 1422, 1458, 1459, 1489, 1489, 
1491, 1520, 1 521. 
Policy, Its, 238, 263, 272, 275, 302, 317, 

325, 332, 
Reliability trials, 1905, 1424. 
Small car trials, 658, 724, 744 860, 939, 
974, 984, ion. 1029, 1033, 1060, 1064, 
1090, 1095, 1 130. 
Thousand miles trial, 21, 45, 350. 
Atlantic cup, 1110, 1138, 1164, 1193. 
Austin. H., 1312, 1544. 
Australia, 484, 512, 540, 1147, 1170, 1304, 

1314. 
Automobile Club of America, 503, 15 19. 
Auto-Cycle Club, 96, 349, 351, 416, 448, 505, 
570 591, 658, 688, 691, 716, 861, 888, 990, 
1018, 1054, 1 1 15, 1 140, 1 166, 1 196, 1253, 
1 28 1, 1333, 1455, 1552. 
Automobile and Cycle Engineers Institute, 

324, 1457. 
Automobile Mutual Protection Association, 

691, 808, 1088, 1 195, 131 1, 1426, 1547. 
" Automotor" cars and system, 375, 516. 
Aveling, T. C, 232. 
Awards ( Exhibition ) , 1 1 . 
Axles, 172, 227, 408, 433, 438, 519, 1 183. 



B, 



>ACON, Sir Hickman B., 1194. 
Baldwin Airship, 960, 1 194, 1332, 1394, 1487, 

1551. 
Ball bearings, 439. 
Bankruptcy Court, 28, 52, 636, 748, 812, 

1432. 
Barber variable speed gear, 555, 589, 622. 
Barton, Dr., 472, 813, 817. 
BasseVMichel Magneto, 1045, 121 1. 
Batteries (see Accumulators). 
Bat tricar, 1387, 1556. 
Baudouin system, 119. 
Bayard cars, 525. 
Beaufort system, 45. 

Beaumont, W. W., 1422, 1458, 1489, 1521. 
Belgium, 1494. 
Bellamy racer, 353. 
Belsize system, 251, 342. 
Belt fastener, 313. 
Benz- Parsifal, 254, 131 3. 
Berkshire Auto Club, 194, 348, 477, 634, 689, 

746, 805, 887. 
Berlin, 404, 417. 

Bexhill meeting, 803, 860, 922 965, 971, 985. 
Bicycles (see Motor bicycles). 
Blackheath Auto Club, 569, 660, 887, 1255. 
Blackmailing chauffeurs, 452, 483. 
Blackpool, 1 137, 1 172, 1 173, 1 188, 1219, 

1231, 1279, 1284, 1303, 1307, 1310, 1330. 
Blake system, 410. 



Bleichroder cup, 1424, 1485, 1495. 

Board of Trade, 483, 724. 

Boats (see Motor boats), 607. 

Boilers (see Steam generators). 

Bollee tricycle, 27. 

Bon double acting engine, 521. 

Bowden brakes, 1404. 

Boys and motors, 510, 566, 722. 

Brakes, 144, 433, 437, 675, 752, 1017, 1072, 

1540. 
Brillie" lurry, 409. 
Bristol Auto Club, 1141. 
British and foreign cars, 264. 
British Automobile Industry (Aveling), 232, 

264. 
British Automobile Industry, 1204, 1287, 

1310, I335> 1367, 1467, 1491. 1520. 
British International Cup (Harmsworth), 26, 

150, 901, 912, 917, 918, 927, 951, 963, 

1220, 1280, 1425, 1448, 1554. 
British Motor Boat Club 1425, 1487. 
Brooke system, 206, 256, 365, 405, 572, 635, 

662, 739, 900, 1 161, 1403, 141 7, 1554. 
Brouhot system, 64, 74, 412. 
Brown cars, 1037, 1075, 1098. 
Brush system, 191, 207. 
Brussels, 118, 147, 196. 
Kuffam car, 506. 
Burchall system, 649. 
Burford, H. C, 1545. 
Burnley Auto Club 26, 156, 415, 689. 
Bury and W. Suffolk Auto Club, 1309. 
Butler, E., 27. 



G 



_f ABS, motor, 5, 796, 1 149, 1408, 1468. 
Cadillac system, 214, 539, 959, 1039, 1130, 

1 145. 
Cadogan Co. system, 297. 
Calais- Dover, 26, 602, 636, 833, 933, 947, 

948, 952. 
Calais- London, 1164, 1280. 
Calcium chloride, 1203. 
Callendar, Prof., 576, 591, 
Canals, 32, 331, 10 1, 1175, 1288, 1498. 
Cannes, 382. 
Carburettors, 10, 65, 83, 177, 227, 246, 247, 

309, 319. 339, 344, 369, 400, 405» 409, 672. 
677. 707, 1161, 1272, 1301, 1323, 1383, 

1535- 

Carburettor trials, 446, 1191, i486. 

Cardiff Auto Club, 15 18. 

Castle ignition plugs, 1132. 

Caters cup, 15 17, 1549. 

Ceylon, 811, 1375, 1384, 1556. 

C.G.V. cars and system, 16, 46, 1500. 

Change-speed gear, 17, 62, in, 141, 166, 171, 
210, 226, 244, 250, 364, 402, 406, 492, 494, 
5i5» 5i8, 555, 589, 620, 622. 673, 733, 773, 
788, 702, 8?4, 850, 1216, 1323, 1441, 1539. 



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Supplement to " The Autommor Journal? fan. 21 , /905.] 

iv 



INDEX. 



Chateau-Thierry, 1020, 1190, 1278. 

Chelmsford cars (see Clark son). 

Chenard and Walcker, 46, 81, 411. 

Chenier-Leon system, 319, 344, 1287, 1301. 

China, 100. 

Christie car, 683. 1189, "9i> 

Chriton cars, 1016 

C. J. L. ignition, 521. 

Clarkson cars and system, 23, 603. 

Clement system, 646, 670, 11 16, 1469, 1504. 

Clement- Talbot, 1420. 

Clerk, Dugald, 531, 563, 576, 626, 1031. 

Climbing steps, 333. 

Clincher-Michelin, 441, 595. 

Clutches {see also Friction dutches), 17, 284, 

309» 403, 436, 494, 5«8, 15 58. 
Clyde cars, 1037, 1077, 1101. 
Cohendet system, 42, 1473. 
Coleman, Frederic, 136 1, 1362, 1364, 1369. 
Collier tyre, 18, 288. 441, 1428. 
Colonial automobilism, 484, 938, 998, 131 7, 

1384, 1419, 1515. 
Commercial points, 811, 863, 916, 946,972, 
1028, 1058, 1088, 1 145, 1 172, 1200, 1226, 
1258, 1283, 1342, 1371, 1404, 1430, 1464, 
1494, 1526, 1556. 
Commercial vans (see Vans). 
Commission, 894, 913, 964. 
Commutators, 338. 

Company doings, 28, 52, 76, 100, 128, 158, 
196, 270, 300, 326, 386, 418, 450, 480, 
508. 540, 572, 604, 692, 748, 812, 838, 864, 
890, 916, 972, 1028, 1 146, 1 172, 1200, 
1226, 1258, 1284, 1314, 1342, 1372, 1404, 
1431, 1464, 1494, 1526, 1556. 
Companies registered, — 

Ace Motor Synd. (Ltd.), 1372. 

Acme Engine Co. (Ltd.), 52. 

Acme Motor Co. (Ltd.), 604. 

Ader (Soc. des Automobiles) (Ltd.), 1284. 

Advance Motor Starter Co. (Ltd.), 1404. 

Alnwick Motor Garage and Cycle Co. 

(Ltd.), 52. 
Asbury (Ltd.), 28. 
Ascot Motor Works (Ltd.)i 972. 
Aster (Ltd.), 13 14. 
Attwood and Pennell (Ltd.), "72. 
Auto-Cars and Accessories ( Ltd. ), 196. 
Automobile Co. of Cardiff (Ltd.), 450. 
Automobile Engineering Co. (Ltd.), 480. 
Automobile Publishing and General 

Agency (Ltd.), 326. 
Automobile Review (Ltd.), 1432. 
Automobile Show (1905) (Ltd ), 1 146. 
Auto- Van Supply Association (Ltd.), 48a 
Bailey (S.R.) and Lambert (Ltd.), 76. 
Barnett, A. D. (Ltd.), 196. 
Beckett, L. A. (Ltd.), 128. 
Belgravia Garages (Ltd.), 418. 
Biddies and Co. (Ltd.), 270. 
Birmingham and Midland Motor Omnibus 

Co. (Ltd.), 1464. 
Birmingham Brake Co. (Ltd.), 972. 
Birmingham Engineering Co. (Ltd.), 1028. 
"Boon" Variable Gear Synd. (Ltd.), 

1494. 
Bould, J. (Ltd.), 1314. 
Bo wen's Electric and Motor Boats (Ltd.), 

972. 
Bown Mfg. Co. (Ltd.), 11 72. 
Bridgwater Motor Co. (Ltd.), 270. 
Brighton and South Coast Motor Garages 

(Ltd.), 1494. 
Brighton and Sussex Motor and Carriage 

Works (Ltd.), 890. 
Bristol Motor Co. ( Ltd. ), 692. 
Britannia Elec. Carriage Synd. (Ltd.;, 

480. 
Britannia Motor Garage Co. (Ltd.), 972. 
British Detachable Cycle Motor (Ltd.), 

864. 
Buchholtz Reversible Turbine Synd. 

(Ltd.), 196. 
Cadogan Synd. (Ltd.), 28. 



Companies registered (conta. ) — 
Cann(Ltd-), 838. 
Cannstatt Mercedes (Ltd.), 1200. 
Caravan Restaurant Co. (Ltd.), 692. 
Central Motor Car Co. (Ltd.), 1432. 
Chadwick Engineering Co. (Ltd.), 1432. 
Chase Motors (Ltd.), 1146. 
City Automobiles (Ltd.), 418. 
Climax Motors (Ltd.), 1526. 
Clipper Tyre Co. (Ltd.), 386. 
Cocks (Ltd.), 386. 

Colossal Cycle Corporation (Ltd.), 1494. 
Commercial Motors (Ltd.), 508. 
Cooper (Hugh) and Co. (Ltd.), 54a 
Cosi Car Synd. (Ltd.), 28. 
County Garage Co. (Ltd.), 916. 
Coventry Works (Ltd.), 1556. 
Cowburn, Anne (Ltd.), 1464. 
Crawshay- Williams (Ltd.), 1372. 
Critchley (J. S.) (Ltd.), 76. 
Crossley Motor and Engineering Co. 

(Ltd.), 692. 
Daimler Motor Co. (Ltd.), 1432. 
Dean and Burden Bros. (Ltd.), 864. 
Deasy (H. H. P.) and Co. (Ltd.), 450. 
Dixi Motors (Ltd.), 692. 
Dixon, Bros., and Hutchinson (Ltd.), 916. 
Doherty Motor Accessories Co. (Ltd.), 

41a 
Donaldson (A.) and Co. (Ltd.), 196. 
Donne and Willans (Ltd.), 1494. 
Dougill's Engineering (Ltd.), 418. 
Dublin and Swords Motor Car Co. (Ltd.), 

128. 
Dunlop Motor Co. (Ltd.), 916, 
Durand Non-Skid Tyre (Ltd.), 838. 
Durham County Motor Transit Co. 

(Ltd.), 838. 
Duryea Co. (Ltd.), 1372. 
Dustless Roads Co. (Ltd.), 972. 
East Lancashire Athletic Supply Co, 

(Ltd.), 1314. 
Edlin Sinclair Tyre Co. (Ltd.), 28. 
Electiic and General Assurance Agency 

(Ltd.), 52. 
Elsworth Automobile Co. (Ltd.), 1146. 
Empire Oil Engine Synd. (Ltd.), 1172. 
Engine Syndicate (Ltd.), 326. 
Ferguson's Carriage Co. (Ltd.), 158. 
Finchley Road Garage (Ltd.), 1314. 
Fleetwood Motor Passenger Carrying Co. 

(Ltd.), 864. 
French (W. F.) and Sons (Ltd.), 158. 
Garcin Renault Electric Cars and Accu- 
mulators (Ltd.), 1284. 
Gaso-Hydraulic Marine Engine Co, 

(Ltd.), 300. 
George Eliot Cycle and Motor Co. (Ltd.), 

1028. 
Gilburt Motor Co. (Ltd.), 1226. 
Grande Maison d' Automobiles (Ltd.), 

158. 
Gutteridge (H.), (Ltd.), 1226. 
Haigh (Thomas) and Co. (Ltd.), 1172. 
Halford Spring Wheel Synd. (Ltd. ), 572. 
Halle Spring Wheel Synd. (Ltd.), 812. 
Harvey, Frost and Co. (Ltd.), 1258. 
Headcorn, Sutton- Valence and Maidstone 

Motor Co. (Ltd.), 1028. 
Herald Motor Mfg. Co. (Ltd.), 1464. 
Herbert and Beach (Ltd.), 418. 
Hey, E. S. (Ltd.), 1226. 
Highgate Motor Car Co's. Successors 

(Ltd.), 972. 
Hitchon Gear and Automobile Co. (Ltd.), 

508. 
Horstmann Gear Co. (Ltd.), 1314. 
Iden Motor Car Co. (Ltd.), 1284. 
Immisch Launch and Boat Co. (Ltd.), 

1494. 
Imperial Motor Co. (Ltd.), 386. 
Imre Engineering Co. (Ltd.), 13 14. 
Institute of Chauffeurs (Ltd.), 1342. 
International Westrumite (Ltd.), 386. 



Companies registered (contd.)— 

Invicta Motor Accessories Co. (Ltd.), 

1464. 
I. P. N. Rustless Spoke and Rim Co. 

(Ltd.), 812. 
Iron-clad Rubber Tyre Synd. (Ltd.), 386; 
Isle of Wight Express Motor Synd. 

(Ltd.), 1404. 
Jukes and Co. (Ltd.), 1494. 
Keene's Automobile Works (Ltd.), 300. 
Kennedy Motor Co. (Ltd.), 300. 
Kensington Garage (Ltd.), 508. 
Kensington Rubber Co. (Ltd.), 1200. 
Kent Motor Co. (Ltd.), 28. 
Kidderminster Motor and Cycle Co. 

(Ltd.), 52, 76. 
Krupkar (1904) (Ltd.), 1464. 
Lacoste and Battman (Ltd.), 52. 
Ladies' Automobile Company of Great 

Britain and Ireland ( Ltd. ), 300. 
L'Agence Generate des Automobiles 

Francaises (Ltd.), 128. 
Lagonaa Motor Co. (Ltd.), 692. 
Lake District Road Traffic Co. (Ltd.), 128. 
Lanchester Motor Co. (Ltd.), 1432. 
Legros and Knowles (Ltd.), 450. 
Lion Motor and Cycle Co. (Ltd.), 300. 
London United Motor Co. (Ltd.), 300. 
Manufacturers' Centre (Ltd.), 128. 
Mars Motor and Cycle Co. (Ltd.), 1146. 
Marshall's Valve Gear Co. (Ltd.), 692. 
Martin, Smith and Co. (Ltd.), 748. 
Maxim (Sir Hiram S.) Captive Flying 

Machine Co. (Ltd.), 418. 
Medway Motor and Engineering Co. 

(Ltd.), 300. 
Mercedes Motor Works (Ltd.), 1432. 
Mercedes Co. (Ltd.), 812. 
Mobile Publishing Co, (Ltd.), 812. 
Monarch Motor Synd. (Ltd.), 28. 
Mors (Ltd.), 1526. 
Motor Agencies (The) (Ltd.), 748. 
Motor and General Tyre Co. (Ltd.), 480. 
Motor Castings Co (Ltd.), 1028. 
Motor Improvements Co. (Ltd.), 540. 
Motorists' Tyre Union (Ltd.), 270. 
Motor Omnibus Trust (Ltd.), 1494. 
Motor Plants (Ltd.), 1494. 
Motor Press (Ltd.), 386. 
Mulliner (A. G.) Motor Body Co. (Lid.), 

158. 
N.A.G. Automobile Co. of Great Britain 

ar.d Ireland (Ltd.), 1146. 
New Century Lock and Engineering Co. 

(Ltd.), 540. 
New Lancaster Engineering Co. (Ltd.), 

1 172. 
Ogilvy (James) (Ltd.), 52. 
Parsons Motor Co. (Ltd.), 1432. 
Peckham (W. J.) (Ltd.), 270. 
Pedley (J.) and Son (Ltd.), 1258. 
Peto and Radford, 128. 
Pioneer Motor Car Co. of India (Ltd.), 

196. 
Powell and Hanmer (Ltd.), 196. 
Putney Motor Co. (Ltd.), 450. 
Rapid Motor Vehicle Co. (Ltd.), 692. 
Raven Cycle Co. (Ltd.), 972. 
Regal Motor Car and Launch Co. (Ltd.), 

1556. 
Reilloc Tyre Co. (Ltd.), 1258. 
Reliance Cycle and Engineering Co. 

(Ltd.), 540. 
Reliance Works Co. (Ltd.), 838. 
Relyante Motor Works (Ltd.), 270. 
Renault Freres (Ltd.), 1556. 
Resilient Hub (Jackson's Foreign Patents) 

Synd. (Ltd.), 1494. 
Samson Leather Treads and Tyre Co. 

(Ltd.), 76. 
Saxon Motor Co. (Ltd.), 386. 
Selbach(Ltd.), 158. 
Select Cycle and Motor Manufacturing 

Co. (Ltd.), 128. 



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INDEX. 



Companies registered (contd.) — 

Sheffield Motor Co. (Ltd.), 270. 
Sligo Motor Service Co. (Ltd.), 604, 692. 
Simpson and Bailey (Ltd.), 748. 
Soc. Gen. Internationale pour la Carbura- 
tion et l'Application de l'Alcool (Ltd.), 
1258. 
Solent Yacht and Marine Molor Co. 

(Ltd.), 270. 
Speed and Power (Ltd.), 692. 
Starley(Ltd.), 386. 
Stevens Motor Manufacturing Co. (Ltd.), 

1526. 
Stone (J.) and Co. (Ltd.), 692. 
Sussex Motor Road -Car Co. (Ltd.), 1342. 
Townend (A.) and Co. (Ltd.), 1172. 
Traction and Power Agency (Ltd.), 480. 
Tractor Machinists (Ltd.), 838. 
Tyre Syndicate (Ltd.), 748. 
Universal Automobiles (Ltd.), 540. 
United Kingdom Motor Tyre Manufactur- 
ing Co. (Ltd.), 1494. 
Velo Manufacturing Co. (Ltd.), 1372. 
Velox Engineering and Autocar Co. (Ltd. ), 

386. 
Velox Motor Manufacturing Co. (Ltd.), 

480. 
Vim Brake Syndicate (Ltd.), 1172. 
Vogt Engines (Ltd.), 604. 
Wade and Jones (Ltd.), 1372. 
Walmsley (James) and Co. (Ltd.), 270. 
Warminster Motor Co. (Ltd.), 1556. 
Weldrivet Boiler and Motor Co. (Ltd.), 

972. 
West-End Garage (Ltd.), 1028. 
West-End Motor Co. (Ltd.), 1028. 
Western Counties Mfg. Co. (Ltd.), 300. 
Western Motor Co. (Ltd.), 1314. 
West Midland Motor and Cycle Co. 

(Ltd.), 76. 
Williams Bros. (Birmingham) (Ltd.), 

1464. 
Windsor Motor and Engineering Co. 

(Ltd.), 1028. 
Wolstencroft and Co. (Ltd.), 916. 
Connaught, Duke of, 1228, 1244. 
Consumption trials, 98, 155, 30 1 , 3*8, 416, 
715, 1082, 1091, 1 140, 1 196, 1221, 1253, 
1279. 
Coolers (see Radiators). 

Cordingley and Co.'s Exhibition (see Agri- 
cultural Hall). 
Cornell, Judge, 944, 998, 1108. 
Cornilleau-St. Beuve car, 1542. 
Coronet system, 375. 

Correspondence, 52, 72, 121, 263, 297, 317, 
564, 595. 863, 9i 3. 938, 97i, 998, 1024, 
1088, 1 1 18, 1 146, 1284, 1310, 1335, 1367, 
1403, 1426, 1464, 1522. 
Cost of upkeep, 292. 
Cottereau system, 58. 
Coulthard system, 1399. 
Craig-Dorwald engine, 1415. 
Cranks, 244. 
Crawhez Cup, 1549. 
Critchley, J. S., 1506. 
Crossley system, 104, 106, 122, 139, 173, 205, 

229, 264, 1 193, 1338. 
Croxted cars, 1040, 1130. 
Crystal Palace Exhibition (1904), 79, 88, 180, 

192, 199, 202, 235, 242, 264, 288, 536. 
Cudell cars, 385, 1500. 
Cycle Engineers Institute, 1312. 
Cyclist Touring Club, 303. 
Cylinders, 176. 

DAIMLER system, 47, 202, 277, 573, 
862, 865, 904, 968, 985, 1 107, 1281, 
1284, 1403, 143 *• 
Danger boards, 303, 347. 
Daniel petrol engine, 312. 
Darracq cars and system, 23, 373, 487, 1 303, 

1404, 1431, 1463. 
Dasse system, 118. 



Deafness, 539. 

Deasy, Capt., 802, 832, 839, 844, 869. 

Decauville system, 245, 1505. 

De Dietrich system, 45. 47, 861, 1225, 1370, 

1425. 1499, 1501- 
De Dion system, I95» 334, 3°9> 4°2, 432, 7*7» 

810, 835, 873, 878, 914, 1015, 1023, 1086, 

1087, 1097, 1 117, H3°> "98, i3°9, *3*9» 

i35i> x 383, x 446, 1525. »53& 
Delahaye cars and system, 16, 899. 
Delaunay-Belleville system, 1471. 
Delhi-Bombay, 1251, 1304, 1331, I34<>» '3 6 8, 

I375» H23, I485> i5 l8 > i55°- 
Delivery vans, 29, 155. 
Delivery van trials. 
De Nevers tyres, 289. 
Dennis cars and system, 22, 208. 
Derby Automobile Club, 94, 320, 477, 568, 

634, 746, 782, 887, 1022, 1255. 
Deutsch airship, 39. 
" Direct " system, 1476. 
Dixi cars and system, 1093, 1125, 1 1 57. 
Dobelli system, 222. 
Doctors, motoring, 1025, 1407. 
Dogs, 79, 661, 662, U20, 1 197, 1230. 
Dorset Auto Club, 505, 660, 1169. 
Double-acting engines, 521, 649, 827. 
Dourdan meetings, 11 14, n>6, 1190. 
Downshire cars, 1036, 1076. 
Drexel cup, 1054. 
Driving, 200, 355, 422, 574, 595» 6 9 2 » 8 43» 

939- 
Drunken chauffeurs, 331, 784* "io, 1266. 
Dry cells, 1326. 
Dufaux cars, 699. 
Dumont, Santos, 300, 450, 472, 500, 529, 680, 

748, 810, 838, 886. 
Dunlop tyres and Co., 441, "21, U34> 1404, 

1431- 
Diirkopp system, 345. 
Duryea system. 38, 212, 411, 803, H45i I2 39» 

1310, 1312, 1464, 1524. 
Dust problem, 105, 511, 660, 752, 828, 894, 

1 124, 1 1 39, 1202, 1261, 1435, H59, 1489- 
Duty, 52. 



JCLaGLE ROCK hill-climb, 1423, 145 1, 

1453. 

Earp, C, 656, 682. 

Eastern Counties' Auto Club, 156, 348, 689, 
746, 805, 858, 887, 1518. 

East Surrey Auto Club, 415, 634, 747, "68. 

Edge, S. F., 270, 297, 618, 666, 682, 695, 
702, 837, 856, 889, 917, 9i8, 927, 95*> 
1025, 1030, 1118, 1138-1204, 1214, 1335, 
1402, 1506. 

Edinburgh show, 297, 320. 

Edison's Battery, 12, 50, 152, 935. 

Edison -Jungner, 935. 

Egypt, 1078, 1556. 

Eisemann magneto, 1046, 1178. 

Electric trucks, 347. 

Electric vehicle runs and trials, 98, 1424. 

Electric vehicle systems (see also Motors and 
systems), 534. 

Elect rogenia system, 44. 

Electromobile system, 183, 195. 

Elliott motormeter, 1208. 

Elswick cars, 209. 

Endorsing licenses, 816. 

Enfield cars, 1016, 11 30. 

English Steam Wagon Co., 571. 

Engines (see also Motors), 60, 68, 84, 109, 137, 
165, 174, 187, 189, 467, 487,493, 5i8, 521, 
588, 649, 797, 854, 899, 980, 1295, 1352, 
1412, 1415, 1418, 1477, !48o, 1333. 

Exhaust box (see Silencers). 

Exhibition question, 103, 121, 161, 193, 199, 

231 ' ■ • r> . 

Exhibition question in Pans, 201. 

Exhibition profits, 339. 

Expert witnesses, 331. 

Exports (see Imports and Exports). 



1* EDERATION (see Affiliation, &c). 

Fiat system, 47, 217, 351, 701, I45 1 - 

Fire engines and boats— motor, 399, 560, 603, 

753, 810, 1078, 1 147, 1 170, 1 186, 1200, 

1405, 1414, 1462. 
Five hundred metre times, 72, 426. 
Fleetbridge car, 1386. 
Ford system, 153, 703, 732, 1191. 
Forman system, 936. 
borrest lectures — the James, 531. 
Fouillaron, 41. 
Frames, 70. 

Francois Lambert airship, 886, 132 1. 
Franklin cars, 744. 
French statistics, 728. 
Fuel consumption trials (see Consumption). 
Fulgur motor, 797. 
Fuller, R. H., 348. 

GAILLON, 1020, 1280, 1285, 1303, 1331, 
1363, 1408. 

Gale, C. H., 497. 

Garages, 138, 811, 1275, 1493- 

Gardner-Serpollet (see Serpollet). 

Gare wheel, 798. 

Garrard system, 441. 

Gast, Madame du, 385. 

Gaston- Menier cup, 1022. 

Gas turbines, 1346, 1365, 1397. 

Gaiacre hill-climb, 1162, 1330. 

Gear {see Change-speed, variable, steering). 

General M.C. Co., 245. 

Generators (see Steam generators). 

Germain system, 45, 164, 213, 1339, 1341. 

Gibiud two-stroke engine, 798. 

Gilbey, Sir Walter, 1316, 1555. 

Gillet-Forest cars and system, 17. 

Gladiator system, 14, 479, 809, I02 6, 1219, 
1252, 1340, 1473, I5°4- 

Glasgow-London, 295, 446, 5°3t 5 2 8, 653, 
712, 717. 

Glidden, C. J., 63, 416, 567, 602, 803, 913, 
1053, 1057, 1 163, 1556. 

Glidden tourist trophy, 1392, 1401- 

Gloucestershire Auto Club, 266, 660. 

Glover wagon, 15 13. 

Gobron-Brillte cars and system, 14, 307, 333, 
421, 423, 1285, 1493- 

Goodrich tyre, 442. 

Gordon- Bennett cup (1904), 24, 48, 53, 7*, 
97, 126, 153, 194, 234, 268, 295, 305, 350, 
356, 387. 389, 395, 447, 454, 462, 473, 485, 
524, 542, 545, 578, 600, 605, 606, 609, 629, 
637, 641, 656, 667, 680-681, 693, 694-697, 
742, 749-750, 754, 789. 829-830. 

Gordon- Bennett cup (i9<>5)» 77 8 , 830, 985, 
1019, 1052, 1 189, 1362, 1423, 1484, 1517, 
1548. 

Gordon- Bennett nightmare, 785. 

Goring Bridge, 668. 

Governors, 493, 737. 

Gratze speed indicator, 1269. 

Greyhound tricar, 1389. 

Guernsey, 100, 324, 491, 799, 805. 

Gymkhanas, 727,911, 1053, 1 134, 1*44, i'69» 

HALL hydraulic gear, 773, 788, 792, 824, 
850. 

Hardt engine, 167. 

Harmsworth, Sir Alfred, 788. 

Harmsworth cup (see British International 
cup). 

Harrogate Auto Club, 1488. 

Hartlepool Auto Club, 94, 782. 

Hautier cars and system, 17. 

Heating garages, 1275, 1493. 

Heavy motor traffic, 57, 72, 152, 290, 511, 
585, 920, 976, 1002, 1 121. 

Heavy motor vehicles, 80, 113, 297, 318, 347, 
348, 407, 470, 503, 565, 570, 687, 691, 788, 
853, 988, -017, 1027, 1084, 1086, 1 123, 
1 153, 1 182, 1215, 1245, 1272, 1337, 1513. 



Digitized by 



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Supplement to " The Automotor Journal" Jan. 2f, 1905.] 
VI 



INDEX. 



Heavy oil competitions, 11 10, 1424, 1450. 

„ systems, 36, 676, 1301. 
Helston Rural District Council, 11 49. 
Herald cars and system, 18. 
Hercules steam wagon, 407. 
Hereford Auto Club, 124, 320, 348, 718, 782, 

888. 
Herkomer cup, 266, 528, 1169, 1424, 1485, 

*495, 1549. 

Hertfordshire Auto Club, 292, 320, 443, 448, 
568, 634, 996, 1088, 1 1 10, 1 162, 1 108. 

High-tension magneto ignition, 1032, 1045, 
1079, 1 128, 1 159, 1 177, 1 178, 121 1, 1239, 
1267, 1298, 1327. 

Highway law, 354, 378, 413. 

Highways Protection League, 1032. 

Hill-climbing trials, 296, 350, 528, 568, 570, 
601, 631, 632, 653, 658, 687, 688, 718, 740, 
748, 780, 801, 804, 831, 859, 861, 884, 888, 
9<>3» 908, 970, 985, 989, 996, 1020, 105 1, 
J065, 1081, 1 1 10, 1 1 13, 1137, 1 140, 1 162, 
1 163, 1 188, 1219, 1278, 1303, 1330, 1391, 
1408, 1423, 1484. 

Hind, Ballin, 1306. 

Hiring and liability, 280. 

Hitchon-Weller gear, 244. 

Holcar system, 46. 

Hooded vans, 638. 

Hopkinson tyre, 442. 

" Horbick " system, 410. 

Horley system, 251, 1034, 1044, 1075. 

Horns, 772, 1017, 1023, 1024, 1256. 

Hornsby system, 36. 

Horsepower, 1088, 11 18. 

Horses and motors, 31, 163, 200, 339, 837, 
873> 91 5» 921, 1 108, 1 198, 1402. 

Hotchkiss system, 33, 508, 600. 

Hozier system {see Argyll). 

Humber cars and system, 22, 45, 234, 478, 
910, 1036, 1041, 1076, 1097, 1 131, 1342, 

1385. I39°- 
Humorous* sketches, &c, 299, 350, 394. 
Hundred miles trials (see Automobile Club). 
Hurtu system, 1503. 
Hutton, J. E., 1509. 
Hutton system, 256, 360, 400, 436, 555, 589, 

622, 879, 1290, 1301, 1419. 
Hyde Park, 571, 667. 
Hydraulic control, 625. 



1.CE, racing on, 127, 1293. 
Identification marks, 471, 480, 664, 11 64. 
Ignition, 372, 469, 494, 5 2I » 7<>7, 1032, io 45> 

1079, 1128, 1132, 1159, 1297, 1446, 1457. 
Imports and exports, 63, 269, 385, 450, 604, 

720, 864, 972, 1 146, 1258, 1372, 1526. 
India and automobilism, 19, 131, 1027, 1052, 

1141,1251, 1306, 1318, 1347, I375,i4i9» 

1436. 
Indicator, 345, 576, 591. 

„ Diagrams, 576, 591. 
Information gratis, 1289. 
Ingoldsby country, 265. 
Institute of Motor Engineers, 201, 709. 
Instone, E. M. C, 1335, 1545- 
Insurance, 868, 938, 969, 1350. 
Internal combustion motors (Clerk), 531, 563, 

576, 626. 
Inventions (see Patents). 
International cup (cycles), 1167, 1552- 
Ireland, 640, 920, 1167, 1 189, 1221, 1254, 

1488. 
Irish Auto Club, 320, 505, 1189. 
Isle of Man trials, 305, 350, 356, 395, 421, 

454, 473, 509, 524, 54i, 542, 545. 575* 578, 

605, 606, 609, 652, 661, 663. 
Iveagh-Pirrie scheme, 920. 
Ivel system, 298, 661, 914, I35<>» *430, 1555- 

J ACKSON cars, 1016, 1043. 
James and Browne cars and system, 21, 
183, 212. 



Janus engine, 1472. 

Japan, 19, 1498. 

Jap tricar, 1389. 

Jarrett, Sergeant, 240, 274, 304, 720, 945, 

1 142. 
Jariptt, C, 95, 303, 543, 548, 643, 838, 1287, 

1306, 1310, 1338, 1367, 1507. 
Jellineck, Miss Mercedes, 945. 
John o'Groat's to Land's End, 416, 567, 805, 

942. 
Judges and motors, 99, 150, 14 16, 1462, 1493. 
Juggernaut, The, 690, 842, 893, 13 16. 
Jungner Battery, 145. 



Ixmet, 40. 

Low tension magneto, 11 28. 

Lubrication, 44a 

Lucerne, Lake, 1 109, 1 1 19. 

Luggage carrier, 1132. 

Lurry trials (see Heavy motor vehicles). 



M 



K. 



^ENNEDY, Rankin, 1210, 1298. 
Kent Auto Club, 985. 
Kerosene systems (see Heavy oil). 
Kilometre times, 426, 631, 684, 832, 925, 

1 162, 1 190, 1236, 1304, 1307, 1362. 
King and automobilism, The, 573, 890, 997. 
Kingston Motor Club, 808. 
Kipling, Rudyard, 161, 232, 274, 1124. 
Kirk, H. R., 1193. 
Krieger system, 1476. 
Krupkar system, 298. 



LACRE Motor Car Co., 138, 810, 1057, 
„ 1 132, 1523. 
Ladies' Auto Club, 491, 537, 660, 690, 719, 

721, 725, 747, 782, 806, 834, 859, 887, 911, 

960, 1227, 1255, 1400. 
Lamplugh cars, 1476. 
Lamps, 156, 269, 572, 1250. 
Lancashire Steam Motor Co. system, 407. 
Lanchester cars and system, 22, 125, 386. 
Land's End to John o' Groats (see John 

o' Groats). 
Langdon-Davies system, 184, 216. 
Law of the highway, 354, 378. 
Lawrence, M. R., 1 510. 
Law reports, 280, 300, 352, 386, 418, 480, 

664,667, 748, 786, 81/, 816, 1372, 1404, 

1432. 
Lea and Francis system, 215. 
Lebaudy airship, 886, 960, 1025, 103 1, 1275, 

1360, 1394, 1420, 1552. 
Legal aspects of Motor Car Act, 122, 151. 
Legislative question, 57, 131. 
Legros system, 1473. 
Leicestershire Auto Club, 230, 443, 568, 

634, 690, 834, 859, 996, 1022, 1056, 1219, 

1334, 1400. 
Letts, W. M., 741, 1306, 1 51 1. 
Levitt, Miss Dorothy, 1023, 1082, 1105. 
Lewis carburettor, 672. 
Licensed Victuallers' obligations, 299. 
Licences, 1 u, 394, 468, 816, 912, 1058, 1148, 

1 1 74, i486, 1525. 
Liederkerke cup, 084. 
Light motor car development, 1422, 1458, 

1489, 1521. 
Lights on vehicles, 390, 575, 719, 997, 1203, 

1228, 1462, 1483. 
Limitation of cylinder capacity. 
Lincolnshire Auto Club, 124, 156, 320, 

348, 477, 506, 535, 569, 634, 688, 690, 780, 

783, 806, 834, 858, 887, 911, 939, 941, 

960, 996, 1056, 1081, 1 141, 1 168, 1 194, 

."95. 1255. 
Live axles (see also Axles), 519, 620, 1292, 

1381, 1441, 1533. 
Liverpool Show, 196. 
Local Government Board Regulations, 4, 329, 

346, 471, 479, 585, 976, 1002. 
Locomobile Co. , 298. 
Lodge, Sir Oliver, 1457. 
Londonderry system, 470. 
Long distance runs (see Non-stop). 
Longridge two-stroke engine, 69. 
Longuemare carburettor, 707. 
Looping the loop, 104. 
Lorence system, it8. 



1 VI ADAGASCAR, 76, 404, 1028. 
Magistrates and automobilism, 131, 241, 386, 

39o, 394, 468, 471, 484, 575, 786, 816, 842, 

916,950, 951, 970, 1017, 1148, 1174, 1262, 

1286, 1317, 1346, 1356, 1547. 
Magneto ignition (see High tension). 
Maidenhead, 753. 
Manchester Auto Club, 124, 569, 635, 835, 

859, 911, 1 1 16, 1334, 1426, 1518. 
Manchester Show, 321. 
Manufacturers' obligations, 720. 
Martini cars and system, 15, 22, 802, 839, 

844, 1363, 1392, 1423, I45i> H53, i486. 
Match, A motor, 1222, 1314. 
Maudslay system, 45, 180, 243, 349, 898. 
May Day parade, 471, 565. 
Maxim, Sir Hiram, 355, 384, 772, 998. 
" Mecanique" system, 151 1. 
Mediterranean cup, 1138, 1164, 1425, 1449. 
Mercedes system, 219, 424, 819, 939, 1201, 

1478, 1 5 14, 1543. 
Mercury Simplex car, 374. 
Merryweather system, 399. 560, 735, 810, 

1 147, 1 170, 1405,1414. 
Meyan cup, 1554. 
Michelin cup, 1517. 
Midland Auto Club, 124, 194, 50^, 569, 690, 

808,903, 1 168, 1484, 1524. 
Mieusset system, 135. 
Mile times, 72, 126, 127, 153, 424, 426, 505, 

684, 832, 967, 1020, 1 190, 1236, 1307, 

1362. 
Military automobilism (see also Mutor Volun- 
teers), 36, 339, 348. 571, 595, 800, 818, 

853, 863, 969, 1030, 1062, 1063, 1085, 
1116, 1122, 1191, 1199, 1201, 1347, 1395, 
1407, 1461. 

Milnes- Daimler system, 255, 292, 981, 1084, 
1123, 1153, 1182, 1215, 1245, 1272. 

Miniature automobiles, 1401. 

Minerva system, 43, 1377. 

Mobile cars, 1037, 1038, 1075, 1101, 11 30. 

Monaco boat races, 25, 48, 266, 392, 451, 455, 
481, 504, 1087, 1358, 1425, 1450, I527- 

Montagu, G., 151. 

Montagu, J. Scott, 511, 1459, 1489. 

Mors system, 46. 

Motobloc system, 67. 

Motodromes, 350, 691, 804, 1463. 

Motor bicycle races, trials, and reconJs, 80, 
127, 236, 296, 383, 417, 446, 505, 529, 570, 
601, 631, 632, 658, 715, 716, 718, 747, 781, 
805, 818, 833, 861, 888, 909, 932, 940, 964, 
989, 1018, 1054, 1083, 11 13, 1 140, 1 166, 
1 196, 1221, 1253, 1281, 1308, 1333, 1456, 
1518, 1552. 

Motor bicycles, 73, 80, 112, 154, 262, 529, 
575, 737, 991, 1083. 

Motor boating, 25, 52, 86, 101. 126, 150, 194, 
201,256, 266, 313, 327, 331, 351, 380, 392, 
399, 426, 430, 455. 483, 490, 504, 529, 601, 
657, 662, 687, 717, 739, 777, 804, 826, 833, 

854, 879, 891, 892, 895, 912, 917, 9i8, 927, 
947, 948, 952, 961, 902, 1021, 1031, 1054, 
1087, 1 109, 1 138, 1 164, 1 193, 1214, 1220, 
1254, 1280, 1309, 1332, 1345, 1358, 1384, 
1417, 1425, 1448, 1477, 1487, 1516, 1554. 

Motor boat rating, 380. 

Motor Cycling Club, 126, 379, 570, 659, 716, 
909, 942, 1054. 

Motor Manufacturing Co., 46, 77, 1256, 1284. 

Motor Traffic Development (Rolls), 233. 

Motor Union, 57, 379, 575, 668, 131 1. 

Motor Van and Wagon Users Association, 835. 

Motor vehicles for goods transport (Thorny- 
croft), 290. 



Digitized by 



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Supplement to " The Automotor Journal? Jan. 21 > 190J.] 



INDEX. 



Vll 



Motor Volunteers, 74, 99, 150, 298, "321, 324, 
352, ^79, 449, 472, 508, 536, 913, 969, 
1116^1118,11145, 1198, 1282, 1396, 1552. 
Motors and systems — 

Petrol and Heavy Oil—* 
Achilles, 169. 
Ader, 42. 
Albany, 223. 
Ariel, 258. 
" Automotor," 516. 
Belsize, 342. 
Brooke, 365, 405. 
Brouhot, 64. 
Brush, 191. 
Burchall, 649. 
C. G. V., 16. 
Chenard-Walcker, 81. 
Clement, 646, 670. 
Cottereau, 58. 

Crossley, 106, 139, 173, 229. 
Daimler, 277. 
Darracq, 23. 
De Dion, 334, 369, 402, 432, 1319, 

I35i> 1383, 1446, 1536. 
Delahaye, 16. 
Dennis, 22. 

Dixi, 1093, "25, 1 157. 
Duryea, 38. 
Fiat, 217. 
Ford, 703, 732.! 
Forman, 936. 
Fouillaron, 41. 
Fulgur, 797. 
Gillet-Forest, 17. 
Germain, 45, 164. 
Gladiator, 14. 
Gobron-Briliie\ 14, 307. 
Hall, 773, 788, 792, 824, 850. 
Hautier, 17. 
Herald, 18. 
*Hornsby, 36. 
Hotchkiss, ^. 
Humber, 22. 
Hutton, 256, 360, 400, 436, 555, 589, 

622, 1290, 14 1 9. 
Ivanchester, 22. 
Louet, 40. 
Martini, 15, 22. 
Mercedes, 219, 819, 1514, 
Mieusset, 135. 
Milnes- Daimler, 11 23, 1153, 1182, 

1215, 1245, 1272. 
Minerva, 42, 1377. 
Motobloc, 67. 
Napier, 185. 
Napier- Parsons, 874. 
"National," 871. 
Oldsmobile, 957, 977. 
Panhard, 1003, I °47- 
Peugeot, 16,45, 5*3- 
Pipe, 15. 
Prune!, 16. 

" Rational," 1348, 1378, 1412, 1441. 
Renault, 22. 
Richard, G., 22. 
Rolls-Royce, 1409, 1440, 1533. 
Ryknield, 281. 
Siddeley, 189. 
Spyker, 6, 1206. 
Star, 21. 
*Sutton, 676. 
Talbot, 340. 
Thornycroft, 285. 
Tygard, 827. 
Ville, 18. 

Wilson -Pilcher, 463, 492, 519. 
Winton, 22, 1263, 1294. 1323, 1354. 
Wolseley, 22, 87, 552, 586, 619. 
Steam — 
Clarkson, 23. 
Serpollet, 22. 
White, 22, 982, 1007, 1 151, 1437, 1479. 



Mont Cenis, 861. 

M unicipalities and motors, 31, 691, 719, 934, 
1 149, 1 187, 1223, 1250, 1332, 1434. 



NAPIER motor boats, 381, 490, 917, 91$, 
927, 95i» 952, 9*3. "09* "3», 1254, 
1448, 1554. 
Napier cars and system, 54, 71, 185, 203, 347, 

269, 3*1. 387, 423, 469, 485. 526, 567, 602, 

661,729,835, 885, 889, 943, 1057, 1156, 

1197,1311, 1331, 1368, 1408, 1427,1463, 

1492, 1522. 
Naphthalene, 1287, 1302. 
Napier- Parsons van, 874. 
" National " system, 871. 
Neilson, R. M., on gas turbines, 1365, 1397. 
New Companies registered (see Companies). 
New Forest, A tour in the, 1359. 
New Orleans system, 207, 248, 250. 
Newspaper trials, 815, 840, 866. 
New York, 155. 

Nice Week, 383, 391, 419, 420, 423, 1547. 
'* Nonex " safety device, 594. 
" Non-stop " runs, 477, 526, 567, 601, 658, 

747, 802, 832, 885, 894, 967, 9&7, 1020, 

1150, 1 189, 1332, 1392. 
Norfolk Auto Club, 443, 718. 
Norman, H., 1260. 
Northampton Institute, 1207. 
Northamptonshire Auto Club, 1195, 1 5 1.8. 
North British Rubber Co., 441, 1058. 
North-East Lancashire Auto Club, 230, 266, 

718, 1332. 
Nottingham Auto Club, 94, 443, 535, 688, 

718, 801, 807. 
Numbering cars, 639, 720. 



O' 



* Htavy oil. 



_ GORMAN,M.,5ii, 533, 561. 

Oldfield, B., 154, 446, 478, 529, 832, 837, 
1052, 1304, 1330, 1332, 1393, I4 84. 1550- 

Oldsmobile system, 29, 267, 537, 539, 741, 
8n, 934, 957, 977, 1036, 1038, 1044, 1057, 
1099, 1 108, 1 130, 1 144, 1 165, 1 192, 1214, 
1223, 1252, 1279, 1305, 1338, 1454. 

Olympia Exhibition, 706, 890, 1024, 1310, 
1313, 1374, 1406, 1464, 1547. 

Omnibus companies, 236, 275, 1 1 53, 1170, 
1339, 1432. 

Omnibuses — motor, 9, 23, 201, 236, 255, 260, 
275, 292, 312, 343, 499, 537. 540, 564, 572, 
603, 66.?, 723, 799, 934, 976, 1062, 1 123, 
1 153, 1 170, 1 185, 1245, 1272, 1339, 1461. 

Orde, J. W., 1426. 

Orion system, 99, 409, 719, 1086. 

Ormandy, W. R., 414, 443, 444. 

Ormonde-Liaytona, 153, 197, 234, 1393, 1454. 

Ostende, 740, 833, 882, 909, 964. 



i ACKARD system, 49. 

Padua, 1280. 

Palmer tyre, 441, 742, 997, 1300, 1336, 1404. 

Panhard cars and system, 212, 416, 630, 890, 

1003, 1047, 1382, 1426. 
Paper chases, 823. 
Paris Salon (1903), 11, 14, 40. 
Paris Salon (1904), 943, 1027, 1 402, 1409, 

1469, 1497, 1499, 1542. 
Paris Salon (1905), 1 519, 155a 
Paris- Trou ville, 964, 993, 1021, I no. 
Park Regulations, 067, 691, 696, 921, 970. 
Parsons, 103 1. 
Patent Law, 1262. 

Patent specifications (last pane each week). 
Pedrail, 80, 90, 113, 853, 1515. 
Peerless system, 549. 
Pelham cars, 1075. 
Pennell, J., 946. 
Perth, 1055, 1087. 

Peterborough Auto Club, 72, 808, 888. 
Petrol cars (see Motors and systems). 



UADRANT tricar, 1387. 



Petrol-electric cars, 44, 1356, 1476. 

Petroleum in Sussex, 140$. 

Peugeot cars and system, 16, 45, 63, 265, 513. 

Phillips, R. E., 314. 

Phoenix tricar, 1386. 

Pickfords, 570 

Pick system, 247. 

Pipe system, 15, 46, 665, 701, 1509, 151 1. 

Pits, 800. 

Police and automobilism, 74, 79, 101, 105, 
131, 201, 236, 240, 274, 304, 386, 390, 44», 
450, 471, 484, 496, 543, 571, 784, 786, 796, 
816, 868, 913, 945, 975, 1023, 1024, 1 174, 
1254, 1293, 1369, 1401, 1461, 1525, I554- 

" Pompeesi n tyre pump, 522. 

Poole Motor Club, 635. 

Popular motorcars, 533, 561. 

Portmarnock races, 986, 108 1, 1089, 11 12. 

Post offices and motors, 11, 163, 662, 1025, 
1215, 1224, 1271, 1384- 

Powell, Major Baden, 680, 856, 1055, 1063. 

Press and Automobilism, The, 422, 453, 564, 
842. 

Preston Auto Club, 379. 

Prince of Wales, 1374, 1525. 

Pritchetts-Gold system, 313. 

Private Prosecutors, n 76, 1205. 

Private trials, 815, 840, 866. 

Professional Drivers, 668. 

Progressive East, 19. 

Prosptr- Lambert system, 104 1, 1099, n 32. 

Prunel Carburettor, 10. 

Prunel cars and system, 16. 

Pulveriser, 677. 

Pumps, 522. 

Q 

I \ ACES, records, and trials (see also 
Trials), 24, 48, 71, 97, 126, 129, 133, 153, 
194, 234, 266, 293, 318, 350, 382, 416,421, 
426, 446, 477, 502, 524, 567, 596, 629, 653, 
682, 712, 715, 724, 740, 744, 778, 801, 830, 
859, 882, 903, 922, 939, 965, 984, 985, 
ion, 1019, 1029, 1033, 105 1, 1060, 1064, 
1081, 1090, 1095, 1110, 1130, 1135, 1162, 
1 188, 1203, 1218, 1231, 1251, 1277, 1303, 
13*5, I330, 1361, 1391, 1423, I45 1 * 1484. 
1517, 1548. 

Radia system, 1474. 

Radiators, 83, 245, 401, 1440, 1482. 

Radium, 51. 

Railring bicycle, 262. 

Railways and automobiles, 9, 147, 151, 236, 
255, 292, 349, 603, 663, 675, 705, 889, 912, 
921, 981, 1078, 1084, 1 140, 1 149, 1 163, 
1 176, 1222, 1225, 1368. 

Railway motor coaches, 87, 195. 

Raleigh tricar, 1386. 

Ranelagh, 727. 

" Rational " cars and system, 1348, 1378, 
1412, 1441. 

Reading Auto Club, 835, 911. 

Records (miscellaneous), 1137, 1162, 1167, 
1221, 1279, 1304, 1330, 1332, 1362, 1393, 
1423, 1484, 1550. 

Reed's speedometer, 1249. 

Referee, 1224, 1282. 

Registration, 454, 639, 737, 912, 1026, 1058, 
1207. 

Regulations, 4, 28, 329, 346, 471, 5 8 5» 6 39, 
691, 752, 1002. 

Reilloc tyre, 442, 853. 

Reliability trials, 21, 295, 296, 318, 503, 744, 
1424. 

Reliability trials for boats, 430, 601, 740, 880, 
891, 890, 932, 961, 1054, 1450. 

Renard train, 1. 

Renault, M , 691. 

Renault cars and system, 22, 1136. 

Repairs, 483. 

Retrospect for 1904, 1529. 



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Supplement to " The Automotor Journal," Jan. 2/ y /poj'.] 

viii 



INDEX. 



Reviews of books, 20, 73, 124, 265, 322, 347, 
4*5* 440, 500, 714, 800, 937, 1143, 1421. 

Rex tricar, 1389. 

Rhodesia Auto Club, 569. 

Ribble tricar, 1388. 

Richard-Brasier system, 629, 637. 

Richard (Georges) cars and system, 22, 412, 
629. 

Richardson system, 375. 

Riley tricar, 1 389. 

Roads improvemett, 5, 200, 512, 621, 787, 
912,950,976, 1 148, 1322. 

Robertson system, 408. 

Rochet -Schneider system, 46, 411. 

Rolls, Hon. C. S., 233. 

Rolls-Royce cars, 1409, 1440, 1533. 

Roots Oil system, 51. 

Rose system, 182. 

Rover cars, 1015, 1131. 

Royal Agricultural Show, 799, 1336. 

Royalty and Automobilism, 11, 159, 385, 

1375. 
Roy system, 1546. 

Russell, Earl, 122, 151, 368, 536, 753- 
Ryde system, 310. 
Ryknield system, 182, 281. 



ST. LOUIS EXHIBITION, 25, 529, 543, 
571, 971, 1053, 1314, 1341, 1370. 
Salon cup, 1194, 1220, 1450, 15 16. 
Sandow, E., 417. 
Sangster, C, 1546. 
Sawyer non-skid, 1276. 
Scientific research, 639, 1009. 
Scottish Auto Club, 95, 124, 157, 292, 
321, 379. 477, 536, 604, 718, 783, 808, 941, 
975. 1 "3. "37> 1202, 1255, 1392, 1403, 
1488. 
Seashore racing, 153, 197, 234, 986, 987, 

1081, 1089, 1 1 12. 
Secondary batteries, 21. 
Seddon tyres, 288. 
Seine et Oise Auto Club, 1454. 
Selden patent, 121, 299, 636. 
Semmering hill-climb, 1163, 1257. 
Serpollet cars and system, 22, 525. 
" Service " cars, 1017, 1075. 
Sharp tricar, 1388. 

Sheffield Auto Club, 46, 94, 125, 157, 
321, 690, 718, 781, 783, 834, 1022, 1116, 
1 142, 1219, 1401, 1518. 
Shock damper devices (see Anti-shock). 
Shrewsbury, Lord, 263. 
Shrewsbury-Challiner tyres, 288. 
Siara, 783. 

Siddeley, J. D., 290, 15 12. 
Siddeley system, 189, 1015, 1076, 1096, 1257 
Side slip competitions, 195, 271, 293, 294, 
320, 384, 416, 446, 477, 478, 501, 527, 550, 
598, 686, 716, 833, 1063, 1 133. 
Side slip preventers ( see also Side slip competi- 
tions), 1276, 
Sign posts, 347. 
Silencers, 35, 313. 
Simms-Bosch magneto, 1045, 11 59, 1239, 

1267. 
Simms' system, 147, 236, 602, 1014, 1271. 
Sirdar tyres, 878, 1133. 

Six hundred miles trials (see Automobile Club) 
Sixteen feet roads, 5. 
Skegness, 1251. 

Small car trials (see Automobile Club). 
Smith, E. Shrapnell, 912, 919, 934. 
Smith's speed indicator, 1270. 
Smoke consumption, 448. 
Snowdon, climbing, 129, 132, 687, 717, 741. 
Society of Arts Papers, 87. 
Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders, 
68, 79, 88, i2i, 152, 180, 193, 349, 417, 
536, 706, 808, 890. 964, 972, 1024, 1088, 
1 122, 1364, 1395, 1406. 
Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders, 

Olympia Exhibition (see Olympia). 
Somersaulting motor car, 1466, 1492. 



South Africa and automobilism, 9, 80, 147, 
201, 267, 569, 570, 668, 708, 753, 811, 
1257, 1455, 1462, 1555. 

South-East Essex Auto Club, 783. 

Southern Motor Club, 660. 

South Lincolnshire Club, 49, 633. 

South Wales Auto Club, 1400. 

Spa, 940. 

Spectator and motors, 453. 

Speed diagram, 713. 

Speed indicators, 1208, 1248, 1262, 1269. 

Speed limit, The, 5, 131, 264, 347, 359, 388, 

453, 479, 5", 537, 575, 738, 9 '5, 943- 
Speed limit in France, 418, 1376. 
Speedwell cars, 1035, I0 44» io 7°» 1098. 
Sprags, 818. 
Springs, 186, 1184. 
Spring wheels, 1370. 

Spyker system, o, 449, 669, 706, 717, 1206. 
Stanley steam car, 743. 

„ Show, 1373, 1385. 

„ silencer, 35. 
Star cars and system, 21, 1034, 1076, 1098, 

1 132. 
Starting lever, 635. 
Statistics, French industry, 728. 
Steam cars (see also Motors and systems), 43, 

407, 470, 982, 1007, 1146, 1151, 1279, 

1288, 1335. 1367. 
Steam generators, 408. 
Steam motor bicycle, 112. 
Steel, 691, 811. 
Steering, 828. 
Steering gear, 86, 141, 228, 439, 484, 497, 

520, 1206, 1504. 
Steering head, 33. 
Stier wheels, 18. 
Stirling system, 348, 1055. 
Straits Settlements, 19. 
Straker system, 255, 981. 
Sturmey, H., 1491, 1520. 
Sunbeam cars, 204. 

Sunrising hill -climb, 903, 1391, 1484, 1524. 
Sutton oil system, 676. 
Swift system, 210, 1014, 1039, 1076, 1096, 

1 1 30. 
Switzerland, 1162, 1435. 

X ALBOT system, 340, 374, 410, 802. 
Tare limit, 87. 
Tasmania, 938. 
Taxes, 222, 575. 
Technical schools, 1084, 1531. 
Ten mile limit, 5, 57, 359, 388, 453, 534, 566, 
607, 667, 723, 738, 915, 921, 943, 1 171, 
1 199, l 334, 1460. 
Testing materials, 11 87. 
Thery, 638, 641. 
Thor system, 376. 
Thornycroft, J. E., 290. 
Thornycroft petrol system, 181, 285, 719, 971, 

14*3- 
Thornycroft steam system, 1337. 
Thousand miles trial (see Automobile Club). 
Tillings, 537, 799- 
Timing apparatus, 1336. 
Tisbury District Council, 200, 537, 667. 
Todd, R., 1385. 
Tony-Huber system, 43. 
Touquet, Le, 18. 
Tourist cars, 1092. 
Tourist car trials, 391, 503, 632, 715, 781, 

966, 1082. 
Tourist trophy, The, 985, 1000, 1308, 1436, 

1451, 1467, 1523. 
Track records (see Racing tracks and records). 
Traction engines, 36. 
Tractors, 36. 
Traffic question, 86, 126, 179, 330, 355, 482, 

564, 608. 
Training schools, 303. 
Tramways, 829, 950, 968, 976, 1055, 1087, 

1121, 1156, 1261, 1274, 1309, 1553. 
Translations, 86, 331. 



Transmission gear, 1251. 

Travellers' cars, Commercial, 1150. 

Trials (see also Races, Reliability, small car 

trials, Automobile Club, &c), 815, 840, 

866. 
Tricars, 441, 443, 1386-1389. 
Turin, 196, 1 167, 1257. 
Turntables, 1493, I 553« 
Two-stroke engines, 69, 168, 798. 
Tygard engine, 827. 
Tyre bursts, 856, 889. 

Tyre depreciation and steering gear, 484, 497. 
Tyre pump, 522. 
Tyrer, T.. on alcohol, 543. 
Tyres, 288, 290, 441, 484, 680, 707, 853, 878, 

1 133, 1282, 1300, 1336. 
Tyre trials, 632, 856. 
Tyre vulcanizer, 523, 707. 



\J NICYCLE, A., 230. 
Universal joint, 408. 
Universal silencer, 313. 



v- 



ALVES, 229, 314. 
Valves and valve mechanism (Phillips), 314. 
Vanderbilt cup, 596, 742, 779, 838, 884, 1052, 

1114, 1135, 1163,1192, 1203,1218,1259, 

1277, 1362, 1369. 
Vanderbilt, W. K., junr., 126, 153, 1369. 
Vans, 184, 214, 319, 719, 874, 1 183, 1 198. 
Van trials, 478, 503, 528, 687, 988. 
Variable speed-gear (see also Change-speed), 

555» 589» ° 22 , 773, 788, 792, 824, 850. 
Vauxhall cars, 1015, 1044. 
Velox Motor Company, 636. 
Venice and London, 994. 
Ventoux hill-climb, 804, 989, 105 1. 
Ville car and system, 18. 
Vinco tricar, 1388. 

Vinot-Deguingand system, 42, 151 1, 1543. 
Volunteers 'see Motor Volunteers). 
Vousemoi car, 374. 
Vulcanizer, 523, 707. 
Vulcan spe*d indicator, 1209. 



w 



ONS (see Heavy vehicles). 
Wallace, R. W., 105. 
Warming apparatus, 28. 
Water jackets, 1010. 
Wentworth-Woodhouse meeting, 11 88. 
Westinghouse system, 1475. 
West Surrey Auto Club, 535, 688, 808, 911, 

1056. 
Westrumite, 511, 538, 1 203. 
Wheels, 18, 83, 184, 372, 407, 439, 798, 1197, 

1482. 
White, A. Moresby, 378, 413. 
White steam cars and system, 22, 127, 322, 

569, 836, 982, 1007,1027, 1055, 1 151, 1 199, 

1329, 1361, 1367, 1403, 1429, 1437, 1453. 

1462, 1479, 1519, I55I- 
Wilkinson tyre, 289. 
Wilson- Pilcher system, 45, 205, 280, 463, 492, 

519. 
Winter's speed-indicator, 1248. 
Winton cars, 22, 253, 1263, 1294, I3 2 3, *354, 

1382. 
Wolseley cars and system, 22, 87, 204, 243, 

244, 246, 296, 389, 447, 462, 485, 538, 

548, 552, 586, 619, 652, 905, 959, 1034, 

1075, 1078, 1096, 1 132, 1 156, 1 186, 1 194, 

1283, 1456, 1469, 1477, 1523. 
Wolverhampton Auto Club, 96, 349, 535, 

660, 747, 997, 1082, 1088, 1 1 16, 1 142, 

1 162. 
Wright Bros., 94, 104, 148, 262, 1205. 



YORKSHIRE Auto Club, 96, 179, 506, 
569, 604, 718, 804, 831, 859, 912, 
1056, 1 1 16, 1 142, 1 169, I 188, 1256, 1309, 
1334, 1364, 1456, 1489- 



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The Automotor Journal, January 2nd, 1904.] 



The AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL 



A RECORD AND REVIEW OF APPLIED AUTOMATIC LOCOMOTION. 

Circulates amongst Makers and Users of Motor Cars, Cycles, etc., in the United Kingdom, the 

Colonies, and the Continent. 



Offices: 44, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C. 



No. 156. (No. 1, Vol. IX.)] JANUARY 2ND, 1904. [ Re «£££ Pa ] r'SE&Swt' 



Everyone who has been to the Paris Salon, and most of those who have not, have heard of the motor train 
devised by Colonel Renard. We gave some illustrations of this in a previous issue. The above photograph 
shows the train in actual operation. The rear wheels of each of the trailers are driven from the tractor 
through gearing from a propel ler-shaft (with a number of universal joints) which runs the whole length of the 
train* This arrangement gives great climbing power, enables a light tractor to be employed, and may have 
advantages for military purposes, but it remains to be seen whether the advantages compensate for the increased 
mechanical complication and the loss of power in transmission. Possibly the recognition of the advantages of 
Colonel Renard's device from the military point of view may explain the great popular interest and enthusiasm 
which greeted the train on all its public appearances in the Paris streets, and notably when inspected by 

President Loubet on Tuesday. 



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THE AUTO MO TOR JOURNAL. 



[January 2, 1904. 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



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DIARY OF FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 



1904. 

Jan. 13 

Jan. 15-23 
*Jan. 21 

•Jan. 28 



Feb. 2-6 

♦Feb. 3 

Feb. 12-24 

•Feb. 12 
Feb. 23-27 
Mar. 4 



Mar. 7-12 
Mar. 19-26 

Mar. 25-30 
May 19-20 
June 1-7 
August 
Sept. ... 
Oct. -Nov. 



British Events. 

"Motor Vehicles," by W. Norris (Liverpool En- 
gineering Society). 

Leeds Cycle and Motor Show. 
The Motor Car Act, by Earl Russell (AG.C.B.I. 
Paper). 

" Railway Companies and the Motor Problem," 
by Mr. George Montagu, M.P. (A.C.G.B.I., 
Paper,) 

Liverpool Cycle and Motor Show (St. George's 
Hall). 

"Why Motor Cars" by " Cargill Gentry" 
(A.C.G.B.I. Paper). 

2nd Annual Exhibition of the Society of Motor 
Manufacturers and Traders at the Crystal Palace. 

Quarterly 100 Miles Trial. 

Hull Cycle and Motor Show (Assembly Rooms). 

" Some Practical Notes on Electric Storage Bat- 
teries," by G. C. Allingham (Junior Institute 
of Engineers). 

Manchester Motor Show (St. James's Hall). 

Cordingley and Co.'s Motor Car Exhibition at the 
Agricultural Hall. 

•Side-Slip Trials. 

Glasgow- London Non-Stop Run. 

Motor Bicycle Endurance Trial. 

British International Cup for Motor Boats. 

•Reliability Trials. 

•Light Van Trials (about 2,000 miles). 



Foreign Events (Trials, Races, Ac). 

(All French road racing fixtures are subject to confirmation by 
the French authorities.) 
1904. 

Tan. 16-23 .. Madison Square (New York) Show. 

Jan. 23-Feb. 4 Brussels Automobile Salon. 

Jan. 24 ... Coupe Sneyden I kilom. on flat (A.C. Algeria). 

Jan. 25-30 ... Ormond-Daytona Races (Florida). 

Feb Tourist Run and Consumption Trial (L'Aulo). 

Feb. 3-6 ... Paris-Turin Tourist Run (France Automobile). 

Feb. 6-13 Chicago Show. 

Feb. 23-27 ... Anti-Skid Trials at Versailles. 

Mar.... ... Paris- Rome (La France Automobile). 

Mar. 19-27 ... Frankfort Exhibition. 

Mar. 20-29 ••• Nice Week (details p. 1168). 

Mar. 21-26 ... Washington (U.S.A.) Auto Show. 

Mar. 23-27 ... Electric Vehicle Trials (Monde Sportif). 

Apl. 5-15 ... Mediterranean Motor Boat Week. 

Apl. i6-May3i Vienna Auto Show. 

Apl. 17 ... Coupe Meyan (Motor Boats). 

Apl. 18-23 ••• Nice-Rome. 

May Guadarrama Hill Climb (A.C. Spain). 

May 1- 12 ... A.C. Bordelais Automobile Fortnight. 

May 1 1- 1 5 ... Milan Exhibition and Tourist Trial. 

May 12 ... Perigueux Hill Climb (A.C. Dordogne). 

May 12-15 ••• Tours Tourist Trial. 

May 14-15 ... Nantes- Croisic (Motor Boats), Monde Sportif. 

May 16-23 ••• Circuit National Beige. 

May 23-31 ... Aix-les-Bains Week. 

June Circuit des Ardennes (A.C. Belgium). 

June 7 ... Nam ur Week. 

June 7 ... Spa Week. 

June 17 ... Gordon-Bennett Race. 

July Mont-Cenis Hill Climb (A.C. Italy). 

July Speed Trials (V Auto). 

July 16-17 ... Ostende Motor Boat Race'. 

July 17 ... Antwerp-Ostende Motor Boat Run. 

July 18-23 ... Ostende Week. 

July 23-25 ... Lucerne Motor Boat Races. 

Aug. 5-1 1 Paris- Deauville Motor Boat Race. 

Aug. 12 Motor Boat Race for Gaston Menier Cup. 

Aug. 15 ... Ventoux Hill Climb (Avignon). 

Sept.... ... Deauville Automobile Meeting {VAuto). 

Sept. 2 ... Chateau Thierry Hill Climb (VAuto). 

Oct. 5 ... Dourdan Kilometre Trials (Monde Sportif). 

Oct. 9 ... Gaillon Hill Climb (L'Att/o). 

Oct. 14-22 ... Leipzig Cycle and Motor Show. 

Nov. 20 ... 100 Kiloms. Trial (A.C. Algeria). 

Dec Paris Salon. 



* Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland Events. 



CONTRIBUTIONS AND ARTICLES. 

Contributions and articles likely to prove of interest to our readers 
will receive due attention, but in all cases the name and address of 
the writer must be given, not necessarily for publication. 

All matter intended for publication should be addressed to The 
Editor of "The Automotor Journal," 44, St. Martin's 
Lane, London, W. C. Stamped envelope must be sent if the 
manuscript is required to be returned. 



LEADING CONTENTS. 



Pagh. 

Diary of Forthcoming Events a 

Passing Events . . . . 3 

The Spyker Petrol Car 6 

Automobilism in South Africa • ■ 9 

The Prunel Automatic Carburettor 10 

The Edison Battery ia 

The 1903 Paris Salon 14 

The Progressive East . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 

Reviews of Books . . ao 

1,000 Miles Reliability Trial ?i 

Races, Records, and Trials 24 

Monaco Motor Boat Races . . .25 

Club Doings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 

Law Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 

Doings of Public Companies 28 



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January 2, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



1903. 

The year which has just come to a close is one 
which very few people will regret. The weather through- 
out has been phenomenally bad, records of unpleasant- 
ness having been reached month after month. The 
general trade of the country has been far from pros- 
perous — doubtless an indirect result of the disorganistion 
of the seasons. People get ill-tempered at persistent bad 
weather, and a general state of ill-temper is prejudicial 
to business projects generally. 1903 has been a bad 
year. It is well it is over. So wet, inclement, and 
unpleasant a season has necessarily produced a pre- 
judicial effect upon the automobile industry. But it is 
satisfactory to be able to state that in spite of this, 
in spite of the fact that it is just the automobile industry 
which one would expect under the circumstances to be 
more affected than almost any other, its progress has 
continued to be most satisfactory. As we can hardly 
anticipate the recurrence of such a depressing year 
either from a meteorological or general business point 
of view, we look forward to a period of greatly increased 
activity in the motor car world during the year on which 
we have now embarked. The evidences of increased 
general interest in the movement have been palpable every- 
where. The exhibitions which have been held during 
the past year have surpassed in the number, interest, 
and high technical excellence of the exhibits, all previous 
efforts in the same direction. The English exhibitions 
held in this country have greatly excelled those of the 
previous year in these respects, and the same may be 
said to at least as great a degree of the Salon which has 
just closed its doors in Paris. 

The general tendency displayed at these exhibitions 
has been towards the adoption of more or less standard 
types — a most satisfactory sign, and a stage of progress 
which must be reached before the full development of 
the trade on a commercial basis can be expected, and 
this more general acceptance of certain typical standards 
of construction, coupled with the wider experience 
gained, has put manufacturers in a position to undertake 
on a larger scale than hitherto the development of the 
commercial vehicle on a profitable basis. Probably, 
however, the most solid evidence of progress was fur- 
nished by the large number of vehicles which in this 
country successfully went through a more elaborate and 
exhaustive system of tests in the 1,000 Miles Reliability 
Trial than a similar number of motor vehicles had ever 
been subjected to before, while the increase in the 
interest taken in this event by the general public was 
most noticeable. 

All British automobilists have very naturally regretted 
that the British competitors in the Gordon-Bennett Race 
were not successful in retaining the Cup in this country, 
but there can be no doubt that the occurrence of 
the event in the United Kingdom has proved dis- 
tinctly beneficial to the British industry, and has had 
considerable effect in stimulating popular interest in 
automobile development. Though the English com- 
petitors lost the race, the authorities at any rate gave a 
magnificent object lesson in the way in which a race 
should be conducted. Everything went off without 
trouble or hitch, and the arrangements adopted have 
been recognised even in France and Germany as the 
model on which all such events should in future be 
conducted. 

Not less noticeable than the progress in automobilism, 
and in the nature of things more sensational, have been 
the results attained by the numerous inventive and 



intrepid experimenters who, with astonishing energy and 
courage, have attempted to extend man's command over 
the air. The Lebaudy airship has successfully performed 
journeys of a length and at a speed never previously 
approached, and has displayed an independence and 
superiority to adverse atmospheric conditions which 
many of the wiseacres had previously predicted it was 
impossible an airship of the navigable balloon class could 
ever attain. The misfortune which ultimately overtook 
the " Jaune " was an unlucky accident, pure and simple, 
and is not to be regarded as in any way throwing dis- 
credit upon the general correctness of design of those 
who projected and built the machine. 

Less conspicuous but possibly more pregnant with 
possibilities for the future are the quiet experiments in 
pure aviation — true independent bird-like flight — which 
were being simultaneously conducted by the Wright 
Brothers in North Carolina. They, too, have added to 
their record, exploits which, in that particular depart- 
ment, are almost more astonishing than the records of 
the Lebaudy airship. 

Everywhere on the roads and in country districts, the 
evidences of the spread and increasing popularity of the 
automobile movement have been most encouraging. 
Not least amongst these hopeful symptoms, rightly 
understood, was the outburst of antagonism which 
took place at the period, when in ordinary years we 
should have had the dog-days, and culminated in 
the Juggernaut correspondence of the Daily Telegraph. 
Rightly regarded, we say that this outburst of 
unreasoning prejudice was the strongest evidence of 
the growth and increasing prosperity of the new in- 
dustry, and the hold which even its opponents were 
beginning to feel it had obtained in this country. 
Every new movement has to suffer from a period of 
active hostility on the part of the unenlightened. It 
has been so with nearly every great tendency that has 
contributed to modern progress, and the outburst does 
not come till the new movement has obtained a s rong 
toothold. It is the invariable indication that it '.has 
come to stay. w 

And we believe the Juggernaut crusade has ultimately 
done the movement good. All its enemies had oppor- 
tunities of expressing themselves — frequently with great 
virulence, and almost always at interminable length — 
in the pages of the Daily Telegraph and elsewhere. The 
British public is fundamentally fair-minded, and sooner 
or later a reaction sets in in favour of any cause or any 
set of people that have been unfairly and unduly 
abused. Such a reaction is being fully felt now. 

It is as well that it should be so, for while the tide of 
hostility was at its height the prejudice evoked was most 
unfairly utilised to very prejudicially affect the Motor 
Car Bill which was passed into law in August, and came 
into legal operation yesterday. The provisions of this Act 
very naturally at the present moment fill the field of view 
of practically all automobilists. 

Every automobilist is probably only too well aware 
that the Act forbids under very heavy penalties a number 
of offences of which the principal are driving at excessive 
speed, or so as to endanger other users of the road. We 
have dealt with these points at sufficient length in the 
past. There are other positive acts which the statute 
enjoins shall be done. It is probably superfluous 
to call to the minds of our readers what these 
are, as doubtless practically all of them have already 
performed them. But in case .there are any who 
have been forgetful on the subject, we would remind all 



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[January 2, 1904. 



who are in possession of a motor vehicle that they must 
at once register it with either a county or borough 
council, must provide it with the number plates back 
and front bearing the number allotted to it by the 
registering authorities to conform to the rules, and must 
provide a lamp in such a position as to illuminate the 
number-plate at the rear after dark. In addition to this 
they must take out a licence for themselves if they intend 
to drive, or for any servant or member of their house- 
hold whom they intend to permit to drive the car on 
occasion. People who are not possessors of cars, but 
occasionally have an opportunity of driving them, will 
also have to apply for licences as drivers. 



The fortunes of The Automotor Journal have been 
affected by the general progress of the automobile world 
to at least as great an extent as other branches of the 
industry. Its circulation has continued to increase at a 
greater rate than ever before, it has continued to find its 
way more and more into out of the way parts and 
corners of the world, and it has been enabled to enter 
even more fully than formerly into the closest touch 
with all the leading manufacturers, private automobilists, 
and those interested in the movement from the \ oint of 
view of sport, and consequently tojbecome an increasingly 
comprehensive record of all features and aspects of the 
movement. 

We venture to think that part, at any rate, of this 
increasing prosperity and increasing influence is due to 
the absolutely independent manner in which we have 
supported what we believe to be the true interests of the 
automobile movement, and have advocated everything 
which we have regarded as likely to promote them, 
without considering in any way whether we were incur- 
ring the hostility of persons or bodies powerful in the 
automobile world or not. In this way we have been 
brought, on certain questions, into a position of some 
opposition to the Automobile Club and others, but 
we believe that such criticism as we have felt called 
upon to offer on various points has not been without 
effect. We look forward to an early general change of 
policy on the part of the club, and a reversion to the 
general attitude which enabled it to confer such 
signal services on the automobile movement in the past. 
Should this anticipation be fulfilled it is needless to 
declare that we shall be but too anxious to have an 
opportunity of again according to the Club the hearty 
all-round support which we have always afforded it since 
the time of its foundation. Only its recent miscon- 
ceptions of the proper functions of such a body, and 
a regrettable want of diplomacy in its deliberations, have 
compelled us to express disapproval. 

As already stated, we are convinced that the tide of 
popular opinion has turned in favour of automobilism. 
We have every reason, therefore, to believe that the Act 
which now comes into force will be administered in 
a fair and reasonable spirit and not in the prejudiced, 
carping, vindictive, and often un-English way which has so 
frequently tarnished the administration of the Act of 1896. 
We believe this is the more likely to be the case, as the new 
Act will certainly be successful in abolishing that terror 
of the roads and bete noir of other automobilists, the 
" road hog." He will be wiped out at once, and when 
he is abolished we feel convinced that popular opinion 
will incline still more in favour of the new locomotion, 
and as in this country no statute can be long adminis- 
tered in opposition to the views of the majority of the 



people, we shall have fewer police traps, fewer unfair 
decisions, and progress and prosperity will follow as a 
matter of course. 

Automobilists have their work cut out for them. 
Their one main object must be to do everything they can, 
by tactful consideration for other users of the roads, to 
deprive any enemies of the movement that may be left 
of the smallest excuse for urging the authorities to make 
repressive use of their new powers. By the same course 
of action they will show that some of the features of the 
Act which we most criticised at the time it was passed — 
notably the speed limit — are superfluous, and if they 
succeed in doing this, there is every reason to trust that 
when the Act comes up for review and re-casting, these 
and other unpleasant provisions will be repealed. 



Further Proposed Regulations by the L.G.B. 

The regulations made by the Local Government 
Board, with which we previously dealt, referred to the 
questions of registration and licensing. The Board 
have now sent round to the leading bodies interested 
in the automobile industry a draft of the regulations 
they propose to issue under the other provisions of the 
Act. These are, of course, at present only suggested, 
and are liable to modification, so that although they 
have found their way into the columns of some of our 
contemporaries, we do not propose to reproduce them 
in detail. Like the former order, the proposed regula- 
tions exhibit the spirit of fairness and considera- 
tion for the new industry which has characterised all the 
actions of the L.G.B., and one is thankful to be able to 
say that it is proposed to deal with the trailer question 
in such a way that prejudiced magistrates will no longer 
be able to fine a motor bicycle and trailer for going at 
more than six miles an hour. The Board propose to 
restrict the use of unduly bright lamps calculated to 
dazzle, annoy, or impede other persons on the road. 

There are several points in regard to the proposed 
regulations, however, which we would be glad to see 
amended, and as the object of the Board in submitting 
them to the consideration of automobilists is in order to 
learn their views on the subject, we express our views 
on these points in the hope that the Board may see its 
way to adopt the modifications we suggest. First and 
foremost amongst these we would refer to the regulation 
that a motor car is to be stopped at the request of any 
person having charge of a horse. In the similar regula- 
tion made under the old Act, the word " restive " was 
introduced before " horse," and that certainly, we would 
respectfully submit, ought to be done in the present 
case. Otherwise any virulent anti-automobilist who is 
the possessor of a horse or who can hire, borrow or 
otherwise procure the use of one, will have it in his 
power to stop all the automobilists he likes. It is 
also required that the car driver shall stop his engine 
when he brings the car to rest for the purpose of letting 
a horse owner by. This, we suggest, is wholly unreason- 
able. The most that can be asked for is that he should 
stop his engine if unusually noisy, and if specially asked 
to do so. Further, the right to stop a car is conferred 
not only upon the driver of a horse-drawn vehicle, as in 
the old rules, but on anybody in it if he holds up his 
hand. This, no doubt, has been introduced because 
rather unfair capital has been made out of the old regu- 
lations that only the driver of the horse has a right to 
stop an automobile by holding up his hand, but we 
think, at any rate, that the words, " at the request of 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



5 



the driver, in the event of the driver being unable to do 
so," should be inserted in this passage. 

As regards the prohibition of excessively brilliant 
lights " to the danger, annoyance, or impediment " of 
any person, the Board obviously had in view screening 
or veiling the lamps when passing other vehicles or in 
thick traffic It ought, we think, to be made clearer 
that this is what is intended, and not the prohibition of 
mere brightness which on open country roads is essential 
for rapid travelling at night. The words " annoyance " and 
" impediment" ought also to be left out of this regula- 
tion, otherwise any irascible old gentleman standing on 
his front door-step, or at any rate opposite his house, 
will be able to say that he is very much annoyed by the 
brilliant lights of his neighbour's automobile (with whom 
perhaps he is at feud), and might institute proceedings. 
Mere "annoyance" or "impediment" are much too 
indefinite terms to be introduced into a regulation of this 
kind. 

Another provision which appears to us very superfluous 
is that which provides that cars must not be driven back- 
wards for a greater distance than is requisite for purposes 
of safety either to the occupants of the car or other 
persons on the highway. A motor car may very easily 
be driven down a cul de sac in which it is practically 
impossible to turn. If the driver gets out of it by 
driving backwards, he may, if this regulation stands, be 
subject to penalty (and penalties under the Act are 
severe). We do not see that there is any inherent 
objection to driving cars backwards for considerable 
distances. It is sometimes very useful to be able to do 
so, but it is not a thing that drivers are likely to do for 
the mere fun of the thing, so that we would submit that 
this regulation might, with advantage to everybody, be 
omitted. 

A more important point concerns the great question 
of public service vehicles. The regulations propose 
that automobiles weighing unladen more than two tons 
shall not be driven at a greater speed than 8 miles an 
hour. If automobile 'buses are to be built of any size 
they will often weigh more than two tons unladen, and a 
'bus that was restricted to a maximum speed of 8 miles 
an hour would not be able to keep up an average pace 
from point to point of more than 5. For vehicles of this 
kind the maximum speed certainly should not be put at 
less than 12 miles per hour. 

The Local Government Board have throughout dis- 
played so reasonable an attitude, and are obviously so 
anxious to administer the new Act, as far as possible, to 
the benefit of the industry, that we feel convinced that 
as soon as these obvious objections to their proposed 
regulations are put before them, they will effect these 
modifications which are so necessary if the develop- 
ment of the motor car industry is not to be seriously 
hampered. 



The Local Government Board have now replied, explain- 
ing that the Board have determined to adopt the 
suggestion, and state that they will settle a form for the 
necessary advertisement, and fix a time within which 
objections to the application may be lodged at the 
office of the Board. Every objector will at the same 
time have to forward a copy of the objection to the 
clerk of the local authority. 



As a further illustration of the progressive and unpre- 
judiced attitude of the Board, we would refer to their 
recent action in regard to the 10-mile limit question. 
It is a proof that the Board is perfectly willing to accept 
a reasonable suggestion from whatever source it may 
originate. In November last the Automobile Club 
communicated with the Local Government Board, 
suggesting that in all cases in which local authorities 
desired to apply the 10-mile limit the fact should be 
advertised in the London Gazette and in the local papers. 



Measuring for Sixteen-Foot Roads. 
An amusing side-light is thrown upon the shifts, sub- 
terfuges, dodges, and stratagems of anti-automobilist 
local bodies, particularly in the Highlands, by some 
correspondence which has been appearing in the Dundee 
Courier. The Forfar District Committee wanted to get 
as many roads as possible prohibited under the 16-foot 
clause of the new Act. After the reception of the Local 
Government Board Circular and Order, explaining that 
16 feet meant 16 feet between the hedges, the District 
Committee had a careful survey of their roads made, 
straitly charging the service men to measure only be- 
tween grass and grass, so as to make out as many roads 
less than 16 ft. as possible. These tactics did not succeed, 
for the County Council refused to ratify them, but 
the correspondent of the Dundee Courier, who had 
drawn attention to this little hole-and-corner attempt 
to prejudice the interests of automobilists, raises 
an interesting question. He points out that ac- 
cording to the old Highway Act of William IV., 
two justices have the right to order the widening of any 
highway that is too narrow, arid to make it at least 
30 feet wide. We should like to know whether they 
are delegated to the District Councils. Perhaps some 
of our legal readers can tell us. The matter is of some 
interest, as if the powers still subsist, automobilists 
might be provided with means of locally putting on the 
screw. The powers conferred on the justices in the old 
Act seem to us of doubtful value, as they are so restricted 
by not being permitted to " pull down any house or 
building, or take ground from any garden, lawn, yard, 
court, park, paddock, planted walk, plantation, avenue, 
or nursery for trees," that there are few cases in which it 
would be possible for them to widen roads except bit- 
wise. In any case the subject wants clearing up in the 
interests of automobilists. It is essentially one to which 
the legal gentlemen who have come so much into notice 
through the automobile movement might devote their 
attention with advantage. 

The Surrey County Council have decided not to 
schedule any of their roads, under the new Act, for the 
restriction of speed. 

Keen competition amongst the public has so far 
attended the appearance of the two or three petrol motor 
hansom cabs which are now plying for hire in the 
Ix>ndon streets. They are so far proving a remarkable 
success, and a significant sign of the times is that the 
drivers of horse drawn hansoms are, with very few 
exceptions, inclined to regard the innovation seriously, 
and refrain from greeting them as they pass with the 
derisive jeers which a year or so back would have been 
their reception. Attempting to obstruct their passage is 
not even thought of. In the early days of the electric 
cabs we have frequently seen a mechanical vehicle held 
up by a couple of hansom cab drivers for a considerable 
distance. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 2, 19C4. 



THE SPYKER PETROL CARS, 



Fig. 1. — A io-h.p. Twin-Cylinder Spyker Petrol Car. 



The vehicles made by Messrs. Spyker Brothers at 
Amsterdam, which differ in many interesting respects 
from other cars now on the market, were first brought 
prominently before the British public in the Reliability 
Trials. The latest models were shown recently at the 
Paris Exhibition, when an additional interest was lent to 
the Company's stall by the presence of a 6-cylinder 
racing car built by them, which may compete for the 
Gordon-Bennett Cup. Four types of standard touring 
vehicle are now being made, the smallest of these 
having a twin-cylinder io-h.p. engine and the others 
having 4-cylinder engines of 12-16, 16-20, and 20-27-h.p. 
respectively. 

Three views of the 16-h.p. chassis are given in Figs. 2, 
3, and 4, Fig. 2 being a side view from the right, Fig. 3 
a similar view taken from further forward, and Fig. 4 
looking down upon it from the rear ; in Fig. 3, one of 
the cylinder castings for the engine is also shown 
separately in one corner. The special features of the 
Spyker cars relate to the main frame, which is of pressed 
steel and forms a cover round the engine and gear-box, 
to the engine, which has cylinder castings of unusual 
shape, to the gear-box, which is made in one piece but 
has a large readily detachable cover, to the steering gear, 
which is fitted with ball bearings and has the steering 
pillar hinged and connected by a spring with the frame, 
and to the front axle, which is tubular and is provided 
with spherical joints for the stub-axles, about the steering 
heads. 

The side members of the main frame have a section, 
the inner face of which is prolonged and curved inward 
and downward, in front, around the engine and the 
gear-box. These side members are filled with wood, 
and are connected together by four transverse mem- 
bers. The frame is supported upon four semi- 
elliptic springs mounted outside it, as seen in Fig. 
2, and the rear ends of those above the back-axle 



are carried by an inverted transverse spring passing 
across beneath the rear member of the frame and 
attached centrally to it. The car is of the live-axle type, 
and the revolving portions of the axle are enclosed in, 
a stationary casing. The front axle, which is tubular, 
terminates in two semi-spherical cups, which, together 
with their covers, form ball and socket joints around 
the steering heads. The stub-axles are otherwise con- 
nected with the stationary axle, in much the usual way, 
by a vertical pin which is free to turn concentrically with 
the ball-joint on a tool-steel pivot at the top. The levers 
project from the lower end of the steering-head, and 
the usual rods connect them together and with the 
steering gear. The axle itself is bent to a U-shape at its 
centre. 

The steering gear consists of a neat casing, into which 
the steering pillar passes ; thelower end of the pillar-shaft 
has a machine thread cut upon it, and the large nut, 
which rides upon this thread, forms a toothed rack, which 
engages with a pinion on the horizontal shaft to which 
the lever connected with the off-side steering head is 
attached. The screw and nut render the gear irrever- 
sible, and the pillar is attached to the casing enclosing 
the gear by an eccentrically-mounted bearing, so that 
back-lash between the rack and the pinion can be taken 
up. The horizontal shaft has ball bearings, and the 
entire casing is cast solid with a sleeve, which forms a 
hinge for it about a pin fixed to the main frame. The 
steering pillar is thus free to move sideways about the 
hinge, but it is normally held in its central position by a 
strong spring, formed by a bent bar of spring steel. 
This flexible attachment to the frame is intended to 
prevent vibration from being transmitted to the driver's 
hand, and any such movement as it may make about its 
pivot does not affect the steering. 

Each pair of cylinders is formed by a single casting, 
which has a circular exterior, providing a very large water 



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Fig. 2. — Side View of the 16-h.p. 4-Cylinder Spyker Chassis. 



jacket about the cylinders themselves and the valve 
chambers. These castings are open at each end, where 
they are flanged for making the necessary joint between 
each pair of cylinders, and for receiving the end covers. 
This form of construction gives the engine very much 
the same appearance as an iron-clad electric motor, this 
effect being still further emphasised on the chassis by 
the four wires passing to the four ignition plugs 
on the one side. The cylinders themselves, and 
the valve chambers are of practically the same shape as 
usual, as will be gathered from Fig. 3, mechanically- 
operated inlet-valves being fitted on the one side and 
the exhaust-valves on the other. Inspection plugs are 
arranged above each of the valves, and the high-tension 
ignition-plugs fit into those above the inlets. In the 



16-h.p. engine, the water-jackets have a capacity of 
about 6 litres ; the inlet-valves lie on the right, the 
exhaust- valves on the left. * Half-compression cocks are 
arranged centrally in the heads of each of the cylinders, 
serving the usual additional purpose of allowing paraffin 
to be introduced when necessary for cleaning the 
pistons. The lower portions of the cylinder castings 
are provided with flanges for bolting them down in the 
usual way to the upper portion of the crank chamber. 
This upper portion is bolted direct to the main frame, 
and is so arranged that the crank-shaft bearings are 
attached to it and are independent of the base plate, 
which can therefore be removed at any time for inspec- 
tion or adjustment of the moving parts. The two cam- 
shafts which operate the valves are enclosed in the 



Fig. 3,.— The 16-h.p. Chassis from in Front, with a View of a 
Cylinder Casting in the Corner. 



Fin. 4. — A< Portion of the 16-h.p. Spykor Chassis 
fro.n Above and behind. 



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[January 2, 1904. 



crank-chamber, and their forward ends project a sufficient 
distance to carry the commutator and the circulating 
pump, which are fitted right in front of the frame beneath 
the radiator. The radiator has the appearance of being 
of the honeycomb type, though it is in reality constructed 
of finned tubes, which are masked in front by a per- 
forated plate. The radiator is built-up of twelve parallel 
tubes, around which the plates are fitted, and they are 
bent serpentine form to constitute a cooler having a 
very large exposed surface ; a belt-driven fan is arranged 
behind it. 

The high-tension ignition system only varies from 
ordinary practice in that a single trembler, which is 
independently actuated by its own electro-magnet and 
is fitted in a separate case, is used for all four coils ; the 
commutator distributes the low-tension, intermittent 



which engages with catches at either end, but enables it 
to be lifted off in a moment. The gearing provides 
three forward speeds and a reverse, and gives a direct 
through-drive on the top speed. The gear wheels are 
made of hard steel, are specially cut, and are not sub- 
sequently hardened. The propeller-shaft, which trans- 
mits the power to the live axle, is enclosed in a tube 
which is rigid with the casing forming the stationary 
portion of the axle, and the axle is also tied to the frame 
by radius rods at each side. The usual brakes are fitted, 
these being of the external type ; they have bronze shoes 
pressing on the metal drums. 

The makers construct their own artillery wheels and 
their own bodies, as well as the chassis itself, and make 
a special line of the carriage work. Their standard 
shape this year is the Roi de Beige, and they are using 



Fig. 5. — Side View of the 80-h.p. Spyker Racer. 



current to the coils, and their high-tension terminals are 
permanently connected with the ignition plugs — this 
arrangement being apparently similar to the well-known 
Wilson and Pilcher system. An automatic carburettor 
is employed which has a spring-loaded auxiliary air- 
valve, and an additional throttle-valve controlling the 
main air supply connected with the throttle- valve in 
the induction pipe. These throttle-valves are not only 
subject to the usual hand-control but are connected with 
the clutch and brake pedals, so that the speed of the 
engine is automatically reduced when the clutch is dis- 
engaged or when the brake is applied. 

The main clutch is of the cone type, having an 
aluminium cone with leather friction surface. It is 
fitted with an adjustable spring, and is so constructed 
that the cone can be removed without disturbing the 
engine or the gear-box. For this purpose, and in order 
to render the mechanism self-aligning, universal joints 
are fitted between the clutch and the gear-box. The gear- 
box casting is so formed at one side that it encloses the 
mechanism which connects the hand lever with the 
sliding gear wheels, as seen in Fig. 4 ; this mechanism 
does away with the usual sliding rods which project 
through the casing. It also has a large oil-tight cover 
on top, so that it is rendered practically dust-proof. 
The cover is held down in place by a large flat spring, 



Indian tree bark, and other light materials instead of 
aluminium, as they consider that bodies so constructed 
are less liable to sustain damage. 

The Spyker 6-cylinder racer is shown, from the right- 
hand side, in Fig. 5, the engine is shown from the same 
side in Fig. 6, and a view of the front axle is given 
in Fig. 7. Apart from the employment of a 6-cylinder 
engine, the most notable characteristic of this 80-h.p. 
machine is that all four wheels are driving wheels, and 
that therefore both axles are of the live type. For this 
reason the change-speed-gear is arranged so that the 
second-motion-shaft lies to the right of the first-motion- 
shaft, and two propeller-shafts pass from it, forward and 
backward, to the two axles ; one differential gear is fitted 
between the two propeller-shafts, and each of the axles 
is provided with its own differential. The front axle has 
steering heads of the Spyker spherical form, concentric 
with which are universal joints introduced between the 
front wheels and the two halves of the live axle. 

The engine is fixed to the main-frame by four steel 
rods, which pass across through the crank-chamber from 
one side member to the other. Each cylinder is a 
separate casting, having mechanical inlet-valves on the 
one side, and the exhaust-valves on the other. A high- 
tension ignition system is adopted, and an automatic 
carburettor employed. The main-frame is constructed 



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Fig. 6. — The 6-Cylinder Spyker Engine, from the Right Side. 



of pressed steel, the semi-eliptic springs are arranged 
outside the frame, and the car has a very long wheel- 
base. The crank-shaft for the engine is a solid forging, 
and the crank-pins are set at an angle of 1 20 degrees 
from each other for each set of three cylinders. The 



Fig. 7. — Front View of the Spyker Racer, showing the Live 

Front Axle. 

crank-pin for No. 1 is in line with the crank-pin of No. 
6, the pins for Nos. 2 and 5 are in line with one another, 
as also are those of Nos. 3 and 4. 

The English agents for the Spyker vehicles are the 
Ellsworth Automobile Company, of Bradford. 



AUTOMOBILISM IN SOUTH AFRICA. 



(From our Special 
Cape Towfiy Dec. Sth, 1903. 

The A.C. of South Africa held a most successful club 
run last Saturday from Cape Town to Durbanville. 
Greenmarket Square was the rendezvous, and the 
following cars were lined up on that spot, and left for 
Durbanville: — Messrs. Irving and Hennessy, 7-h.p. 
Panhard ; A. C. Fuller (club sec), 14-h.p. New Orleans ; 
J. G. Rose, 7-h.p. Panhard (Hon. J. D. Logan's car); 
E.Edwards, 7-h.p. Panhard; H. Edwards, 7-h.p. Pan- 
hard; J. de Klerck, 7-h.p. Panhard; H. L. Steyn's 
12-h.p. De Dion, driven by Mr. Donald Menzies (of the 
Dunlop Motor Company, Limited, Cape Town) ; S. H. 
Adams, 10-h.p. Lanchester; A. C. Partridge, 10-h.p. 
Lanchester; Heusschen, 10-h.p. Benz; W. M. Jenkins, 
6-h.p. Rambler; C. Freeman, 6-h.p. De Dion; Sid. 
Benjamin, 6-h.p. De Dion; Fallon, 6-h.p. De Dion; E. 
G. White, 5-h.p. Oldsmobile ; H. Loton, 5-h.p. Olds- 
mobile; J. Delpont, 3^-h. p. Renault : B. langley, 10-h.p. 
Georges-Richard; Jones, 6^-h.p. Gladiator; C. Mills, 
10-h.p. Wolseley ; Herold, 6^-h.p. Gladiator ; Porter, 
6-h.p. De Dion ; Beekman, 5-h.p. Baby Peugeot. 



Correspondent. ) 

Mr. Fuller's New Orleans was driven by Miss Randall, 
whose consummate skill in handling the car caused con- 
siderable admiration. She was the first lady to drive a 
motor out here, and as a fearless but careful chauffeuse 
she is widely known. 

On arriving at Durbanville the club took tea at the 
International Hotel. A special general meeting had 
been convened to take place at Durbanville, and, after 
the transaction of the usual business, two more Vice- 
Presidents were elected, they being Dr. L. S. Jameson 
and Mr. D. P. de Villiers Graaf. 

On the return journey to Cape Town, Mr. Heusschen, 
driving the "ten" Benz, met with a nasty spill at the 
seventh milestone. In swerving sharply to the side of 
the road to avoid colliding with a wagon, which he had 
been unable to see owing to the heavy cloud of dust 
raised by the cars in front, his car had a bad side-slip, 
and capsized on the side of the road. Mr. Heusschen 
sustained a dislocated shoulder, but the car was un- 
injured, and, after having been righted, was driven into 
Cape Town. 



It is impossible to avoid a smile at the expense of a 
German contemporary, on finding in its pages, in con- 
nection with the Gordon-Bennett Club delegates, Mr. 
Gray Dinsmore raised to the peerage, and solemnly set 
forth in print as " Lord " Gray Dinsmore. The trans- 
mogrification of Mr. Julian Orde into " Alexander 
Order" is hardly less striking, though how the corre- 
spondent should have jumped from Julian to Alexander 
is not easy to see. Mayhap he was thinking of Alexander 
Winton, or was it his historical knowledge that befogged 
him, remembering that both Julian and Alexander were 
somewhat celebrated rulers in their day ? 



Motor Coaches for Scotland.— The coming summer 
will witness the adoption of motor tourist coaches on one 
of the most charming and popular of routes in the 
Scottish Highlands. The Great North of Scotland 
Railway have just placed an order with Stirling's Motor 
Construction Company, Limited, of Edinburgh, for 
several 20-h.p. motor omnibuses of special design for 
delivery in March, to run, it is understood, between 
Ballater and Braemar. The coaches will accommodate 
sixteen persons and luggage, and have speeds from four 
to fourteen miles an hour. 



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[January 2, 1904. 



THE PRUNEL AUTOMATIC CARBURETTOR. 



Now that automobile engineers are so keenly alive to the 
importance of rendering carburettors automatic in action, 
so that the richness of the mixture formed in them shall 
remain constant at all times, it was only to be expected 
that a large number of new types would make their appear- 
ance on the market. Notwithstanding this, however, it is 
remarkable that so many of these new carburettors differ 
radically in the principle which has been adopted for 
rendering them automatic. Many of them have fol- 
lowed more or less upon the Krebs and Crouan lines, 
by varying the amount of auxiliary air which is admitted 
to the mixing chamber to dilute the explosive mixture 
already formed by the passage of the main air supply 
through the carburettor proper. Several other ingenious 
systems, however, have been adopted by other makers, 



to be depressed by hand for raising the level of the 
petrol to facilitate starting. 

The mixing-chamber, C, the shape of which is clearly 
shown in the illustrations, forms a central guide, C 1 , for 
a small mushroom valve, E, a circular seat for this valve, 
and an annular space, C 2 , which constitutes a kind of 
jacket in the casting. The base of the mixing-chamber, 
C, is fitted with a cap, C 3 , which holds a sheet of wire 
gauze, C 4 , in place, so that the air entering the mixing- 
chamber passes through it. The valve, E, is so arranged 
that it normally closes the air passage through the mix- 
ing-chamber, being held down on the seating formed in 
the casting, C, by the light spring, E 1 . The hole, W 9 
connects the annular jacket, C 2 , with the float-feed- 
chamber, B, so that the petrol is free to flow into the 



Fig. i.— The Prunel Automatic Carburettor. 

and in some of them the flow of petrol through the spray 
jet has been varied automatically instead. The Prunel 
carburettor is based upon this principle, the idea being 
to prevent the mixture from becoming over-rich when 
the engine is running fast by causing the increased volume 
of air which then passes through the carburettor to have 
a lessened injection effect upon the spray jet. 

Our illustrations show one of the small bicycle type 
carburettors recently brought out by the Prunel Com- 
pany. It is shown complete in Fig. i, taken to pieces 
in Fig. 3, and by a sectional drawing in Fig. 2. The 
petrol is led by the pipe, A, into the cover, B 4 , of the 
float-feed-chamber, B. Its flow into the chamber is con- 
trolled by the needle, A', which is free to slide over the 
pin, A a , which also acts as a guide for the float, A\ 
The needle, A 1 , therefore, normally rests upon the float, 
so that the level of the fuel in the chamber, B, is kept 
constant in much the usual way. The base of the float- 
chamber is formed with a stud and nut, B 1 , at the bottom 
for fixing the carburettor in place, and the cover plate, 
B 4 , is provided with the agitator, B', for allowing the float 




jf j 
Fig. 2. — Cross-Section of the Prunel Automatic Carburettor. 

former, and the top of this annular space is closed by 
the ring, D, which is internally shaped like a valve-seat, 
and fits down upon a corresponding surface on the 
casting, C. Four grooves, D l , are cut across the valve- 
seat, and these act as a spray nozzle, through which the 
petrol can flow into the cover, F, of the mixing-chamber. 
The ring, D, is held down in place by the casting, F, 
which screws into the top of the casting, C. 

The whole of the air enters the carburettor through 
the gauze, C\ passing out at the top of the casting, F, 
to the induction pipe, which is held in place by the 
union, F 1 . On its way through the carburettor it lifts 
the valve, E, off its seat, and in rushing past the valve 
it injects the petrol through the slots, D 1 . The quantity 
of explosive mixture thus formed, which finds its way to 
the engine, is regulated by the butterfly throttle-valve, G, 
which is fitted into the casting, F, and is regulated by 
hand, by the lever, G 1 . The extent to which the valve, 
E, is lifted off its seat depends upon the degree of vacuum 
which is formed in the chamber above it by the suction 
of the engine, and consequently it is lifted to a greater 



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11 



extent when the engine runs fast, and to a lesser extent 
when the throttle-valve is closed. It is at these times 
when the mixture tends to become over rich in a non- 
automatic carburettor, and it will be noticed that in 
this device the injection action of the air on the petrol 
decreases as the quantity of air passing through the 
carburettor increases, because the valve, E, in lifting, 
provides a very much larger annular space between it 
and its seat, and therefore allows the air to pass almost 
equally freely besides letting it do so further away from 
the spray jets. Provided that the spring, K 1 , is properly 
adjusted, and has the correct strength at all points, and 
provided also that the proper level is arranged for in the 
float-feed chamber, the richness of the mixture formed 
in the Prunel carburettor should remain approximately 
constant under all ordinary working conditions of the 
engine. 



Fig. 3. — The various Parts of the Prunel Automatic Carburettor. 



Various awards of prizes are announced in connection 
with the Paris Salon which closed on Christmas Day. 
In the judging of the most tastefully designed and 
finished cars exhibited we are glad to chronicle the 
honour of a silver gilt medal to the Napier Company, 
whilst other English firms also receive due acknowledg- 
ment of the excellence of their vehicles. The Wolseley 
Tool and Motor Car Company, the M.M.C., and the 
Elswick Motor Company all receive bronze medals, and 
in the Electric Section the Electromobile Company are 
awarded a silver medal. The Car have received a 
silver gilt medal in the Sporting Publications Competi- 
tion for foreign countries. Amongst the other well- 
known makes receiving due honour, the Pipe car and the 
Bayard (Clement) receive silver medals, bronze medals 
being awarded to the Fiat, Clement, and Gladiator. 
Serpollet in the steam section carries off the silver gilt 
medal, and Chaboche the silver. For pneumatic tyre 
inflation apparatus, M. De Dietrich, with the Girip 
apparatus, secures the first prize. MM. Gautreau 
Freres, of Dourdan, are at the head of the list for 
carburettors which most readily adapt themselves to the 
use of either petrol, heavy oil, or alcohol. For the 
decoration of the stands, both the Electromobile Com- 
pany and the Oldsmobile Company obtain silver medals, 
and bronze medals are awarded to the Wolseley Tool and 
Motor Car Company, the M.M.C., and the Elswick 
Motor Company. In the exhibition lottery, the three 
big prizes have been drawn as follows: — (1) 6-h.p. 
De Dion-Bouton 4-seated Populaire Car, Ticket 
No. 1 1 2,* 7 1 ; (2) 5-h.p. 4-seated Georges Richard 
Voiturette, No, 7,615 ; (3) A complete bed-room suite 
by Defayel, No. 269,202. This latter has fallen to 
M. Louis Clerc, the second to M. Depardieu, a medical 
student, and the first to M. Odent, a merchant. 



A practical test is now being given by the Phila 
delphian postal authorities to a scheme for transporting 
the mail matter from the General Post Office, the Bourse, 
and the two principal railroad stations by means of auto- 
mobile. It is to be tested for eighteen months from 
November last, this arrangement following preliminary 
tests, which proved exceptionally satisfactory ; in fact, 
it is stated that the work done by the test car proved 
that one motor vehicle performed the services of two 
horses and wagons and two mail collectors in the time 
consumed by one horse and wagon over one half the 
trip. It is estimated that seven automobile mail vans 
could perform better service than twelve horse-drawn 
collecting wagons, besides requiring the services of five 
men less. This innovation does not necessitate the 
purchase of additional vehicle bodies, as it is based on 
an electric motor tractor system. The tractor, which 
has been developed by Rudolph Hunter, of Philadelphia, 
and is built by the Electric Vehicle Equipment Com- 
pany, is very easily placed in position for drawing the 
mail cart body. 

In Italy also prolonged experiments are to be in- 
augurated for the postal service between Rome, Morlupo, 
and Rignano. This test will be exceptionally severe, as 
the roads are extremely bad, and at times almost im- 
passable. Besides carrying the mails, the service will be 
arranged to accommodate ten passengers upon each rum 
The formal inauguration of this service was to take 
place on the 1st of January. 



The King of Italy has announced his intention of 
bestowing his patronage upon the Italian Automobile 
Club, commencing with the New Year. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 2, 1904. 



THE EDISON BATTERY— DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION. 



General interest in the Edison battery continues un- 
abated. A variety of papers have been written, and tests 
made, giving the performances of the element as tested 
by various observers. With Mr. Hibbert's paper on the 
new battery, read before the Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers, we dealt the week before last. We have had an 
opportunity of making several tests of one of the sample 
Edison cells ourselves, and now M. Hospitalier, of Paris, 
the well-known battery expert, to whom a cell has been 
entrusted for examination, publishes in the U Industrie 
Electrique a summary of his results. With these and our 
own confirmatory results we will deal later. We propose 
for the moment to devote our attention to the construc- 
tional details of the new cell. Most of our readers are 
familiar with its capabilities, but probably a great many 
of them are not so familiar with the manner in which it 
is constructed. The main features of its arrangement 
were well illustrated by Mr. Hibbert when discussing his 
paper at the Institute of Electrical Engineers by a num- 
ber of lantern slides which permitted the general arrange- 
ment of the cell, and the detailed construction of the 
plates, to be very clearly understood. Thanks to the 
kindness of Mr. Hibbert, who has provided us with prints 
of the lantern slides which he exhibited on that occasion, 
we are enabled to give our readers the main details of 
construction of the Edison battery. 

Everyone is aware that the containing vessel is a particularly 
compact and rigid structure of corrugated steel. How rigid and 
compact it is they will be able to see from Fig. 1, which gives a view 
of the complete 200 watt-hour element, weighing in the case of the 
cell which Mr. Hibbert examined 17$ lbs., and in the case of the 
cell which we ourselves had an opportunity of testing, 17 lbs. 7 oz., 
each particular cell varying slightly in weight from i»s fellows. The 
external appearance of the battery is very pleasing, being constructed 
of sheet steel, the upper three-quarters of which is corrugated as 
seen, the whole being nickel-plated by a process forming the subject 
matter of one of Edison's American patents. In this process, after 
the coating of nickel has been applied to the surface of the steel 
plate by electro deposition, the whole plate is heated in a reducing 
atmosphere to the point at which '.he nickel and iron weld together, 
after which the plate is 'cooled down in the same reducing atmosphere 
to a temperature at which there is no longer any danger of the iron 
being oxydised by the atmosphere. The object of this process is to 
produce an intimate union between the surface of the steel and the 
nickel of a more perfect kind than is obtained by mere electro 
deposition so that the plates shall more successfully resist the action 
of the caustic alkali or electrolyte. It will be understood that the 
nickel plated steel of which the grids forming the battery are com- 
posed are nickel plated in precisely the same way. 

The top or cover of the battery, the general appearance of which 
can be observed from Fig. 1 , is shown in detail in Figs. 5 and 6. 
It forms a separate cover, which is placed over the finished cell, and 
hermetically soldered to the vertical portion of the cell by means of 
a special solder also forming the subject matter of one of Edison's 
American patents. The top of the battery is provided with two 
ebonite caps, with hexagonal holes, which may be seen rear and 
front in Figs. 5 and 6, and through these the conical positive and 
negative terminals of the battery project, and are hermetically locked 
by ebonite collars screwing down upon them. The orifices, right 
and left, are respectively provided for permitting the escape of gas, 
and to enable distilled water to be fed into the cell when, after a 
certain length of time, owing to the decomposition of the water on 
charge, further water must be added to keep up the level of the 
electrolyte. Nothing but water, it will be remembered, need be 
added, as the electrolyte itself undergoes no decomposition. In 
Fig. 6 the cap of the orifice to the right is shown removed. This 
is provided with a gauze cover and a non-return valve, which is 
shown in Fig. 6, just behind the orifice. When an evolution ot 
explosive gases takes place on charge, the cell being hermetically 
closed, the pressure of gas inside the cell soon exceeds the atmos- 
pheric pressure, and this non-return valve lifts, and allows the gases 
to escape through the gauze cover to the outside air. In fact, during 
charge the valve can t>e heard to clatter nearly all the time. The 



gauze cover is provided to prevent the possibility of explosion 
occurring by the action of ignorant pers ms approaching the cell 
during charging time with a naked light, the action of the gauze 
being the same as in the well-known Humphrey Davy safety lamp. 
The orifice on the left is closed by a stopper which is maintained 
in position by a toggle joint, the general arrangement being much 
the same as is familiar to Ixmdoners in the flasks of Kannenbier, to 
which they are becoming accustomed. This orifice should only be 
opened in order to inspect the level of the electrolyte, and to fill up 
with distilled water if, owing to the reasons explained above, it has 
fallen below the level of the top of the plates. It should on no 
account be allowed to remain open at other times, as the caustic 
alkali is in that case liable to be turned into carbonate by the carbonic 
acid of the atmosphere, which would have the effect first of all of 
diminishing the capacity, and subsequently of seriously injuring 
the cell. 

Figs. 2 and 3 show the finished plate and the grid respectively. 
The grid (Fig. 3) is stamped out of a thin sheet of steel, nickel- 
plated in the same way as the casing of the cell described above. 
Into each of the windows or apertures of this grid is fitted — one 
above the other— twenty-four pockets, Pig. 4, containing the active 
material. This, as our readers are aware, consists, in the positive 
plate, of nickel peroxide mixed with flaky graphite, and in the 
negative plate of spongy iron with a similar admixture. That 
Edison's talents are mainly mechanical and not electro-chemical, is 
shown by the method he has adopted for securing the active 
material in position. It is not. stamped or pasted into the orifices in 
the grid as an inventor familiar with the structure of lead accumu- 
lators would have been likely to do. On the contrary, a block of 
the active material is prepared slightly moistened with the electro- 
lyte of caustic alkali and compressed into a solid block by hydraulic 
pressure. Each such block is inserted in a pocket or sheath of 
perforated nickel-plated steel shown in detail in Fig. 4 which 
practically consists of a perforated box with a sliding lid which in 
Fig. 4 is seen nearly slid home, but has not quite reached the 
position in which it completely encloses the slab of active material. 
When the slab of active material is completely enclosed in its per- 
forated sheath or pocket, the whole pocket is inserted into one of the 
windows in the grid and secured, in position. Each window contains, 
as already stated, twenty-four of these pockets superposed, in three 
rows, one above the other. It will be thus apparent that from the 
mechanical point of view alone the construction of the Edison battery 
must entail very considerable expense. The battery differs from the 
ordinary lead cell in the circumstance that it has the same number 
of positive as negative plates — fourteen of each — and as the electro- 
lyte undergoes no permanent alteration, either during charge or 
discharge, the plates can be brought very close together, and as a 
matter of fact are only a millimetre apart. 

Mr. Dick, the representative of the Edison Company in this 
country, has been distributing sample cells to several people for 
them to test them and convince themselves of what the Edison 
battery can do. One of these batteries has been submitted to M. 
1 lospitalier, the well-known French battery expert, and he has sub- 
jected it to an exhaustive examination, the results of which he 
has published in the columns of our contemporary, V Industrie 
Electrique. We have also ourselves had an opportunity of super- 
vising a number of tests made with a battery of the same type. All 
the Edison batteries at present in this country are exactly like one 
another in external appearance and in general construction. They 
only differ slightly in point of weight. Thus the battery tested by 
Mr. Hibbert weighed 17} lbs., that tested by M. Hospitalier 



>.*s 


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M. Hospitalier's Discharge Curves for Edison Cell. 



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13 



weighed 777 kilogs., and the one that we had an opportunity of 
examining weighed exactly 17 lbs. 7 ozs. In general the results 
obtained by M. Hospitalier agree in every particular with those of 
Mr. Hibbert as published in his paper. We give below a series of 
curves obtained by M. Hospitalier at various rates of discharge, and 
it will be seen that the discharge at even as high a rate as 
120 amperes gives the same large proportion of the total capacity 
that characterised the batteries tested by Mr. Hibbert. In fact, 
M. Hospitalier goes further and declares that according to his tests 
the battery even when discharged at the enormous current of 
200 amperes gives very nearly the same capacity as at ordinary rates. 
As at this rate it is completely discharged in 40 minutes, and as the 
total capacity of the battery only amounts to about 160 ampere 
hours, a discharge of 200 amperes may be looked upon practically 
as a short circuit. We are able to confirm substantially the accuracy 
of this result. The cell which we had the opportunity of examining 
gave at an ordinary discharge rate of 30 amperes 159 ampere hours, 
which comes out approximately at 200 watt-hoars. When dis- 
charged at 150 amperes, it still gave 153 ampere-hours, though the 
watt output was slightly less, as the general voltage of the discharge 
averaged * 1 of a volt less. These results are altogether remarkable. 
No battery has ever given so large a proportion of its total capacity 
at such a high discharge rate, but we are unable to agree with 



commercial Edison batteries, we may say that as regards life the 
Edison cell bids fair to prove at least twice, possibly three times, 
as durable as light lead lotteries. Against this, however, it must 
be borne in mind that, in automobile lead batteries, it is practi- 
cally only the positives that wear out, at any rate, within a con- 
siderable time, that the replating of a battery with positive plates 
can be done for from 10 per cent, to 15 per cent, of its total cost, 
while owing to the cost of the nickel in Edison battery and 
its construciion, a similar operation in that case would be de- 
cidedly expensive. Curiously enough we have now learnt that 
Edison is now building batteries with double positives. An in- 
teresting fact established by M. Hospitalier's tests is that the battery 
is quite uninjured both by short circuiting and standing in a dis- 
charged condition. These are valuable features. A battery was 
short circuited for 17 hours. After that it was recharged and again 
discharged, when it failed to give its full capacity by about 25 per 
cent., but on receiving another charge it came up to its full capacity 
and has maintained it ever since. Similarly a cell only loses about 
10 per cent, of its charge oa open circuit in 24 days — a very excel- 
lent result. A discharged cell, which was discharged on the 24th of 
August, was allowed to remain in a discharged condition until the 
4th of September, when it received a single full charge, and, on 
discharge, furnished 155 ampere hours (160 being the average dis- 



The Edison Battery. 

I.— Complete Cell. 2.— Finished Plate. 3.— Grid. 4.— Pocket ready for insertion. 

6. — Cover of Cell with Filling Cap and Gas Valve open. 



5. —Cover 01 Cell. 



M. Hospitalier that this is an unmitigated advantage. He intro- 
duces in his paper some comparative figures which show that a 
number of light lead batteries, and notably the Contal battery, have 
considerably higher capacity at a moderate rate of discharge. It is 
only at enormously high rates that the Edison battery is pre-eminent. 
For automobile purposes we fail to see, as we have already said, 
that this is a very great advantage. There may be occasions when 
it is advisable to run a car at a considerable speed for only an hour 
or so, and then replace or recharge the battery. Where these con- 
ditions arise the Edison battery will out-do all competitors if it 
maintains its general level of performance. Conditions of this kind 
might require to be met in the case of submersible torpedo boats or 
submarines. But in an ordinary electromobile service, four, five or 
six hours at any rate are allowed for continuous running and at a 5 
or 6- hour discharge rate, the Edison battery is not superior to many 
lead cells, and is inferior to some. As regards life, M. Hospitalier 
makes some interesting observations. He bases his comparison 
with lead cells on the competition of accumulators carried out by 
the Automobile Club of France in 1899. That, of course, is some- 
what antiquated, and lead accumulators have made considerable 
progress since then, but taking those results for what they are worth, 
it appears that the best lead cell gave \\ kilowatt-hours per kilog. 
of cell. According to M. Hospitalier's tests, the Kdison battery has 
already given upwards of 3 kilowatt-hours per pound without any 
apparent diminution of capacity. If this is generally maintained by 



charge). This is an exceedingly satisfactory result, and is certainly 
very unlikely to have been attained by a lead battery. The only 
combination we know in which a similar result could be got is that 
of Plante positives used with zinc negatives, in which the gradual 
neutralisation of the acid by the zinc on open circuit prevents sul- 
phation of the positive plate. 

The cells which Mr. Dick has distributed in this country and in 
France have been put together on this side of the Atlantic, and con- 
sequently on completion they have to be subjected to forming treat- 
ment. The particulars of this process are rather interesting. When 
the cell is filled up with electrolyte for the first time the <iirections 
supplied are that it should be charged at 30 amperes for 30 hours, 
and then discharged at 30 amperes till the voltage sinks to 75 of a 
volt. After that the cell is to be charged at 60 amperes for 10 hours 
and discharged at 30 amperes. It can then be treated in any way 
the possessor likes. 

In dealing with both the results of M. Hospitalier and Mr. Hib- 
bert, it must, as we have already pointed out, be borne in mind that 
the discharges have been invariably taken down to 75 of a volt. 
We consider this an impracticable fluctuation from the initial voltage 
of 1*3. For practical purposes a discharge would have to be 
stopped at about '9 of a volt, and in that case the Edison battery 
would be shorn of at least 10 per cent, of the capacity, on the 
strength of which the very favourable comparisons between it and 
lead batteries have, to a great extent, been instituted. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 2, 1904. 



THE 1903 PARIS SALON. 



PARIS SALON.— The 1904 Type 9-h.p. Gladiator Chassis, which has a Twin-Cylinder Engine. 



The De Dion stall was rendered especially interesting this year to 
those who are not already familiar with the details of their voiturette 
and 2-cylinder cars, not only by the chassis shown, but also by 
sectional models of the engines, and of the Company's special gear- 
boxes, of which we have given illustrated descriptions recently. 
The 8-h. p. single- cylinder voiturette, with its 3-speed and reverse- 
gear, and two twin-cylinder models of 10-h.p. and 12-h.p. re- 
spectively, are the standard types of this excellent make of car for 
next year. The Decativllle Company have not made any radical 
alterations in their standard design, which attracted so much 
attention at the last Salon, although many minor improvements in 
small details have been introduced. The 4-cylinder chassis shown 
by them is an excellent example of good workmanship and strong 
design. It will be remembered that the engine and gear-box are 
fixed to a metal plate, which forms a dust-proof cover beneath them, 
and also constitutes a part of the main frame. 

The chief feature of the Gobron-Brilltt stall was the 25-h.p. 
4-cylinder chassis, in which a stamped steel frame is substituted for 
their previous tubular construction ; the balanced engine, with its 8 
pistons and 4 cylinders, has mechanically-operated inlet-valves 
arranged on the opposite sides of the cylinders to the exhausts, and 
in conjunction with them a water-jacketed spray-type carburettor has 
been adopted in place of the makers' ingenious measuring device. A 
description of the 20-h.p. Gobron-Brillie car, in which their general 
system was dealt with and illustrated, appeared in our issues of 
Sept. 1 2th, 19th and 26th last, and we need therefore only refer to the 
new features on the chassis shown. The engine is fixed direct to the 
main frame, and a high-tension magneto system of ignition is alone 
used in conjunction with it. The time of ignition is variable, and 
the speed of the engine is controlled by a governor, which, together 
with the cam-shafts, and the gear-wheels driving them, is enclosed in 
the crank -chamber. A gear-driven pump circulates the water 
through a honeycomb radiator, the fan for which is formed 
in the flywheel. The carburettor is of a special automatic type, 
in which the throttle-valve is interconnected with another 
valve controlling the main air inlet to the carburettor and thus 
maintains an approximately constant mixture. The clutch is of a 
peculiar double-cone type, having inner metal-to-metal cone surfaces, 
and an outer leather -covered cone acting in the usual way. The 
sliding cone members are so connected together, and to the first- 
motion-shaft of the gear-box, that the metal-to-metal clutch comes 
into engagement first, the larger leather-faced cone engaging with 
the surface formed in the rim of the flywheel subsequently ; it is 
said that a very satisfactory and soft action is obtained in this way. 
The gear-box, which provides four speeds and a reverse, is fixed 
rigidly to the main fraire, flexible couplings are introduced between 
it and the clutch, and jaw clutches are fitted into the differential 
countershaft. A direct-through-drive to the differential is obtained 



on the top speed, and ball-bearings are employed throughout the 
gear-box. Internal expanding brakes are employed throughout. 
The rear sprirgs are very long, and are mounted outside the main 
frame, and self-aligning bearings are fitted on the countershaft. 
One large exhaust pipe lea- Is from all four cylinders. The makers 
also showed their famous 100-h.p. racing car, together with a touring 
vehicle of the tubular-frame type, which we illustrated on page 
1340 (December 12th). 

An interesting exhibit was the JO-h.p. L' Automotrlce chassis, 
which has a 4-cylinder engine, a special pressed-steel frame, two 
compensated brakes on the countershaft, and an interesting form of 
main clutch. The engine has its cylinders cast in pairs, with the 
mechanicalinlet- valves arranged on the opposite sides to the exhausts. 
A low-tension magneto system of ignition is used and is fitted in 
such a way that it can be timed ; no automatic governor is fitted, 
the throttle valve being controlled by hand, and also connected with 
the clutch-pedal. The carburettor is of the maker's own special 
type, and we understand that it will be rendered automatic in 
future cars. The pressed steel frame is ingeniously constructed 
in one piece, and has two cross-members for supporting the 
gear-box, in addition to the transverse members at each end. 
[t receives the engine in front, the front springs are beneath its 
side members, and the rear springs are arranged outside them. The 
change-speed-gear gives four speeds and a reverse, with a direct 
drive to the differential on the top speed ; flexible couplings are 
fitted between it and the clutch, and also in each half of the counter- 
shaft. Metal -to metal brakes are fitted on each half of the counter- 
shaft, and are connected with a foot- pedal through a compensating 
device so that they are applied equally and simultaneously. The main 
clutch is of sufficiently small diameter to allow the flywheel to form 
a fan between it and the rim. It is of a special scroll type which is 
brought into operation by a small cone clutch, operated in the usual 
way by a foot-pedal. When the cone-clutch is brought into engage- 
ment it causes the engine to tighten the scro 1 about its drum, but 
when the cone is withdrawn the scroll clutch is able to release itself, 
the cone, clutch thus having a kin 1 of "relay "action. The rear brakes, 
which are compensated by a steel cable, are of the internal type, 
and are operated by hand lever. The vehicle appears to be very 
strongly constructed and well-made throughout ; the engine and the 
gear are entirely enclosed on the underside. A complete car, 
with seating accommodation for seven passengers, was another 
attraction on the company's stall. 

Messrs. Chenard and Walcker whose new models consist of an 
1 8-h. p. 4-cylinder vehicle and a 12-h.p. chain-driven twin-cylinder 
car, showed a chassis of the larger model, as also two complete 
touring vehicles fitted with Kellner bodies. Both cars had side 
entrances to the tonneau, and one was fitted with a large hood over 
the back seat, and with large travelling cases of special construction 



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January 2, 1904.] 



THE AUTO MOTOR JOURNAL. 



15 



behind, for luggage. This 
firm still retain their 
special method of driv- 
ing the rear wheels from 
a differential countershaft 
attached to the back axle, 
on the 4-cylinder model, 
but in addition to em- 
ploying a more powerful 
engine have introduced 
several important im- 
provements — notably in 
the carburettor — of which 
we shall have more to 
say before long. 

The Gladiator ex- 
hibit consisted of a 12-h.p 
chassis, a Limousine car 
of the same type, and 
a 9-h.p. tonneau of their 
twin - cylinder pattern. 
These vehicles have 
armoured wood main 
frames, and an under- 
frame supporting the 
engine and gear-box. 
They do not differ 
materially from last 
year's models, although 
several minor improve- 
ments have been intro- 
duced. A direct-through- 
drive is obtained on 
the top speed, from 

the internal cone-clutch to the differential countershaft, the 
lay shaft being arranged beneath the direct shaft. The 
4-cylinder engine is shown in place from the left side in one of 
our illustrations, where it will be noticed that the mechanically- 
operated inlet-valves are arranged on the same side as the 
exhaust-valves, that the inspection plugs screw into the cylinder- 
casting, and that the high-tension ignition plugs are fitted imme- 
diately above the inlets. The induction and the exhaust pipes are 
held in place in the cylinder casting by four yokes, and the latter 
are led to an expansion chamber beside the engine, from which a 
single pipe passes back to the exhaust box. A view of the twin- 
cylinder chassis from above is given. It is either fitted with a three- 
speed and reverse gear, having a direct-through-drive, or with a 
Napier type gear with an additional forward speed. The price of 
this 2-cylinder model is reduced. The new vehicles have auto- 
matic carburettors, brakes of a new pattern, and a different 
radiator. 

A 30-h.p. Pipe chassis, in which the Jenatzy magnetic clutch, 
described by us on July 4th last in connection with our description of 
the Jenatzy- Martini petrol cars, is employed, was the chief attraction 



PARIS SALON— View of the 4-cylinder engine on the Gladiator Car, 
in which the mechanical inlet-valves are arranged alongside the exhaust- 
valves on the left with the high-tension igniters above them. 



shown by the Com- 
pagnie Beige de Con- 
struction d'Automobiles, 
who also exhibited a 
i2-h.p. car of similar 
general construction, 
fitted with an ordinary 
cone-clutch. The chassis 
is of the same general 
design as before (Auto- 
motor Journal, Vol. 
VII., p. "864), the frame 
being built of armoured 
wood, the engine and 
the gear - box being 
carried on an under- 
frame, and side chains 
being employed for 
driving the rear wheels. 
The engine has its 
cylinders cast in pairs, 
with mechanical inlet- 
valves arranged on the 
same side as the ex- 
hausts, a high tension 
system of ignition is 
employed, and a gear- 
drivcn dynamo is fitted 
for re-charging the ac- 
cumulators ; the dynamo 
has an automatic switch 
mounted upon it, the 
switch being controlled 
by a centrifugal governor 
on its shaft. The engine runs at a normal speed of 1,100 revs, per 
min., and the carburettor is constructed so that a constant richness 
of mixture is maintained. Flexible couplings are introduced in the 
countershaft ; the rear brakes, which are compensated, are of the 
internal type. The regulating levers, which act upon a governed 
throttle-valve and control the timing, are mounted above the steering 
wheel. Illustrations of the chassis and of the engine have already 
appeared, and we now give a view of the former from above. 

Considerable attention was drawn to the Martini stall, owing 
to the presence of the actual mountain climbing car with which 
Captain Deasy ascended the Kochers de Naye. It was shown 
standing on a short length of track similar to that of the railway 
running up the mountain. It is interesting to note that the sprockets 
on this car have only two less teeth — nine, instead of eleven — 
than the vehicle which gained a gold medal in the recent Relia- 
bility Trials. A new 16 to 20-h.p. chassis was also on view, the 
4 cylinder engine of which develops the higher power at 1,000 revs, 
per min. The mechanical inlet-valves lie on the opposite sides of 
the cylinders to the exhausts, and the low tension igniters form the 
inspection plugs above them, each pair being held down by a single 



PARIS SALON.— View of the Pipe Chassis from above. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 2, 1904. 



yoke and not. The chassis, which differs but little from the Rochet- 
Schneider model shown on that Company's stall, has a pressed steel 
frame and an unusual shaped underframe, which passes along beneath 
the engine, and, bending clown to a lower level, lies beneath the gear- 
box to support it. The gear box is thus rendered thoroughly rigid with 
the frame. The rear springs lie outside the frame, the level of which 
above the ground is thus reduced. Quite a long shaft, fitted with 
universal joints, connects the cone- clutch with the change-speed-gear, 
and the spring which normally holds the clutch in engagement is 
placed above this shaft with its rear end attached to the gear-box. 
Ball-bearings are used throughout and extremely powerful brakes 
are fitted. The foot-pedals are arranged so that they are pressed 
forward instead of downward by the driver, and they are so con- 
structed that they can be adjusted as to length to suit his convenience. 
The accelerator-lever is fitted above the steering-wheel, and the 
timing-lever on the dash. An automatic type of carburettor is used, the 
control of which is connected with the clutch ; it is exhaust jacketed. 
The 20-24-h.p. chassis shown by the Prunel Company has an 
armoured wood frame to which the engine and the gearbox are 
directly attached. It is of the chain-driven type, and the counter- 
shaft is fitted with jaw couplings. The cone-clutch is of large size, 
as also is the gear-box, which provides four speeds and a reverse, 
with direct drive to the countershaft on the top gear. The engine 
has its cylinders cast in pairs, the mechanical inlet-valves are on the 
opposite side to the exhausts, and high-tension ignition plugs are 
fitted into the heads of the cylinders. The circulating pump is 



less number of holes, two by two, as it is moved up and down. 
The plunger is connected with the throttle-valve, so that it moves in 
unison with it, and thus the quantity of petrol passing into the 
mixing chamber varies proportionately with the extent to which the 
throttle- valve is opened. The air supply to the mixing chamber 
is controlled automatically by a sliding sleeve which normally closes 
the passage when the engine is at rest, but opens when the engine 
is running, to an extent which depends upon the degree of suction 
produced in the mixing chamber ; this automatic device practically 
maintains a constant pressure (below that of the atmosphere) in the 
mixing chamber. On the larger car the gear-box is connected with 
the main clutch, through a long flexibly-jointed shaft, and is fixed 
rigidly to two cross-members of the frame. The engine, which has 
high-tension and magneto-ignition systems — both capable of l>eing 
timed — is enclosed on the underside by a casing which passes back 
right up to the front end of the gear-box. On the chassis shown 
two foot-brakes were fitted on the countershaft, the one inter-con- 
nected with the clutch, the other quite independent. The side- 
brakes are of the expanding type compensated by a pivoted beam 
lying across the frame. The small levers which regulate the time of 
ignition and act as an accelerator, respectively, are fitted above the 
steering wheel in such a way that they are not moved when 
the steering wheel is turned. A direct-through drive is obtained 
on the top speed to the differential, and the countershaft is fitted 
with jaw couplings. An adjustment is provided at the bottom of 
the steering-pillar so that all backlash can be taken up as soon as 



A twin-cylinder CG.V. Engine. 



PARIS SALON. 



A 4. C ylinder CG.V. Engine. 



driven by friction off the flywheel, and a fan-cooled honeycomb 
radiator forms the front of the bonnet. These makers also showed 
a 4-cylinder engine in which a separate casting is used for each 
cylinder, and, in addition to this, they had on their stall a complete 
car of their twin-cylinder type. 

The C. Q.V. Exhibit included samples of their latest chassis, and 
several finished cars. Among the interesting samples of the Com- 
pany's work, the application of ball bearings to the crank -shafts of 
petrol engines was noticeable, exOemely large balls being u>ed for 
this work. Three chassis of 15,25, and 40-h.p. respectively were 
shown, the smallest having an engine fitted with atmospheric inlet- 
valves, and a hinged induction pipe arranged as last year, but the 
larger models have mechanically-operated valves instead. 

Two well-finished chassis exhibited by the Peugeot Company 
attracted a good deal of attention, the one having a 4-cylinder 
engine and a pressed steel main frame, the other a twin-cylinder 
engine, an armoured wood frame, and an underframe for the engine 
and gear-box. The larger car was of the chain-driven type, and 
the smaller had a live-rear-axle driven by a universally-jointed 
propeller-shaft. In both engines the cylinders are cast in pairs, 
and the mechanically operated inlet-valves are arranged on the 
opposite sides to the exhaust-valves. A special form of auto- 
matic carburettor is employed in which the spray jet has 
eight small holes arranged in two opposite vertical rows passing out 
sideways instead of the usual single central hole in its top. A small 
plunger fits down into the jet, covering or uncovering a greater or 



it appears. The engine on the smaller car is a 7-h.p, and is in 
general respects similar to the 15-h.p. model just described. The 
change-speed -gear on this vehicle gives three forward speeds and a 
reverse, with the usual direct drive on top speed. The foot-brake 
is mounted on the longitudinal shaft close up to the back axle, and 
is applied by a right and left-handed screw action, which renders it 
absolutely double acting ; it has metal friction surfaces, and is very 
powerful. The live-axle is mounted in ball bearings, and the side- 
brakes are similar to those on the larger model. In both types 
plain bearings are used in the gear-box, and these are automatically 
lubricated by small chains, which run round in little oil baths formed 
beneath the bearing. Both chassis, too, had anti- vibration devices 
fitted between the axles and the frame, these acting against the side 
springs in such a way as to prevent any swinging motion being set 
up when travelling over very rough roads. 

The Delahaye Company showed two 4-cylinder chassis of 
different design, both chain-driven, and constructed with pressed 
steel frames. In one of these the differential on the connter- 
shaft, together with the bevel wheels driving it, are enclosed 
in a separate casing from the gear-box proper, and the foot- 
operated brake is mounted between the two casings. In both 
machines the transmission-gear between the cone-clutch — which 
has an easily-removable leather face — and the side chains, is 
supported at three points only, being carried by the tube enclosing 
the countershaft, and at a single point in front. The engines are 
fixed direct to the main-frames, and have their cylinders cast in 



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January 2, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



17 



PARIS SALON. — The new 15-h.p. Peugeot 4-cylinder Engine, from the right, showing automatic Carburettor with 
induction-pipe, and the low-tension Igniters, which are operated by the same Camshaft as the Iniet'valves. 



pairs, atmospheric inlet-valves are used. Another interesting 
exhibit on the stall was a special petrol motor designed for 
launch work, the peculiarity of which is that the two halves of 
the crank-chamber are hinged together, and the bearings for the 
crank-shaft are formed in the lower part only ; the moving parts 
in the crank-chamber can, therefore, be got at by swinging the 
cylinders, and the upper portion of the crank-chamber to which they 
are fixed, back about the hinge. A large char-a-banc, a camion y 
delivery vans, and two beautifudy-finished touring cars were also on 
view on another stall, side chains being used for driving the rear 
wheels in all cases. 

A large F.I.A.T. 150-h.p. engine attracted a good deal of 
attention on the stall of this Italian Company. It has four cylinders, 
and on a huge scale follows the general lines of construction adopted 
by the makers on their touring vehicles, of wh'ch samples were 
shown, practically identical with the car describ' d by us recently 
(Automotor Journal, Vol. VIII., page 1299). The large 
engine is intended to run at a nor nal speed of 600 revs, per min., 
and has been built to the order of the Italian Navy. Their 1904 cars 
have pressed steel frames, and a special form of metal-to-metal main 
clutch, which runs in oil; a honeycomb radiator is also fitted to them. . 

In the new Qi Met- Forest chassis, the manufacturers have adhered 
to their original system (Automotor Journal, Vol. VII, page 92), 
in which it will be remembered that a single- cylinder engine, placed 
horizontally in front, is employed, and that the power is trans- 
mitted from it to the main-clutch through a bevel-driven half-sperd 
shaft, the forward end of which constitutes the cam-shaft and 
receives the starting handle. A tubular main frame, stiffened by 
side plates, is employed on the 12-h.p. model, the change-speed- 
gear is of the sliding spur-wheel type, in which the second -mot ion 
shaft is arranged centrally with the first-motion shaft to the left of it, 
and the power is transmitted from the gear-box to the live-rear-axle 
by a universally jointed propeller-shaft. The stationary casing 
containing the live axle is tied to a cross member of the main frame 
by a tubular casing, through which the propeller-shaft passes ; this 
casing is connected with the frame by a l>all and socket joint. Two 
brake drums are fixed to the hubs of each of the rear wheels, the 
one pair being acted upon by a hand lever, and the other by the 
foot-pedal ; both the brake pedal and the clutch pedal are of un- 
usual shape, being formed with a sort of toe clip in front. 

The two H&U tier twin-cylinder chassis, which were on view, 
differed somewhat from one another in details, and are of somewhat 
unusual and ingenious design. The main-frame is constructed with 
channel members and tubular cross members, the engine is fixed some 
way back from the front of the frame, and the crank-chamber is bolted 
direct to the gear-box. The crank-shaft projects forward, carrying the 
flywheel in front of the engine, and driving the circulating pump at 
its extreme end. The flywheel is of peculiar shape, and forms a fan, 
which forces the air through a spiral radiator placed in front of it. 
The engine has mechanically-operated inlet-valves on the opposite 
side to the exhaust-valves, and one of them had the inlet-valves so 
arranged that the time at which they opened and closed was variable. 



The main-clutch, A, which is shown together with a portion of the 
change-speed-gear in our illustration, is, in reality, an epievclic 
train of the well-known sun-and-planet type. The crank-shaft is 
fitted with a spur-wheel, which meshes with planet wheels carried on 
a spider attached to the gear-shaft, C, and these planet wheels mesh 
with an internal gear-ring, which is normally free to revolve, 
but can be gradually brought to rest when the brake, 
B, is tightened up to hold it ; the two portions of the brake, B, 
receive a shaft having a left and right-hand thread, which, when 
turned in the one direction tightens them about the drum, and in 
the other direction frees them. This form of clutch gives a pro- 
gressive action, enabling the vehicle to be started gradually, and it 
also reduc-s the speed of the shaft, C, relatively to the crank-shaft 
in the ratio of 1 to 3. The upper portion of the change-speed-gear, 



PARIS SALON.— The Hautier combined epievclic clutch 

and change-speed gear. The upper portion of the gear-box, 

containing the lay-shaft and the gear wheels meshing with 

those seen, is removed. 

which contains the lay-shaft, has been removed in our illustration to 
show the direct -through -shaft, but it will be understood that corre- 
sponding wheels on the lay-shaft mesh with the wheels, C 1 , C 2 , C\ 
on the sh*ft, C, and with the wheel, D 1 , on the driven shaft, D. 
Tht* se gear-wheels are always in mesh with one another, and the 
shaft. C, is provided with one two-way jaw-clutch member, and a 
one-way jaw-clutch member, which render the wheels, C 1 and C\ 
alternately rigid with the shaft, C, or couples this shaft direct with 
the shaft, D. The necessary movements of the jaw-clutches are 
controlled by a cam-plate, K, which is given a rotary motion by 
the change-specd-lever. The power is transmitted from the shaft, 
D, to the live axle by a propeller-shaft, and the axle itself is fitted 
with other cardan joints, inside the stationary casing containing it, 
so that the road-wheels can be dished instead of lying parallel with 
one another as usual. The same type of brake is fitted behind the 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 2, 1904. 



PARIS SALON.— Two Stier— all metal— wheels, fitted with pneumatic 
tyres. The two halves of the rim, as also the two portions of the hub, 
are held together by bolts, which pass through the flat central steel plate. 



gear-box as that which operates the main-clutch, and this brake is 
applied by a hand-lever at the side of the driver, the hub-brakes 
being connected with the brake-pedal. We understand that the 
company are also making 4-cylinder cars on a similar principle. 

A30-I1.P. VilleCar 
was shown by the Societe* 
d'Industrie Mecanique, 
the special feature of 
which is that only two 
forward speeds and a 
" reverse " are provided, 
of which the top speed — 
alone intended for use 
under ordinary condi- 
tions — is a direct-through 
drive to a propeller-shaft 
and the live axle. No 
side levers are provided ; 
one foot pedal acts upon 
the clutch, and subse- 
quently upon the differ- 
ential brake. Another 
pedal operates the com- 
pensated side brakes, 
and a hand lever on the 
steering pillar introduces 
the hill-climbing gear or 
the " reverse." The 
engine is unusually large 
for the size of the chas- 
sis, and the crank -shaft 
is placed very low 
down. In the smaller 
2-cylinder, 15 h.p. car, 
made by the same firm, 
three forward speeds 
are provided by the sliding- 
spur- wheel gear, and a "re- 
verse " gear of the epicyclic 
type is introduced into the main 
clutch. The same pedal that 
disengages the clutch brings the 
progressive " reverse " into 
operation, if still further de- 
pressed. The engines have 
mechanical inlet - valves, ar- 
ranged on the same side as the 
exhaust -valves, and a constant 
degree of compression is main- 
tained in the cylinders by the 
provision of supplementary ex- 
haust ports, which are un- 
covered by the pistons as they 
are about to complete their 
down strokes. 

A 34-h.p. " Herald " 
chassis was shown by the 
Societe manufacturing these 
cars, who also make a 10-h.p. 
of similar design, and had an 
18-h.p. chassis of older type 
with atmospheric inlet-valves on 
their stall. In the new models, 
a pressed steel frame is used 
and the springs are mounted 
outside it. The 4-cylinder 
engine has its inlet and exhaust 
valves arranged on opposite 
sides, is provided with low-ten- 
sion Simms-Bosch magneto ig- 
nition, and has an automatic 
carburettor. The water pipes 
to the jackets both lead in at 
the top, as in the Bollee, the 
one passing down through to the 
bottom of the jacket . The lift 
of the inlet- valves is variable, 
and the time of ignition can be 
adjusted, both these operations 
l)eing performed from small 
hand-levers placed above the 
steering wheel ; a third lever 
alongside them acts as an ac- 
celerator. The inlet - valve 
mechanism is of that type in 



which horizontal, pivoted levers lie between the cams and the 
push- rods, and can be moved inwards and outwards between them. 
A double flexible coupling is introduced between the clutch and 
the change speed gear, and jaw couplings are introduced into the 

differential countershaft. 
The lay - shaft is ar - 
ranged beneath the di- 
rect - through - shaft in 
the gear-box, the usual 
brakes are fitted, and 
those on the hubs on 
the rear wheels are 
compensated by a 
cable. 



PARIS SALON.— The Stand of the Collier Tyre 
Company. 



One of the most 
delightful seaside 
spots on the French 
coast is Le Touquet, 
within a short train 
run of Boulogne. 
Every consideration 
for the entertain- 
ment of visitors is 
given by those re- 
sponsible for the 
conduct of this 
charming summer 
resort, and automo- 
bilists may find it 
a convenient moment 
next May to form or re- 
new acquaintance with the 
little town, when it is pro- 
posed that one of the 
automobile runs of the 
season from Paris is to 
finish at this spot. 
Those responsible for 
looking after the in - 
terests of the township 
are indeed well selected 
for their office, judging 
by the delightful litera- 
ture which they have 
prepared for the informa- 
tion of intending tourists, 
pointing out the natural 
beauties of the spot and 
its surroundings. Not 
the least attraction is the 
existence of excellent golf 
links, controlled almost 
entirely by Englishmen, 
headed by the Duke of 
Argyll as President. We 
shall hope to see a 
strong motoring contin - 
gent present during May 
at the finish of the 
automobile event, which 
we understand is to be 
made an occasion for 
special fetes. The jour- 
ney from London under 
special arrangements with 
the railway companies 
occupies only about five 
hours. 



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January 2, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



19 



THE PROGRESSIVE EAST. 



The Straits Settlements are among the smallest of 
British Colonies. They are also a good deal further east 
than most ; further away, that is, in the particular part of the 
world that everyone has hitherto regarded as the most 
rigidly opposed to the introduction of Western improve- 
ments — particularly mechanical improvements. None 
the less the automobile has found its way there, and has 
not only found its way, but is becoming a feature in the 
town traffic of Kuala Lumpur, the Federal capital of the 
Straits Settlements. A Penang journalist recently paid 
a visit to that capital, and was impressed by the number 
of automobiles that he found mingling in the streets 
with the landaus, dogcarts, gharries, and rikshas, which 
are the characteristic vehicles of most Oriental towns 
where the British are supreme. The Englishman is 
certainly progressive in his Colonies. The fact that in 
a comparatively out-of-the-way British Colony there 
should be not only automobiles, largely of British manu- 
facture, but that automobilism in the Colony is unham- 
pered by foolish restrictions, particularly by a speed 
limit, ought to be an object lesson to the world, and 
particularly to the Mother Country. 

For an automobile law has recently come into force 
in this far Eastern dependency which for a progressive 
liberality leaves little to be desired, and is in most 
respects all that an automobile law ought to be. We 
are indebted for a copy of this enactment to Mr. 
Zacharias, who was associated with the early develop- 
ment of automobilism in this country, and who is now 
residing in Malay. It is not altogether unlike Mr. 
Long's Bill as introduced into the House of Lords, and 
before the Commons had " dealt" with it. There is no 
speed limit outside towns, and the clause regulating the 
rate at which an automobile shall travel declares that 
" no automobile shall travel at a greater speed than is 
reasonable or proper, having regard to the other traffic 
on the thoroughfare, or so as to endanger any of the 
public or any public or private property." There is 
nothing in this, it will be seen, about the traffic that 
might be reasonably expected to be on the highway. In 
the Straits Settlements they are evidently not so ena- 
moured with the egregious decision in Mayhew v. Sutton 
that they are anxious to introduce a special phrase in 
order to preserve that decision as a ruling case. In the 
open country in the happy Straits Settlements, therefore, 
the automobilist may go at what speed he pleases, pro- 
vided he exercises due consideration for the other users 
of the road. In the towns there is a limit of 1 2 miles 
an hour, and this surely is reasonable enough. There 
are other features in the Straits Settlements law which 
might with advantage have been copied by the Legisla- 
ture of this country. Novices are allowed to practice 
driving on unfrequented and out-of-the-way by-roads, 
with, we presume, the implication that they are to be 
kept off important thoroughfares, and they are always to 
have a competent driver in charge of them. It is 
necessary for anyone to drive a car to have a certificate 
of competency, and no one suffering from defective sight 
or hearing is permitted such a certificate. The compre- 
hensive definition, too, of the automobile is of interest. 
An automobile, according to this enactment, " includes 
every description of vehicle propelled by mechanism 
contained within itself, excepting such as are constructed 
for use on specially prepared ways, such as railways or 
tramways." 



Of scarcely less interest than the terms of' the enact- 
ment itself is the spirit in which the Straits Settlement 
Press comments on it. A speed limit it looks upon as an 
unenforcible restriction which does not really guarantee 
the safety of the public, and is in practice unenforcible, 
mainly owing to the difficulty of establishing an infrac- 
tion except in very glaring instances. Evidently in the 
Straits Settlements they have none of our constabulary 
" stop-watches," and have not introduced the methods 
and " evidence" of our Surrey police. There, at any 
rate, it is evidently presumed an infraction of the speed 
limit would have to be fairly proved. The view on the 
whole question of the Malay Mail is noteworthy. Our 
contemporary declares that u in our go-ahead States we 
should not be behindhand in adopting the form of trac- 
tion which we venture to predict will soon be universal." 
Behindhand indeed ! We should think not ! Why, 
instead of being behindhand they are leading the world. 

A similar progressive and liberal spirit is displayed in 
the draft rules published in the Calcutta Gazette last 
month, which it is proposed to make under the Bengal 
Motor Car and Cycle Act of 1903, though there are one 
or two provisions which would be unlikely to commend 
themselves to automobilists in the old country. One of 
these is that a car can only be left standing in the street 
in the custody of a driver certified to be competent to 
drive. This is clearly ridiculous, and must be an over- 
sight on the part of the framers of the measure. Even 
in Europe it would cripple the industry if such a pro- 
posal were enforced, and in India, where drivers are 
vastly fewer, the effect of attempting to enforce it would 
be absurd. A proposal is put forward that an effective 
speed indicator must be carried on every car. Evidently 
the Indian authorities are determined not to rely solely 
on police evidence. Where a driver is accused of 
exceeding the t 2-mile limit in towns, he will have his 
speed indicator to back him up if innocent. It must be 
remembered that evidence is more unblushingly unreliable 
in India than even in Surrey. Were there not in the last 
Indian census a number of persons who quite seriously 
described themselves as "professional bearers of false 
witness " ? 

In far Japan, too, the automobile is gradually feeling 
its way. Messrs. Abenheim Brothers, of New York and 
London, have established an agency in Yokohama for 
the import of motor vehicles, and have already sold 
Oldsmobile, Duryea, Waltham, Thomas, De Dion- 
Bouton, and Clement cars. Altogether, they tell us, 
there are some twenty automobiles in the land of the 
chrysanthemum, the first machine having been imported 
by a member of their firm in 1900. Unfortunately the 
roads hitherto are anything but good, but in spite of 
this a 7-h.p. Clement which they supplied to the Mitsui 
Gofukoten, a large business in Tokio, has been working 
in a most satisfactory manner, and has run upwards of 
5,000 miles since its delivery. The heavy duty of 25 
per cent, on all motor vehicles has acted hitherto as a 
bar to their introduction, and in this respect it is inter- 
esting to observe at any rate one instance in which a 
protective tariff has so far operated to prevent the 
development of an industry by stopping the demand 
which in the first instance would probably have been 
created by free importation. However, the demand is 
evidently coming, and there is an opportunity of doing 
good business, as the duty on parts, and even finished 



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THE AUT0M0T0R JOURNAL. 



[January 2, 1904. 



chassis without bodies, is so very much less than that 
on the completed car that manufacturers arranging to 
assemble parts in the country would be likely to obtain 
excellent returns for their outlay in the very near future. 
Japan is so progressive that doubtless at an early date 
an adequate scheme of road improvement will be forth- 
coming, and those manufacturers who are sufficiently 
far-sighted to arrange in time for supplying the Japanese 



demand should reap a valuable reward for their foresight 
and enterprise. The American Consul in Formosa is 
getting out a report on the whole question of auto- 
mobilism in Japan. American Consuls do these sort of 
things. Some day perhaps British Consuls will generally 
follow their example. Messrs. Abenheim Brothers have 
with characteristic enterprise printed an illustrated cata- 
logue in English and Japanese, which looks very quaint. 



REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 



"Travellers' Colloquial French." A Handbook for 
English-speaking Travellers and Students. By 
Howard Swan. London : David Nutt. Cloth, 
is. 6d. 

A philologist once observed that French had really 
become an agglutinative language, though it was written 
like a grammatical one, and when we see attempts of the 
kind made by Mr. Swan to spell French phonetically the 
truth of this observation becomes very apparent. Thus, 
for instance : — " Aiss Vairr-sigh ? " " Aiss eecee ? " Mr. 
Swan's way of facilitating the pronunciation by English 
people of " est-ce Versailles " and " est-cc ici ? " Perhaps 
this method may facilitate the picking up of colloquial 
French, and may consequently be useful to the large and 
growing number of Englishmen whom the automobile 
movement takes to France, but we certainly doubt 
whether anyone who learns French in this way will ever 
be able satisfactorily to read or write it, and we are not 
quite sure that it isn't better to take the bull by the horns 
in the first instance, and learn straight away how combi- 
nations of letters are pronounced by French people. Mr. 
Swan's book, however, is a most painstaking and 
thorough effort to carry out his scheme of instruction, 
and his book also contains a great deal of information 
generally useful to the traveller in France. 

" Der Automobil-Sport." By Max R. Zechlin. Leipzig : 
Grethlein and Co. 

This is a handy little book for German automobilists, 
and covers pretty well most of the familiar ground, and 
gives a general exposition of the leading features of 
modern petrol .motor cars, a great many hints and sug- 
gestions of their management and driving, and a short 
and somewhat fragmentary history of the automobile 
movement. The description of. the automobile might 
not be incorrectly characterised as an account of a petrol 
motor vehicle in general, and suffers in consequence 
from generality, the details of any particular system being 
naturally somewhat different from the representative 
mechanism which the author describes. This, however, 
is a small objection, as the selection of parts illustrated 
is extremely good. The same objection to some extent 
applies to the instructions and hints for the management 
and driving of cars, as some of the particular things that 
we are told to do only apply in the case of particular 
makes of vehicle, arid are inapplicable to other forms of 
car. The work is commenced by a historical chapter 
illustrating and describing some of the old steam vehicles, 
amongst which, by the way, we do not find some of the 
most important and characteristic ones. We have often 
attempted to scotch the old fallacy that it was the red 
flag Act which destroyed the early steam road car in- 



dustry, and here we have the same old fallacy coming 
up smiling again. The steam road car industry was 
dead and buried in 1840, and the man with the red flag 
was not made a statutory personage till 1865. 

" The White Bulletin." Cleveland, Ohio. 

This is a little publication which is to be issued 
periodically by the White Sewing Machine Company, of 
Cleveland. The first number gives a very graphic 
idea of the activity that prevails in the White steam 
car in the United States. It is exceedingly well 
illustrated and shows us the now standard type of White 
car both as arranged for touring, actually engaged in 
long-distance tours, and breaking records on the track. 
Particularly attractive is the illustrated description of 
the employment of a White steam car to pace the 
celebrated trotter, Cresceus, when he covered the mile 
in 2 mins. o -* - sees. Other portions are taken up with 
testimonials and statements regarding the capabilities 
and general excellence of these now well-known machines, 
which to our readers are probably superfluous, as the 
reputation of the White car is already adequately estab- 
lished in this country. The second number, also to 
hand, gives an interesting and well-illustrated account of 
the adventures of the White cars on the terrible New 
York-Pittsburg Endurance Tests. One of the illustra- 
tions shows the White car going through a slough of 
despond, which in America is dignified with the name 
of a road. As under the weather conditions then pre- 
vailing the mud on this track reached very nearly to the 
front axles, how thoroughly the run was an " endurance 
test " can be faintly imagined. 

" The Little Guides." (London : Methuen and Co. 35. ) 

Messrs. Methuen and Co. are always enterprising, and 
the present series of little handy guide-books, designed 
to appeal to the more thoughtful and possibly more 
artistic members of the community, will certainly com- 
mand a ready sale. As they are provided with very good 
maps and excellent roadside descriptive matter they 
ought to appeal to automobilists rather more than other 
people, as car owners traverse a much greater amount 
of country. It would be well perhaps, too, if this series 
of publications were to be successful in stimulating 
interest in the natural features of their country, and 
interest in its history and traditions, amongst car owners. 
Certainly the sale of these publications and the excellent 
way in which they are illustrated should have this effect. 
Amongst those which have appeared are : " Oxford and 
its Colleges," "Cambridge and its Colleges," "Shakes- 
peare's Country," "Sussex," " Malvern County," " Nor- 
folk," " Cornwall," " Brittany." The authors include 



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21 



the Rev. S. Baring Gould, and the illustrators Mr. E. 
H. New, Mr. B. C. Bolter, Miss Wylie, and Miss 
Alcock. 

u Secondary Batteries." A Practical Handbook for 
Owners and Attendants. By an Engineer. (London : 
Alabaster, Gatehouse and Go.) 

When Mr. Wade's book on accumulators appeared we 
made the remark that we were often in difficulty through 
correspondents asking us to recommend a good work 
on accumulators, and that Mr. Wade's book put us out 
of that difficulty as it was all that a work on such a 
subject ought to be. We may now add to this state- 
ment that we have equal pleasure in recommending to 
our readers the above work. It is not as elaborate as 
Mr. Wade's, and does not go to anything like the same 
extent into the various interesting theoretical considera- 
tions of the subject, and, therefore, for anyone who 
desires to make an exhaustive study of the accumulator 
question it can in no sense replace that book. But it 
has, on the other hand, the distinct advantage of giving 
practically all that either the amateur or the ordinary 
skilled workman who is likely to come into contact 
with accumulators will ordinarily require to know, in very 
much shorter space than does Mr. Wade's book, and it 
puts out the information it supplies with considerable 
lucidity. Anyone reading this book carefully through 
will have a very good working knowledge of ordinary 
accumulators and the principles involved in their 
manufacture and management. No particular makes of 
cell are recommended, but this, as the writer explains 



in his preface, is done purposely, and it is perhaps as 
well that it should be so. 

"The Electrical Times Directory of Gharging Stations." 
(The Electrical Times, 8, Bream's Buildings, 
Ghancery Lane, E.C.) 

This is a most useful little pocket work of reference 
for all automobilists, and particularly electromobilists 
as it contains a complete and exhaustive list of all the 
towns in England where car batteries or ignition cells 
can be charged, or where car repairs can be executed. 
It is accompanied by an excellent map, in which every 
town where ignition cells can be charged is shown 
underlined, while charging stations, at which current can 
be obtained for car batteries, are indicated by a circle 
or a cross according as the source of current is a public 
or private installation. Repairing facilities are indicated 
by a triangle, and garage accommodation by a dot The 
Directory portion consists of three columns, with the 
towns in the left hand, the names and addresses of the 
electrical undertakings in the middle column, and their 
capabilities for charging in the right hand column. For 
anyone desirous of undertaking a tour with an electric 
vehicle this little work would be almost indispensable, 
and it will be found very useful by all automobilists who 
obtain their ignition current from cells. It is a pity, 
therefore, that its handiness is impaired and facility of 
reference to its contents greatly impeded by the wholesale 
interleaving of trade advertisements which disfigures it. 
The only portion of the work free from these is that in 
which they are replaced by a reprint of the Motor Cars 
Act of 1903. 



i t ooo MILES RELIABILITY TRIAL. 



Technical and Descriptive Data Concerning the Com- 
peting Cars in order of Official Numbers {.Continued). 

Class E {Continued).— Cars more than £550 and not 
more than £700. 

18-h.p. Star (No. 99). — During the first day, a few marks were 
lost on the road, and one at Maidstone for replenishing, and on the 
following day the chain wheel broke away from the driving wheel 
at Uckfield, necessitating withdrawal from the trials. The usual 



arrangement of parts adopted in these makers' chain-driven cars is 
employed, and the driving mechanism is mounted upon an armoured - 
wood frame and an under- frame. The 4-cylinder engine has mechani- 
cal inlet-valves arranged opposite to the exhaust-valves. It is auto- 
matically governed on the throttle, has a high tension ignition 
system, a float-feed carburettor, and runs at a normal speed of 900 
revs, per min. ; the b.h.p. at 1,200 r.p.m. is about 21*5. The 
wheel base is 7 ft. 3 in., the track, 4 ft. 44 in., and the wheels are 
shod with Dunlop tyres 870 by 90 mm. 



1,000 MILES RELIABILITY TRIAL.— The 18-h.p. James and Browne Petrol Car (No. 100). 



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[January 2, 1904. 



18-h.p, James and Browne (No. 100).— The troubles 
experienced on the road, which prevented more than four non-stop 
runs being recorded, were only responsible for a loss of 6 marks,' 
and, apart from replenishing and lubricating, 1 mark— delay in 
starting — was alone lost. The vehicle is in general respects similar 
to the smaller car. run by these makers (No. 47), but the engine has 
four horizontal cylinders instead of two. The frame, is built of 
channel steel with tubular stays, the engine runs at a normal 
speed of 700 revs, per min., and the compression is about 
80 lbs. per sq. in. High tension ignition is employed, and the 
carburettor is of the float-feed type. An internal cone-clutch, with 
metal-to-metal friction surfaces, is used, and it has four springs for 
holding it in engagement. The cooling water is circulated, by 
a chain-driven centrifugal pump, through the jackets and through a 
finned- tube fan -cooled radiator in front. The brakes are of the 
metal -to-metal type, and those acting inside ihe chain rings on the 
rear wheels are compensated. The wheel base is 8 ft. , the track 
4 ft. 2 ins., and the artillery wheels are shod with Michelin tyres. 

24-h.p. Wolseley (No. 102). — But for trouble with the clutch, 
causing a loss of 1 mark, and for a hot bearing on another day, 
costing 2 marks, non-stop runs would have been made through- 
out the trials. In garage 1 mark went for replacing an axle-cap, 
but otherwise replenishing and lubricating were the only causes of 
loss. This vehicle has a pressed -steel frame of tapering cross- 
section, and follows the well-known Wolseley lines throughout. 
The engine runs at a normal speed of 800 revs. p«r min. , and can 
develop about 28 b.h.p. at 1,100 r. p.m. The compression is about 
75 lbs. per square inch, and the engine is fitted with the Company's 
special exhaust- valve springs. The brake pedal is coupled to the 
throttle valve, and both the hand and foot brakes act direct upon 
the hubs of the rear wheels. The wheel base is 7 ft. 6 in. and the 
track 4 ft. 4 in. Ball bearings are fitted to the gear-box and to the 
road wheels, which are shod with Dunlop tyres. 

ao-h.p. Wlnton (No. 104). — A good deal of trouble was 
experienced on the second day; 119 marks were lost in attend- 
ing to the ignition apparatus and the carburettor, a further 5 for 
attending to the clutch, and 35 for clearing a pipe. On another 
day 6 marks went in attending to the clutch, and otherwise two 
tyre troubles lost 10 marks. On the fifth day the crank -shaft broke 
at Carshalton, as already reported. In garage 8 marks in all were 
lost in tightening the clutch, 7 adjusting the carburettor, and 8 
replacing an accumulator. The car has a special ste*l frame to 
which the 2-cylinder horizontal engine and the change- speed-gear 
are attached direct ; the inlet-valves are atmospheric, and the 
cylinders lie opposite one another with the crank-chamber between 
them. The speed of the engine is controlled by a special governor 
operated by air pressure, acting upon the spindle of the inlet-valves. 
The normal engine-speed is 800 revolutions per minute, the com- 
pression 65 lbs. per square inch, and the b.h.p. about 22. A high- 
tension system of ignition is used, and the carburettor is of the 
float-feed-spray type. Oil is fed to the engine from a special lubri- 
cator, in which a constant level is maintained by a float. The clutch 
has flat, metal-to-metal surfaces, and is operated by a hand-lever. 
The change-speed-gear is of the spur-wheel type, in which the 
wheels are at all times in mesh with one another. Two speeds and 
a reverse are available, and the wheels run in an oil bath. The rear- 
axle is of the live type with roller bearings, and is driven by a central 
chain. The wheel base is 6 ft. 6 ins., the track 4 ft. 8 ins., and the 
tyres are 810 by 100 mm. 

IO-h.p. Gardner Serpollet (No. 105). — Only one reliability 
mark was lost, and that for stopping on a hill the first day ; otherwise 
non-stop runs were made throughout. In garage two or three 
marks each day went for starting, over and above replenishing and 
lubricating, but except for these, and for two marks caused by tyre 
trouble, only one mark went for attending to the mechanism — 
cleaning the burner. This vehicle, which won the gold 
medal in its class, is constructed on the well-known lines fully 
described by us in our issues of June 28th to July, 19th, 1902. 
The generator has twelve coils, each of which is constructed of 
about 18 ft. of tube. The power is transmitted from an 8-tooth 
sprocket on the engine to a 25-tooth chain wheel on the back axle. 
The wheels are shod with 810 by 90 mm. tyres, the wheel base is 
7 ft. 3 in., and the track 4 ft. The fuel tank holds 20 gals, of 
ordinary paraffin, and the water capacity is also 20 gals. 

24-h.p. Georges- Richard (No. 106).— Non-stop runs were 
made on each of the five last days, and were only spoilt on the first 
and third day by tyre troubles, costing 5 marks on each occasion. 
On the second day 6 marks were lost for replenishing on the road, 
and 1 for trouble with the clutch. The tyres too were responsible 
for the loss of a few garage marks (11) and a few minor adjustments 
and repairs were also made. The car is of the live-axle type and 
has ring-lubricated bearings on the back axle, in addition to ball- 
thrust bearings. The main frame and under frame are tubular, a 
flexible coupling is fitted between the clutch and the gear box, the 



foot-brake behind the gear box has cast-iron shoes on a malleable 
drum, and the usual hub brakes are fitted. The engine has atmo- 
spheric valves and is governed on the throttle valve, subject to an 
accelerator. It runs at a normal speed of 1,000 revolutions per 
minute, and at 1,300 revolutions per minute it develops about 
26-b.lup. ; a low. tension magneto system is employed, and the 
carburettor is of the float-feed type. Four speeds and a ' * reverse " are 
available, the wheel base is 7 ft. 5 in., the track 4 ft. 3 in., and the 
wheels, which run on plain bearings, have 870 by 90 mm. Clincher 
Michelin tyres. 

16-h.p. Dennis (No. 108).— This vehicle failed to make non- 
stop runs on four out of the eight days, owing chiefly to trouble 
with the accumulators and in having to replenish the tanks on two 
occasions on the road. From these causes it lost nine marks. The 
accumulators, too, were responsible for the loss of a few marks in 
garage, which together with sundry minor adjustments of the brakes- 
resulted in a loss of 14 marks, apart from replenishing and lubri- 
cating. The vehicle was very fully described by us in our issues of 
Aug. 29th and Sept. 5th last, and does not therefore require further 
treatment. It has a 4-cylinder Aster engine, fitted with atmospheric 
inlet- valves. The wheel-base is 7 ft. 6 in., the track 4 ft. 2 in., and 
the wheels were shod with 34 in. by 4^ in. by 4J in. Collier tyres. 

16-h.p. Lanchester (No. 109).— A good deal of trouble was 
experienced on the first day, occasioning a loss of 31 reliability 
marks and 42 in the repair tent, followed the next day by with- 
drawal, owing to overheating of the engine. As already mentioned 
in conjunction with the 10-h.p. vehicle (No. 87), the makers 
attribute the cause to the employment of a new form of fly wheel 
driving the cooling fans, which proved unsuccessful on both cars. The 
vehicle is similar to the smaller model, but has a more powerful engine. 
20-h.p. Spyker (No. in). — Owing to the gear being out of 
order, this car had to retire when close to the Palace, towards the 
end of the first day's run. For a description of its general 
characteristics, we would refer our readers to our article dealing with 
the Spyker cars, which appears on another page this week. 

14-h.p. Renault (No. ii3).-^-A good deal of trouble was 
experienced during the first seven days, ignition being responsible 
for no less than 102 marks, the gear for 8 and the tyres for 10, 
besides which 1 1 marks were lost on one occasion for lubrication on 
the road. The ignition, too, caused the loss of garage marks on- 
several occasions. The car has a tubular main frame and under- 
frame, an internal cone-clutch, and a live axle drive. The 4-cylinder 
engine has mechanically-operated inlet valves arranged on the same 
side as the exhaust- valves. It runs at a normal speed of 900 revs, 
per min. , and has a compression of about 65 lbs. per square inch. A 
high-tension system of ignition is employed. The carburettor is of 
the float-feed type, and the water is circulated through radiators, 
forming the sides of the bonnet, on the thermo-syphon system. 
Ball |bearings are used in the back axle, and for the front wheels. 
Michelin tyres, 870 by 90 mm., are fitted. 

14-18-h.p. Martini (No. 114). — This vehicle, which gained 
a special gold medal in its class, made 6 non-stop runs, and on each 
of the other days lost 2 marks owing to a stoppage in the petrol feed^ 
Except for replenishing and lubricating, no garage marks were 
deducted. It resembles the Rochet-Schneider cars, which we have 
already described (Automotor Journal, May 9th, 1003), and is 
made under license from those manufacturers. It was fitted with 
Simms- Bosch rotary magneto ignition, and with the Martini patent 
honeycomb radiator, both of which were entered separately under 
Section II in the trials. The magneto runs at a slow speed, and is 
driven by equal sized spur wheels from the cam-shaft, the shield re- 
volving between the stationary armature and the magnets. The time 
of ignition was not variable. The honeycomb radiator has large 
top and bottom reservoirs, which are connected together by flat thin 
brass tubes bent into a zig-zag shape. A single row of these is 
placed vertically, each tube connecting the reservoirs together, and 
presenting its edge in the direction of travel ; no fins are fitted to- 
the tubes. The car has a wheel base of a little over 7 ft., and the 
track is 4 ft. 1 in. The wheels run on ball bearings, and were 
shod with Clipper Continental tyres 870 by 90 mm. 

IO-h.p. White Steam Car (No. 116).— This vehicle would 
have scored non-stop runs on each of the eight days but for a tyre 
trouble causing a loss of 5 marks. In garage a further 14 was lost 
for tyres, and a certain number for cleaning and starting, in addition 
to those for replenishing and lubricating. It only differs from the 
smaller vehicle (No. 84) in that it has larger tank capacities, and 
that special arrangements are made for improving the efficiency by 
preventing heat losses by radiation from the hot parts. A water 
tank is fixed inside the tonneau against the back of the front seat. 
A special silver medal was awarded for the low water consumption. 
12-h.p. H umber (No. 117). — On the first day one mark was 
lost owing to the engine having stopped, and on the following day 
the car retired at Mayfield with a stripped driving pinion. It is 
constructed on the usual Humber lines, with tubular frame, live 



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1,000 MILES RELIABILITY TRIAL.— The 14-18.h.p. Martini Petrol Car (No. 114). 



axle drive, and an under-frame for carrying the gear-tx>x. The 
four-cylinder engine has atmospheric inlets, high tension ignition, 
and a Longuemare carburettor. Its normal speed is 900 revolutions 
per minute, the compression is about 75 lbs. per square inch, and 
at a speed of 1,250 r.p.m. it develops about 18 b.h.p. The wheel 
base is 8ft., the track 4 ft. 3 in., and the wheels, which run on 
plain bearings, have 870 by 90 mm. Michelin tyres. 

24-h.p. Darracq (No. 118). — Although only two nonstop 
runs were recorded, similar runs on two other days were only 
prevented by a broken wire, costing 2 marks, on one occasion, and 
a tyre trouble (5 marks) on another. On the other three days the 

(To be 



accumulators were responsible for a total loss of 56 marks, a coil for 
46, the change- speed-lever for 25, a stoppage on Westerham Hill 
for 4, water in the carburettor for 5, the gear for I, and replenishing 
for 4 reliability marks. In garage, the ignition caused 6 marks 
to be lost, and a few more went for minor adjustments — apart from 
replenishing and lubricating. This vehicle is in general respects 
similar to the 12-h.p. model (No. 64), but has a pressed ste :1 frame, 
and the mechanically-operated inlet- valves on the 4-cylinder engine 
are arranged on the same side as the exhaust- valves. A fan-cooled 
honeycomb radiator forms the front of the bonnet. The wheels run 
on ball-bearings, and have Clincher- Michelin tyres, 870 by 90 mm. 

concluded. ) 



The Intrepid Steam 'Bus. 

All persons who have the progress of the self-pro- 
pelled public service vehicle at heart, and more parti- 
cularly all to whom the gallant fight which steam is 
making in the severe competition with petrol, will be 
delighted to read of the gallant doings of the Clarkson 
omnibus at Torquay. The Clarkson 'bus, to which we 
have referred in back numbers of the Journal, and 
which has been running in that town for some time past, 
has done so well that the Motor Omnibus Company have 
decided to add three more 'buses to their stud. When 
the first of this order arrives it will be put upon the 
Strand and Tor Railway Station route, while further 
routes will doubtless be found for the others. The 
existing " Chelmsford " (Clarkson) 'bus has earned 
golden opinions locally by its sturdy fronting of the 
storm on Saturday week last. A correspondent in the 
local paper was more than impressed by its performances. 
It did not, he said, miss a single run during that day, 
when at times nothing could live on the sea-front but 
the motor 'bus and the lifeboat. It actually charged the 
waves breaking over the road, and one passenger who 



had the hardihood to ride beside the driver (and the 
pluck and determination of both of them must have 
been considerable) is stated (not on oath) to have arrived 
at Cockington with some shrimps in his pocket and a 
muffler of seaweed round his neck. Whether the shrimps 
were boiled or whether they were in his pocket when he 
started is not stated, but the seaweed is better evidence 
of the usage to which the elements had subjected the 
steam 'bus. Mr. Clarkson has worked so long, so per- 
tinaciously, and so patiently at the development of a 
satisfactory steam vehicle for public service requirements 
that we feel sure all our readers will feel delighted at 
the excellent results being obtained with his vehicle at 
Torquay. 

Although comparatively very little time has elapsed 
since the regulations of the Local Government Board in 
regard to motor cars under the new Act were known, it 
is astonishing the number of firms who are already in a 
position to supply numbers, lamps, &c, specially adapted 
to meet the requirements under the regulations. Some 
of the devices are extremely ingenious and compact. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 2, 1904. 



RACES, RECORDS, AND TRIALS. 



GORDON-BENNETT CUP RACE, 

Friday, June 17th, has been definitely fixed as the date 
for the running of the Gordon-Bennett Race. This day 
immediately precedes the commencement of the Kiel 
Regatta, at which the German Emperor is invariably 
present, and it is hoped that this is a sure indication of 
the intention of His Majesty to witness in person the 
great race- 
Eight nations in all have signified their intention of 
participating in this race in 1904, the latest to inscribe 
its name being Switzerland. Besides that country 
there are Germany (the present holders of the Cup), 
Great Britain, France, Austria, Belgium, Italy, and 
America, which have given notice of entry, so that there 
may be a total of 24 cars starting over the Taunus 
course to secure the trophy. The entry of Switzerland 
has come somewhat as a surprise, and it has been taken 
for granted that the car to represent this little country 
would be a Martini. This, however, does not appear 
primarily to have been the reason for the entry, as an 
8-cylinder 80-h.p. Dufaux racing car is being completed 
for the express purpose of taking part in this race. The 
driver will be Frederic Dufaux, and the vehicle is 
being constructed by MM. Piccard, Pictet and Co., of 
Geneva. 

Holland is expected to be added to the list ot 
challengers, in which case a Spyker car will no doubf 
represent that country. 

Considerable doubt appears to exist in regard to what 
American cars will take part on behalf of the United 
States, but one entry is clear, viz., that of Mr. Alden 
Sampson, of Pittsfield, Mass., and a Peerless car is also 
spoken of. In the case of Sampson's vehicle his con- 
nection with the Moyea Company suggested that it was 
a car of this make, but from particulars published there 
seems unlikely that this is the case, but that the 
vehicle is one of special and at present unknown con- 
struction. 

Since our last issue the entry list for the French 
Eliminating Trials has received six additions, viz., the 
Darracq firm, the Mors Company, the Gobron-BrilIi£ 
Company, G. Richard-Brazier, and Hotchkiss, each of 
whom will have three vehicles running. Two Turcat 
Mery's make up the list. Two of the Mors cars will be 
driven by Salleron and Leger. The Panhard firm will 
probably be represented by Chevalier Ren6 de Knyff, 
Maurice Farman, and Henri Farman. Two of the 
Hotchkiss cars will be driven by H. and A. Fournier. 
As the time of final entry on behalf of France did not 
expire until Thursday of this week, no doubt there will 
be further entries to chronicle next week. Amongst the 
likely firms to come forward are the Gardner-Serpollet 
and Renault. 

Belgium, as already intimated, will have to place their 
chances on the Pipe car, and although in their case 
there will be no contest proper to determine the runner 
in the final race, it is proposed that all the preliminary 
tests should nevertheless be carried through beforehand 
to enable any possible improvements to be made in 
time for the race. 

For Great Britain the names of the entered cars and 
drivers at present publicly known are : for the Napier 
team, Messrs. S. F. Edge, Mark Mayhew, and John 
Hargreaves, and Mr. J. E. Hutton on one of the 
special Hutton cars at present under construction, and 



which will be first exhibited at the Crystal Palace Show 
in February. Until officially announced we refrain from 
mentioning the names of other British firms likely to 
enter their names for the Preliminary Trials. Although 
Mr. Charles Jarrott may drive a De Dietrich car in the 
French Eliminating Trials, it is by no means certain 
that in the actual race he may not be found in the 
British team. 

During the Homburg week a race for cars driven 
by ladies is promised as one of the special attractions. 



Attention is drawn by the Technical Secretary of 
the Automobile Club to the excellent opportunity 
offered to manufacturers to obtain a certificate for 
100 miles non-stop runs, together with a record of fuel 
consumed and speed on hill-climbs by entering in the 
Quarterly Trials which have now been held regularly by 
the Club for some years. Particularly is this point 
emphasised in regard to light cars for which an enormous 
demand by the public is now steadily growing. The 
next Trial will be on February 12th, the last day for 
entry being February 6th. The entrance fee is ten 
guineas, of which six is returnable if the vehicle actually 
starts. This fee includes the registration of driver and 
vehicle. 



A private piece of road, either asphalte, cement, or 
wood, for carrying out the Side-slip Trials of the Auto- 
mobile Club, is urgently needed. If possible, this road 
should be within ten miles of London, and any of our 
readers who may know of such a piece of road available 
for this purpose should communicate either with us or 
the Technical Secretary of the Automobile Club, so that 
this very important test may be carried out to the 
ultimate benefit of the entire automobile community. 



Side-slip competitions, as applied to motor cycles, are 
to be a feature of the coming season under the auspices 
of the Auto-Cycle Club. March or April will probably 
be the date of the tests. 



W. K. Vanderbilt, J un., has entered for the Florida 
races from January 26th to 29th with his xoo-h.p. 
Mercedes car. 



During the spring a competition is announced, to be 
held under the auspices of the Vclo^ for voiturettes 
ranging in value from ^80 to ^120. 



It is proposed amongst the leading American auto- 
mobilists to shortly call a conference of owners and 
drivers to reconsider the rules governing automobile 
racing in the United States, with a view to revising them 
in many particulars. 

The Anti-Skid Trial being organised in France by the 
Seine-et-Oise Club will be held over a distance of about 
900 kiloms. between February 23rd and 28th. Only 
4-seated cars, weighing at least 300 kilogs. fully laden, 
will be qualified to take part. A maximum of 500 marks 
will be apportioned to various points in the tests, upon 
which the judges will base their decisions. 



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A novel competition will be inaugurated by the Moto 
Club of Belgium, in connection with the Brussels Salon. 
Prizes are offered for the best produced automobile 
catalogues under 3 categories, viz., those produced by 
merchants and constructors of (1) cars, voiturettes, and 
motor bicycles, (2) accessories, parts, and pneumatics, 
(3) motoring clothes, goggles, &c. The winning cata- 
logues will be exhibited on the stand of the Moto Club 
of Belgium. 



The suggestion of having a tourist run on the occasion 
of the St. Louis Exhibition this year has taken definite 
shape by a proposal of the American Automobile Asso- 
ciation sent round to all the American clubs and the 
members of the Association. The scheme is that each 
tourist will travel as he sees fit, subject to a main route 
being planned so that they can keep together and meet 
each night. This trunk line route will be mapped out 
from Boston through Albany, Buffalo, and Cleveland to 
Chicago, and from there south to St. Louis, and clubs 
will be invited to join from other points and help to 
swell the cavalcade. The daily runs will be about 
100 miles, and to provide for unforeseen delays by 
weather, &c, two or three days will be allowed for in 
order to reach St. Louis in good time for the automobile 
week which is to be arranged in that city. The Delmar 
Track is to be utilised for the week's racing, and it is 
proposed that the tourists shall form an automobile 
camp inside this track for the entire week. 



MONACO MOTOR BOAT RACES. 

The full regulations are now issued in connection with this im- 
portant event for next season. The races, which will take place 
during the first fortnight of April, are organised by the International 
Sporting Club in connection with IJAuto, and form part of, and 
are dependent upon, the Yachting Exhibition, which will be held at 
Monaco immediately prior to the races. Boats entitled to take part 
in the race must have been shown at this Exhibition previously. 
Under the rules boats are qualified having the maximum length of 
25 metres (82 022 fr.) and propelled by any of the following four 
systems : (1) Explosion motors of all sorts ; (2) Electric motors of 
all systems in which the source of energy employed is self contained 
on the beat ; (3) Steam or vapour motors in which the vaporisation 
is instantaneous, and the fire or burners are automatic in action ; 
(4) Combustion motors using vaporised petroleum. 

ico,ooo francs in money prizes besides cups and trophies will 
be offered. In the money prizes 10 per cent, will be reserved for 
the constructors of the hull, and 10 per cent, for the constructors 
of the motor. 

Boats only which have been on view at the Exhibition for eight 
days (192 hours) terminating at midnight on the evening before ihe 
race is held, will be admitted for competition. 

The qualification of the boats are as follows : — 

The Racers. — These will be divided into four classes, accord- 
ing to the length of the hull (measuring from end to end between 
perpendiculars, exclusive of the rudder), and the power of the 
motors. For the explosion motors the power will be calculated 
by cylinder capacity under the following formula : — 

n D 3 x C x N 
Cylinder capacity = 

in which D ^ the diameter or bore of the cylinder, C -= the stroke 
of the piston, N = the number of cylinders ; n is taken at a value 
of 3,1416. 

The racers will be classified as follows : — 
Series. length. Cylinder Capacity. 

1 up to 8 metres (26*247 feet) 7 litres. 

2 „ 8-12 „ (39*371 „ ) 15 „ 

3 „ 12-18 „ (59*056 „ ) 30 „ 

For this year the boats beyond 18 metres will not be classed. 
English 40-foot boats for 1904 will be accepted in the 12 metre 
class, and 60-feet English t>oats in the 18 metre class. A special 
class will be made for motors using petroleum or heavy oil for fuel, 
in which the point of combustion is higher than lamp oil (35 Centi- 
grade), but having the same cylinder capacity as the petrol motors. 
Motors other than Explosion Motors.— All motors other than ex- 



plosion motors in which no comparison exists between their power 
and the measurement of the cylinders will be classed separately, and 
will run separately and no limit will be placed upon the power of 
the motor. In steam motors exhaust direct to atmosphere is pro- 
hibited. In this class the series will be : — 

1, Less than 8 mttres in length ; 2, Less than 12 metres ; 3, Less 
than 18 metres. 

Cruisers or Pleasure Boats.— These will be classified in five 
series according to their length and according to the power of their 
motors. All cruisers must be proper passenger boats with a certain 
amount of free-board and a proper seating capacity. The detailed 
classifications will be as follows : (1) By the length of the hull from 
end to end without rudder, and (2) by the cylinder capacity: — 
Series. Cylinder. 

1. Up to 6£ metres (21*325 feet) 2$ litres 

2. 6£ metres to 8 metres 3 J ,, 

3. 8 to 12 metres 7$ ,, 

4. 12 to 18 metres 15 „ 
Boats beyond 18 metres not admitted. 

and (3) according to the number of passengers. 

The pleasure boats are to provide for their guaranteed number of 
adult passengers sufficient accommodation according to the length 
of the boat expressed in metres, every fraction of a metre to count 
as a full metre. The passengers may be replaced by ballast in the 
proportion of 70 kilogs. for each passenger omitted, but the amount 
. of space provided for the passengers must not be on that account 
diminished. The amount of space equivalent to "45 of a metre in 
all three dimensions must be provided for each passenger carried. 

Height of the free-board. — In the case of undecked boats or boats 
partly decked, the co-efficient of safely must be the height of ihe 
free-board amidships. The latter must never be less, when the boat 
is laden, than '2 m. + 0*03 L (L bting ihe length of the hull 
properly so called). 

The free-board is to be measured amidships with the vessel fully 
laden and provided with all its appurtenances, including fuel. The 
free-board is to be considered as ending with the hull properly so 
called. 

Pinnaces. — Boats may compete as pinnaces which do not 
exceed 6*5 metres, and do not weigh more than 400 kilogs., in 
running order, but without water, fuel, or tools. These pinnaces 
must carry at least four persons, and must be capable of going 
through their tests in all weathers, tempests excepted. 

Fishing Boats. — Any boat is entitled to enter as a fishing boat 
which is inscribed as such on a maritime register since Novem- 
ber 1st, 1903. 

Auxiliary Boats. — Cruisers with mechanical motive power, 
and all sailing lx>ats which do not draw more than *66 m. of water 
may compete as auxiliary boats, but false keels are prohibited. 

The 1 aces will extend over eight days, of which the following is 
the Programme : — Every morning the Commissary of the Races 
will have the right to decide whether the races are to take place or not. 
A cannon will be discharged an hour before the races commence. 

The points at which the cruisers are to turn will be settled by 
arrangement with the local authorities. 

1st Day. — 1. Series 1 of the Racers ; distance, about 150 kilom*., 
six times round a triangle of 25 kiloms. ; maximum lime 10 qualify, 
10 hours. 

2. Series 1 of the Cruisers ; distance, about 60 kiloms. ; time, 
10 hours. 

2nd Day. — 1. Seiies 2 of Racers; distance, 2co kiloms. ; time, 
10 hours. 

2. Series 2 cf Cruisers ; distance, 75 kiloms. ; time, 10 hours. 

$rd Day. — I. Series 3 of Cruisers; distance, ico kiloms. ; time, 
10 hours. 

2. Fishing Boats ; distance, 60 kiloms. Sails and motor may 
be employed at the same time. 

4th Day. — 1. Series 3 of Racers; distance, 250 kiloms. ; time, 
10 hours. 

2. Series 4 of Cruisers ; distance, 125 kiloms ; time, 10 hours. 

$(h Day. — Open race for all boats employing fuel of which the 
flash point is not less than- that of- ordinary lamp oil (35 ), not in- 
cluding explosion engines : — 

1. For boats of less than 8 metres, distance 150 kiloms. 

2. ,, from 8 to 12 ,, ,, 200 „ 

3. „ „ 12 to 18 „ ,, 250 „ 

Maximum time, 10 hours. 
6th Day. — 1. General handicap for all racing boats of all systems 
previously qualified in their categories. Distance 50 kiloms. 

2. Handicap, Monaco-Nice and back, for all cruisers qualified by 
the race in their category. Distance, about 70 kiloms. 

3. Race of rowing boats. The rowing boats will be supposed to 
start from a yacht, enter the roads and turn round a buoy. They 
are to leave a letter at the quay and return on board the yacht from 
which they are supposed to start. A certain time for neutralisation, 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 2, 1904. 



which must not be exceeded, will be allowed. Total distance, 30 
kiloms. 

7M Day. — 1. General handicap for all racing boats of all systems 
qualified in their categories. Distance, 200 kiloms. ; maximum 
time allowance, 10 hours. 

2. Race for auxiliary boats; first test; sailing 30 kiloms., 
the motor being in readiness to act, followed by 50 kiloms. with 
the motor running and the sails furled. Classification by time 
allowance. The categories will be the same as for the cruisers. 

8M Day. — Race over a kilometre and nautical mile. Classifica- 
tion will be general and by categories. This race is exclusively 
reserved for boats that have finished in the general races within the 
time allowed. The classing will be by adding the times for the 
kilometre and the nautical mile together. 



Already fifty-two entries have been notified for the 
Monaco Motor Boat Races, and twenty-five have actually 
fulfilled the formal conditions required. Amongst these 
in the Racers section are boats by Darracq, Hotchkiss, 
Peugeot, Mercedes (two), Bayard-Clement, Napier (two) ; 
and in the Cruisers three boats by Peugeot, a F.I.A.T., a 
Bayard-Clement, and one by De Dietrich. Entries at 
single fees closed on December 31st. 



Two Napier racing boats have already been entered 
for the " British International Cup for Motor Boats " 
(Harmsworth Cup), these being again the first entries 
for this important event. These two boats are the 
40-foot craft of iooh.p. belonging to Mr. S. F. Edge, 
and the 35-foot boat of 60-h.p. A heavy list of foreign 
competitors is expected to enter, and we hope to see a 
number of other British-built racers coming forward to 
contest on behalf of Great Britain for the honour of 
continuing to hold the prize in the United Kingdom. 
In the rules governing this race, in addition to the 
change in the title of the race, several other modifications 
of the rules have been made. Each vessel must carry 
not less than two hands, of whom the helmsman shall 
be a member of the competing club, and all hands must 
be natives or naturalised subjects of the country which 
they represent. If more than two boats are competing 
for the cup not more than one boat representing each 
country will race together at any one time. August is 
the likely date for the race, and the entrance fee for 
British defenders is placed at JQ20, of which jQio will 
be returnable in the event of the vessel actually taking 
part. 



The holding of a motor boat race from Calais to 
Dover, which we announced about last August as likely 
to take place during 1904, is now confirmed by the 
Automobile Yachting Commission appointed by the 
A.C. de France. 



In America the American Power Boat Association 
are helping to promote the popularity of motor boat 
racing. They have determined to offer a valuable 
silver trophy for an International Competition to be 
held in June or July next, and annually thereafter. 
Thirty yacht clubs forming its membership will con- 
tribute to this. Competitors in America must be 
members of the Yacht Clubs forming this Association, 
but all foreign owners of racing motor boats will be invited 
to enter for the race. The course will be between 
20 and 40 miles long, either on Long Island Sound or 
the Hudson River. The A.C. of America are also 
seriously considering the question of taking an active 
interest in motor boat racing in the future. 



CLUB DOINGS. 

Burnley and District Automobile Club.— Mainly as a result 
of the conciliatory attitude and diplomatic action of the Burnley and 
District Automobile Club, which we reported on December 12th, 
the local authorities are not likely to ask for unnecessary restrictions 
under the new Act now in force. The letter addressed by the club 
last month to the Lancashire County Council has had an excellent 
effect, resulting in an official communication being sent to each 
of the local councils, in which it is stated that the Lancashire 
Main Roads and Bridges Committee, after deliberating upon the 
new regulations, resolved that while being of opinion that the safety 
of the public will in most cases be sufficiently protected by Section I 
of the Motor Car Act, 1903, are prepared to consider the applica- 
tion of any local authority for a ten mile an hour limit, and will 
investigate each case upon its merits and report to the Local 
Government Board their decision. They further announce that the 
proposed conference of local authorities will not now be held. 



On Tuesday next the Motor Cycling Club hold their annual 
dinner, and on the 28th inst. the annual general meeting of the 
club will be held. 



Messrs. Bennett and Carlisle's Liverpool business 
has been acquired by the Road Carrying Company, 
Limited, of Liverpool, as from the 1st January. 



Mr. Douglas Mackenzie has been awarded the 
President's Gold Medal of the Society of Engineers for 
his Paper, which he read before the Society, on " Motor 
Transport for Goods." 



The enormous number of motor cars to be seen not 
only travelling in and out of London during the recent 
Christmas holidays, but throughout the country, was a 
revelation even to the greatest enthusiast and experienced 
automobilist. 



Mr. U. Stratton, late of Compton Grange, near 
Wolverhampton, and of Bexhill-on-Sea, has been 
appointed London manager of the Daimler Motor Com- 
pany, Limited. Mr. Stratton's experience during the 
past years as an enthusiastic automobilist, added to his 
considerable business experience, should render him an 
extremely valuable addition to the Daimler Company's 
staff. 



In contrast to the general feeling amongst Ix)ndon 
boroughs a discordant note comes from Southwark in 
reply to the London County Council's enquiry as to 
"dangerous corners" at cross-roads and precipitous 
places where it is deemed necessary that warning sign- 
posts should be erected. The reply of the Town Clerk, 
under the instructions of the Southwark Borough 
Council, is : " That, in our opinion, the whole of the area 
under our control is dangerous for motor car traffic." 



We have this year received a more than usually large 
number of Christmas cards, souvenirs, and other season- 
able greetings. Chief amongst these we would refer to 
the very artistic production sent us by Mr. Henry 
Norman, M.P., to the more elaborate little booklet by 
Messrs. Jarrott and Letts, to the ornamental design of 
Mr. Frank Morriss wishing us "good lubrication, 
circulation, and acceleration," for the coming year, and 
Mr. Edward Butler's card, illustrated by the tricycle 
which appears on another page. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



27 



The automobile development of Ireland is progressing 
-satisfactorily, the latest feature being the proposed 
establishment of a public motor car service between 
Dublin and the neighbouring small town of Swords, 
and a company has been formed for the purpose. At 
least one car, having a seating capacity of twenty 
passengers, is to be run daily between the two places, 
and other motor vehicles for goods transport are also to 
be supplied. It might be interesting if the undertakers 
were to take a hint from the old Irish u longcar " and 
-adopt that type of body for the purpose. It is one of 
the best ways of getting a large number of persons into 
a small compass with comfort to themselves, and would 
rhave the merit of possessing a national character as well. 



Nearly all visitors to the Paris Salon have com- 
mented on the marked increase in numbers and im- 
provement in building of commercial vehicles, notably 
those of the delivery van class. This branch of the 



as well that attention should again be drawn to the sub- 
ject, as it may enable users to locate the source of some 
of their troubles in the past, and to feel assured that in 
the present position of the industry there is little proba- 
bility of such troubles being again experienced. 



" Autonautique " is a new word by £ Auto for motor 
boat racing. 



Our German contemporary, the Allegemeine Autorno- 
bil-Zeitung, has in a novel manner got over the difficulty 
of publishing during the Christmas holidays by issuing 
two weeks' numbers in one. 



Automobilism has served a good purpose in afford- 
ing relief to officers of the French Mercantile Marine, 
who have adopted the motor goggle mask to aid them 
in navigation in excessively bad weather. 



MR. EDWARD BUTLER, M.I.M.E.— a well-known Pioneer in the Industry— on his BolUe tricycle, the engine 

on which lis fitted with his special Rotary- Valve mechanism. This vehicle has run many hundreds of miles 

fitted with this mechanism, and has proved its practical success. 



industry is bound to develop enormously in the near 
future, and the only wonder that can be felt on the sub- 
ject is that the development should have been so long in 
coming. Mr. Frank Morris, of King's Lynn, writes to 
us, pointing out that damage has to a certain extent been 
done to this branch by many manufacturers providing 
delivery vans in which the running gear was practically 
identical with that of pleasure vehicles designed for 
much lighter work, and that the result has been to preju- 
dice purchasers against this type of vehicle. He very 
properly points out that the demand for delivery vans 
will rapidly become enormous if satisfactory vehicles are 
supplied, and counsels manufacturers not to spoil the 
market by continuing to build vehicles of this class on 
too delicate lines. It is good counsel, and perhaps it is 



During the Turin Automobile Salon it is announced 
by the Italian Government that no Customs duty will be 
charged on foreign vehicles entering for the exhibition. 



Upon appeal, the anti-automobilist Mayor of Brussels, 
M. Demot, has been successful in obtaining a reversal 
of the judgment given that a decree issued by him, con- 
fining the speed of automobiles in the city to five 
kiloms. per hour, was illegally issued. M. Demot is 
now, no doubt, happy in the knowledge that he may 
claim hereafter to be included in the list of narrow- 
minded bigots who have temporarily helped to stem the 
progress of the automobile industry. 



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[January 2, 1904. 



Mr. R. A. Fliess, an American electrician, has brought 
out what appears to be a really very good idea to keep the 
fingers of automobile drivers warm in very cold weather. 
He arranges resistance wires, heated by an electric current, 
inside the steering wheel, the current being so proportioned 
as to keep the substance of the wheel at a nice moderately 
warm temperature. He claims that a very trifling expen- 
diture of current is sufficient for this purpose, which 
would probably be the case, and in all cars fitted with 
dynamo attachment for ignition purposes, the difficulty 
of applying the invention should not be serious. There 
are many points of view from which a dynamo attach- 
ment has advantages, and if this little apparatus should 
be found generally serviceable, its application will form 
an additional inducement to motor car builders to employ 
the dynamo for supplying the current needed for ignition 
purposes. 

The Extra Parliamentary Commission, which is now 
sitting in France to consider and draw up proposals for the 
regulation of automobile traffic, is receiving reports from 
various bodies and individuals. M. Paul Escudier, on 
behalf of the Municipal Council of Paris, has presented a 
lengthy report which concludes by proposing that the 
Municipal Council should submit to the Commission the 
following suggestions as embodying the measures which 
it looks upon as most suited to regulate automobile 
traffic in the French metropolis. The chief points are : — 

To warn and stop drivers when their vehicles diffuse an unusual 
amount of unpleasant smoke, forbid the excessive use of the hooter, 
and prohibit the use of automobiles without effective mufflers. 

To insist upon severe examination before issuing driving permits. 

Not to enforce any particular speed. 

Automobiles free from noise, smoke, and odour to be admitted to 
the Acacia Drive in the Bois de Boulogne, a moderate pace only to 
be indulged in throughout both the Bois de Boulogne and the 
Bois de Vincennes. 

Drivers should at once stop when notified by means of a special 
whistle. Infractions of the rules to be punished not by prison but 
by fine, if no accident has been caused, such fines to be exacted in 
some simple and expeditious manner. 

The lowering of the duty on petrol is strongly recommended, it 
being considered that more revenue will result to the Municipal 
Exchequer owing to the increased consumption that will follow. 



M. Joussklin even goes further in consideration for 
automobilists, and suggests in a separate report that the 
police who are entrusted with the duty of regulating 
motor car traffic should hold certificates as motor car 
drivers themselves. If found practicable this scheme 
would have much to commend it A fellow-feeling 
would be likely to make the police kinder to auto- 
mobilists than they hitherto have been, and the expert 
knowledge that personal experience aione can give 
would often prevent them from making mistakes, as, for 
instance, jumping to the conclusion that a motorist was 
driving recklessly when he might really be driving with 
consummate skill and care. 



A really valuable addition to automobile catalogue literature 
has been made by Mr. Oscar C. Selbach, of 66 and 66a, Great 
Russell Street, W.C. In the new publication just to hand consisting 
of 182 pages, practically every form of " parts" and accessories will 
be found set forth in the very clearest possible manner, almost 
without exception illustrations accompanying the descriptive 
matter. This book should prove of considerable value for reference 
purposes to all owners of cars and dealers, and we recommend our 
readers to apply to Mr. Selbach for a copy of this excellent work. 
Every imaginable article likely to prove of practical value is 
included, ranging from the smallest tools, nuts, &c, up to engines, 
frames, and complete chassis. 



LAW REPORTS. 

Court of Bankruptcy.— Re A. E. Hodgson.— The first 

meeting of creditors was held under the failure of Albert Edward 
Hodgson, of Victoria Street, Westminster. Debtor formerly carried 
on the business of a brass founder and coppersmith at Halifax, 
which business was acquired in 1895 by tne Eclipse Brass and 
Copper Company, Limited. Between 1897 and 1900 he experi- 
mented at Halifax in the building of motor-cars, and in the latter 
year his works with others were taken over by the British Power 
Traction and Lighting Company, Limited, with a capital of 
,£70,000. The debtor received ,£15,000 in shares, and also took 
up some of the debentures and purchased the freehold of the 
company's works. He also acted as a director, and became joint 
guarantor for advances from the bank. In 1897 the debtor 
promoted the Bridge Hotel and Theatre Company (Darlington), 
Limited, with a capital of ,£40,000, to acquire an hotel and theatre 
at Darlington, the freehold of which he had purchased. In the 
spring of 1902 the debtor removed from Haxby to London and started 
business as a motor dealer and agent at 94, Victoria Street, West- 
minster. He sold this business last spring, and has since been 
engaged in selling cars on commission and assisting in the re- 
construction of the British Power Company. The accounts showed 
liabilities /35,223, of which ^24,216 is expected to rank, and 
assets ,£50,000, consisting partly of claims in a pending action for 
breach of contract brought by the debtor in connection with his 
motor business. He attributes his present position to liabilities on 
guarantees given by him in connection with the British Power 
Company, and to moneys expended under the agreement which is 
the subject of the pending action. The meeting was adjourned to 
January 4th. 



DOINGS OF PUBLIC COMPANIES. 

Amoncjst companies struck off the register during 
December are the following : — 

Automobiles (Lawsons), Limited. 

Automobile Review Syndicate, Limited. 

Daimler Wagon Company, Limited. 

East Coast Automobile Company, Limited. 

Electric Propulsion, Limited. 

Idris Wheel Syndicate, Limited. 

New Century Motor Syndicate, Limited. 

Reading and District Motor Car Company, Limited. 

Schwanemeyer Motor Manufacturing Company, Limited. 



NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. 

[Taking powers to manufacture or deal in motors, motor cars, or 
accessories, either as their principal or part of their objects.] 

As bury (Limited).— Capital, ^500 in £1 shares. Object , 
to adopt an agreement with R. V. Asbury, and to carry on the 
business of manufacturers of and dealers in cycles, motor cycles, and 
motor cars, &c. 

Cadogan Syndicate (Limited).— Capital, ,£200 in 4^. shares. 
Object, to carry on the business of makers of all kinds of vehicles 
and motors and accessories thereto, &.c. 

Cos! Car Company (Limited), 53, Warwick Street, W.— 
Capital, ,£5,000 in j^io shares. Object, to carry on business as 
manufacturers and dealers in motor cycles, &c. First directors, E. 
Klaber, A. D. Klaber, and W. T. Smedley. 

Edlin- Sinclair Tyre Company (Limited), 26, Sherlock 
Street, Birmingham.— Capital, ^5,000 in £1 shares. Object, to 
adopt an agreement with R. W. Edlin and F. Sinclair, and carry on 
business in pneumatic and other tyres, and wheels for motors, cycles, 
&c. , and letters on hire of motor cars, &c. First directors, R. W. 
Edlin and F. Sinclair. 

Kent Motor Company (Limited), 144, High Street, 
Rochester. — Capital, j£5,ooo in £i shares. Object, to acquire the 
business of motor car proprietors and motor engineers, carried on by 
H. L. Cosh, at Grave*end, and by G. Senior, at Rochester. First 
directors, R. L. Cosh (chairman), H. L. Cosh, and G. Senior. 

ilonarch ilotor Syndicate (Limited), 59, Moorgate Street, 
E.C. — Capital, ^500 in u. shares. Object, to manufacture and 
deal in oil, gas, electrical, and other motors, and engines of all 
kinds, &c. 



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The Automotor Journal, January 9th, 1904.] 



The AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL 



A RECORD AND REVIEW OF APPLIED AUTOMATIC LOCOMOTION. 

Circulates amongst Makers and Users of Motor Cars, Cycles, etc., in the United Kingdom, the 

Colonies, and the Continent. 



Offices: 44, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C. 



No. 167. (No. 2, Vol. IX.)] JANUARY 9 th, 1904. [ Re ^ e ^£ PO ] [ W gS y i£!;%t 



In this Oldsmobilc Express Delivery Van, for loads of about 500 lbs., the chassis is the same as on the private 
vehicles, except that the springs are strengthened, and that the rear axle is geared somewhat lower. Space 3 feet 
by 3 feet by 3 feet is available for parcels, and the tanks hold sufficient fuel, water and oil for running 100 miles 

without refilling. 

A LIGHT COMMERCIAL PETROL VEHICLE FOR TRADESMEN. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 9, 1904. 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



Telephone No.— 

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prices : — 

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Special Notice. 

The Automotor Journal can be obtained from all Messrs. 
W. H. Smith and Son's, and Willing and Co., Ltd.'s book- 
stalls and usual newsagents. 

Paris. — W. H. Smith and Son, NeaPs Library, 248, Rut de 
Rivoli. 

When any difficulty is experienced in procuring the Journal from 
local newsvendors, intending subscribers can obtain each issue direct 
from the Publishing Office, by forwarding remittance as above. 



DIARY OF FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 



1904. 

Jan. 13 

•Jan. 14 
Jan. 15-23 
Jan. 18 

*Jan. 21 

*Jan. 28 

Feb. 1 
Feb. 1 

Feb. 2-6 

♦Feb. 3 

Feb. 12-24 

•Feb. 12 
Feb. 23-27 
Mar. 4 



Mar. 7-12 
Mar. 19-26 



British Events. 

"Motor Vehicles," by W. Norris (Liverpool En- 
gineering Society). 

Smoking Concert (Automobile Club). 

Leeds Cycle and Motor Show. 

" Reminiscences of the Road," by Mr. C. Jarrott 
(Scottish A. C). 

The Motor Car Act, by Earl Russell (A. G. C.B.I. 
Paper). 

" Railway Companies and the Motor Problem," 
by Mr. George Montagu, M.P. (A.C.G.B.I., 
Paper.) 

Final Entry Day for British International Cup. 

" Evolution of Road-making in Scotland," by 
Mr. R. Drummond, C.E. (Scottish A.C.). 

Liverpool Cycle and Motor Show (St. George's 
Hall). 

"Why Motor Cars" by " Cargill Gentry" 
(A.C.G.B.I. Paper). 

2nd Annual Exhibition of the Society of Motor 
Manufacturers and Traders at the Crystal Palace. 

Quarterly 100 Miles Trial. 

Hull Cycle and Motor Show (Assembly Rooms). 

" Some Practical Notes on Electric Storage Bat- 
teries," by G. C. AUingham (Junior Institute 
of Engineers). 

Manchester Motor Show (St. James's Hall). 

Cordingley and Co.'s Motor Car Exhibition at the 
Agricultural Hall. 



Mar. 25-30 ... *Side-Slip Trials. 

April or May .. British Gordon- Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 

May 19-20 ... Glasgow- London Non-Stop Run. 

June 1-7 ... Motor Bicycle Endurance Trial. 

August ... British International Cup for Motor Boats. 

Sept *Reliability Trials. 

Oct. -Nov. ... *Light Van Trials (about 2,000 miles). 

* Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland Events. 

Foreign Events (Trials, Races, Ac). 

(AH French road racing fixtures are subject to confirmation by 
the French authorities. ) 



1904. 
Tan. 16-23 •• 
Jan. 23-Feb. 4 
Jan. 24 
Jan. 25-30 ... 

Feb 

Feb. 3-6 ... 
Feb. 6-13 ... 
Feb. 6-21 ... 
Feb. 23-27 ... 

Mar 

Mar. 13-20 ... 
Mar. 19-27 ... 
Mar. 20-29 ••• 
Mar. 21-26 ... 
Mar. 23-27 ... 
Apl. 5-15 ... 
Apl. i6-May3i 
Apl. 17 
Apl. 18-23 ••• 

May 

May 

May 1-12 
May 11-15 ... 
May 12 
May 12-15 ••• 
May 14-15 ... 
May 16-23 ••• 
May 23-31 ... 

June 

June 7 
June 7 
June 17 

July 

July 

July 16-17 .... 
July 17 

July 18-23 ... 
July 23-25 ... 
Aug. 5-1 1 ... 

Aug. 12 

Aug. 15 

Sept 

Sept. 2 

Oct. 5 

Oct. 9 

Oct. 14-22 ... 

Nov. 20 

Dec 



Madison Square (New York) Show. 

Brussels Automobile Salon. 

Coupe Sneyden 1 kilom. on flat (A.C. Algeria). 

Ormond-Daytona Races (Florida). 

Tourist Run and Consumption Trial (L'Auto). 

Paris-Turin Tourist Run (France Automobile). 

Chicago Show. 

Turin Exhibition. 

Anti-Skid Trials at Versailles. 

Paris-Rome (La France Automobile). 

Cannes Automobile Week. 

Frankfort Exhibition. 

Nice Week (details, Oct. 31, p. 1168). 

Washington (U.S.A.) Auto Show. 

Electric Vehicle Trials (Monde Sportif). 

Monaco Motor Boat Week (details, Jan. 2, p. 25). 

Vienna Auto Show. 

Coupe Meyan (Motor Boats). 

Nice-Rome. 

French Gordon-Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 

Guadarrama Hill Climb (A.C. Spain). 

A.C. Bordelais Automobile Fortnight. 

Milan Exhibition and Tourist Trial. 

Perigueux Hill Climb (A.C. Dordogne). 

Tours Tourist Trial. 

N antes- Croisic (Motor Boats), Monde Sportif. 

Circuit National Beige. 

Aix-les-Bains Week. 

Circuit des Ardennes (A.C. Belgium). 

Namur Week. 

Spa Week. 

Gordon- Bennett Race. 

Mont-Cenis Hill Climb (A.C. Italy). 

Speed Trials (L'Auto). 

Ostende Motor Boat Races. 

Antwerp-Ostende Motor Boat Run. 

Ostende Week. 

Lucerne Motor Boat Races. 

Paris-Deauville Motor Boat Race. 

Motor Boat Race for Gaston Menier Cup. 

Ventoux Hill Climb (Avignon). 

Deauville Automobile Meeting (L'Auto). 

Chateau Thierry Hill Climb (L'Auto). 

Dourdan Kilometre Trials (Monde Sportif). 

Gaillon Hill Climb (L'Auto). 

Leipzig Cycle and Motor Show. 

100 Kiloms. Trial (A.C. Algeria). 

Paris Salon. 



NOTICE.— In 8-page Index to Volume YIII is issued gratis 
with this week's number. 



LEADING CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Diary of Forthcoming Events 30 

Passing Events 31 

The Hotchkiss ao-h.p. Petrol Car 33 

The Stanley Exhaust Box 35 

A Triumph for Heavy Oil 36 

The English Duryea Petrol Cars 38 

The Deutsch Airship 39 

The Paris Salon 40 

1,000 Miles Reliability Trials 45 

Races, Records, and Trials 48 

Club Doings 49 

Correspondence.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..52 

Doings of Public Companies <^ 2 

New Inventions . .. . .. ..52 



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31 



PASSING EVENTS. 

County Councils and Urban Councils— A Contrast. 

While many of the Urban and Rural District Councils 
throughout the country are petitioning the County 
Councils, with feverish activity, to ask the Local Govern- 
ment Board to impose the io-mile limit broadcast, it is 
satisfactory to find that the County Councils themselves, 
representing as they do a higher social stratum, and 
certainly a higher general level of intelligence, are 
in most cases disinclined to accede to the proposals, 
and are content to allow matters to take their course 
under the Act as it stands, and see, at any rate for 
some time, how things work. This is an encourag- 
ing symptom, and shows that the more responsible 
local authorities are awaking to the importance of 
the industry, and are taking a rational view of the 
situation. That this is not the case with the smaller 
bodies is evidenced by the fact that quite a number 
of them have proposed that the County Councils 
should ask for the imposition not of a io-mile but of a 
7-mile limit of speed. This is notably the case with the 
Watch Committee of Leeds, who have demanded a speed 
of 7 miles within a radius of one mile from the centre of 
the city. There is no power under the Act to impose a 
limit of 7 miles, and one would have thought that a 
body like the Watch Committee ought to have known it 
In spite of having been visited by a deputation from the 
Yorkshire Automobile Club and the Leeds and District 
Motor Cycling Club, the Leeds Watch Committee 
persist in their absurdity, or, as the sympathetic York- 
shire Daily Observer says, "the Leeds Watch Com- 
mittee remain firm." It is just possible that there may 
be some sort of conspiracy on foot to instruct all the 
local police to assert that any car proceeding beyond 
7 miles an hour in the town is driving " in a manner 
which is dangerous to the public." If this be so, local 
automobilists had better keep a sharp look-out, as tactics 
of this kind would be a distinct abuse of the law, and we 
fancy that there are provisions in our enormous code of 
statutes to prevent individuals combining to pervert the 
application of an Act in such a way. 



The Horse Abandons Passive Resistance. 

We have all along had a shrewd suspicion that the 
terror which the horse has systematically assumed at the 
approach of a motor vehicle was all humbug. He is not 
such a fool, as a general rule, as the people who drive 
him imagine. His reasons for objecting to the automo- 
bile are deep and well considered. Now the murder is 
out. It is trade jealousy, pure and simple. He has been 
afraid that, with the introduction of the self-propelled 
vehicle, his occupation would be gone. He is not edu- 
cated up to the point of realising that he might, on the 
whole, have a better time of it, if kept merely for pur- 
poses of pleasure, such as hunting or riding across coun- 
try. Hitherto the horse has adopted the policy of simply 
pretending to be frightened, and thereby frightening to 
a still greater degree his riders or drivers, but, with the 
advent of the new Act and its increased speed limit, he 
has abandoned this policy, apparently regarding it 
as inadequate, and has commenced a policy of 
active hostility. Curiously enough, two motor cyclists 
have been the first victims of this change of 
tactics on the part of the horse. Possibly motor 



cyclists are comparatively easy victims. It is not so 
easy to attack successfully the driver or occupants of a 
full-sized high-powered car. Two motor cyclists were 
riding recently through Hucknall Torkard when they 
were furiously assaulted by a horse. The horse was 
standing in the road attached to a cart, and as soon as 
the motor cyclists had passed him, he set off after 
them. The faster they went the faster the horse galloped, 
till the motor cyclists, coming to a dangerous corner, 
which they feared taking at the speed, turned into a yard, 
and then the horse got them. He dashed in, breaking 
up the cart he was dragging behind him and tearing off 
his harness on the gate-post, and thus freed, he pro- 
ceeded to deal •with his two enemies. He kicked one of 
them on the head and injured the other's arm, the motor 
of the cycle (a tandem) being put out of action in the 
contest. This is a very ominous sign. Probably, owing 
to the spread of education, this enterprising horse has 
got hold of back numbers of the daily papers, and 
absorbed some of the correspondence that appeared 
during the Juggernaut outbreak. We trust it is an 
isolated case. If it is an indication of an approaching 
campaign on the part of horses, the lot of the motorist, 
particularly the motor cyclist, will be an unhappy one. 
Perhaps an offer will be made for the purchase of this 
enterprising animal by Sir Ralph Payne-Gallwey, Colonel 
Wisden, of Worthing, or Mr. George Hosking, of Ripley, 
butcher. 



The Un'Wisdom of Mere Funniness* 
We have the deepest sympathy with the journalist, 
particularly the daily journalist, who, in the prevailing 
depressing weather has to write something light, amusing, 
and attractive for the paper whose columns he illumi- 
nates. When, however, he happens to represent a paper 
which is avowedly friendly to the automobile movement, 
we must submit that he is not benefiting that movement 
by suggesting, however amusingly, that the carrying of a 
number on a motor car along the streets of the Metro- 
polis renders all the occupants of the vehicle a butt for 
the cheap witticisms of 'bus drivers and cabbies, the 
jeers of the public generally, and a special object of 
suspicion to the police. Hitherto the number of motor 
vehicles which have performed their legal duty, got 
registered, and are carrying numbers, is comparatively 
small, so that a certain amount of attention is naturally 
attracted by a numbered car. When every car carries 
its number no attention will, of course, be attracted. 
We understand from the police that they have general 
instructions not to act in the matter for about a fortnight, 
but after that time they will proceed against all car 
owners whose vehicles do not confoim to the law in 
regard to numbering. In the meantime, to hold up 
those automobilists who have been the first to do what 
is their legal duty to derision, even if good-humoured, 
is, we think, very mistaken policy. 

Of course, some of them have rather courted comment 
by the amusing devices which they have adopted to 
provide their cars with their registered numbers in 
accordance with the Act, presumably before the finished 
number plates were ready. This zeal to conform to the 
statute is highly commendable, though it has very 
naturally on some occasions provoked good-natured 
chaff. It is very unfair to represent this as being the 
kind of thing that every automobilist with a proper and 
neat number-plate will be on all occasions called upon 
to run the gauntlet of. 



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f January 9, 1904. 



Navigable Waterways. 
The progressive character of the French Chamber is 
well illustrated by the Bill lecently introduced into that 
assembly for carrying out repairs in the navigable water- 
ways and for improving canals, rivers and ports. The 
amount voted by the Chamber was 700 million francs, 
though this was subsequently reduced by the Senate to 
300 million francs. Partially disused waterways of France 
are numerous enough, but there are a large number of 
derelict canals in this country, too, which have fallen into 
decay since the development of the railways. In fact, 
the railways have always looked upon canals as their 
great enemies, have bought them up and destroyed them 
where possible, and have otherwise by competition of 
rates and other methods endeavoured to kill them 
wherever possible. There are, therefore, a great num- 
ber of derelict canals, particularly in the South of 
England. The Basingstoke Canal is almost in that con- 
dition. The old canal connecting the Wey and the 
Arun, which starts near Guildford, is quite unnavigable, 
but it is surprising what a distance can be navigated 
even on these derelict canals with a light canoe. Some 
of them are the prettiest places in the world, and pass 
through delightful scenery. The value for pleasure pur- 
poses of the motor boat would be enormously increased 
by rendering these canals navigable The expense 
would not be great. Many of them are all right, with the 
exception of the lock gates and the need of dredging 
and cleaning. As the motor boat industry grows, per- 
haps someone will approach Parliament on the subject. 
The railway companies will not like the resurrection of 
the canals, but a modus vivendi might be reached in the 
first instance by explaining that the movement is only 
directed to facilitate the operations of pleasure boats. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

The Life of Negative Battery Plates. 
Herr Schoop, with whom our electromobile friends 
are doubtless acquainted as a pre-eminent authority and 
writer on accumulator batteries, has been collecting some 
data which, if reliable, are rather at variance with the 
general experience obtained with electromobiles in this 
country. In the case of ordinary station batteries sub- 
jected to heavy loads, such as for tramway work, he states 
that the positives are not usually capable of outlasting 
more than two sets of negatives. In automobile batteries 
he concludes that as there is not any reason to give the 
negative a much greater capacity than the positives, the 
life of positive and negative plates in such batteries is 
about equal. He attributes the shorter life of the nega- 
tive to the stronger acid used, owing to the desire to 
economise space. Herr Schoop does not give statistics 
justifying these views, and we think that his conclusion 
is arrived at mainly h priori. However thin the negatives 
are made, even for automobile purposes, they still have a 
much greater capacity than the positives, and we think 
the majority 01 electromobilists in this country will bear 
us out when we say that in practice in all electromobile 
batteries the negatives will last out two sets of positives. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 
Distinctly Unpleasant, 

We cull the following flower of thought and expres- 
sion from what purports to be a critical appreciation of 
the exhibits at the recent Paris Salon : — 

. . . they have lubricators enough to fill a store, and most of 
them are using, in addition, one with wheels going round to please 
Toddy, and big enough for a decently behaved and not too thirsty 
engine of five times the size ; gear-boxes have grown in size and 
number of wheels, and operating spindles and forks, and one has 
not enough parts inside, so, like a Dutch clock, with its guts hang- 



ing down the wall, this has a pair of entrail-looking slotted links, 
and radius-rods and connections hanging out in the dust. 

Technical descriptions of exhibitions, whether critical or 
merely "laudatory," have sometimes been accused of 
dryness, but we have not before come across an instance 
of their being made absolutely repulsive. Such phrase- 
ology in the pages of any ordinary commercial periodical 
would, we think, give occasion for remark and justifiable 
protest on the part of its readers. To introduce ultra- 
Zolaesque unpleasantness into what purports to be a 
technical description is a new departure in writing — we 
cannot say literature. On the prejudiced unfairness of 
the observations, comment is superfluous — and needless. 
Only a paper which for the time being is the organ 
of a powerful club, and is sent to members whether they 
wish to receive it or not, could venture to foist this sort 
of thing upon its readers — far less preface it with an 
editorial " puff adulatory," commending it as an example 
of what a critical technical article ought to be. 



And Hardly Creditable to the Club. 

Not only opponents of the automobile movement, 
but the very large number of automobilists who are out 
of sympathy with the policy of the Automobile Club 
and its newspaper, will be likely to smile smiles at the 
further suggestion put forward in the said " puff 
adulatory" — that the judges in the recent Reliability 
Trial are particularly qualified — in fact, the only persons 
qualified — to adequately describe the exhibits at the Paris 
Salon. We are also permitted to infer that before those 
Trials were held they were not qualified to report on such 
a subject, as we are editorially informed that "The 
experience and knowledge gained by them in the recent 
Trials qualified them above all others to judge the cars 
and accessories that were to be seen in Paris." The 
judges worked very hard at the Trials, as we all know, 
and deserved well of the automobile community, though 
many of them who did the hardest work have not been 
amongst the small number who have specially laid them- 
selves out for taking credit in the matter, but there is no 
object in- making an estimable body of gentlemen look 
distinctly foolish by ill-judged adulation of this kind. 

To consider the matter seriously, there is no doubt 
whatever of the capabilities of the judges as a body, or 
of the efficient manner in which they performed their 
duties and formulated their report. But the publi- 
cation of ill-advised articles such as the one from 
which we have quoted, and equally ill-advised editorial 
introductory puffs about them in the Club Journal \ are 
certainly calculated to undermine the confidence of 
manufacturers who have spent considerable sums of 
money and made enormous sacrifices of time and 
energy to take part in the trials, and of such others as 
rely upon the Club Journal for what they assume to be 
facts. We and others are constantly having to 
complain of the indiscretions, want of judgment, and 
occasional want of taste for which the Club Journal has 
established an unenviable reputation. In the interests 
of the Club and the industry it is more than time that 
this sort of thing were stopped. 

The present bctise is scarcely less serious than previous 
similar errors of taste and judgment, for, apart from all 
other considerations, it suggests that the Club and its 
paper are being converted into a " mutual admiration 
society," in which the main function of the journal is to 
glorify the exploits of a small clique without particularly 
caring what apple-carts may be upset in the process. 



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THE HOTCHKISS 20-H.P. PETROL CAR. 



Fig. i.— The Hotchkiss Petrol Car. 



The exhibit of the well-known ordnance firm of 
Hotchkiss and Co. in the recent Salon in Paris attracted 
a considerable amount of interest, both because the firm 
has only recently taken up the manufacture of complete 
automobiles, and because the chassis shown was such an 
excellent example of first-class workmanship and finish. 
The Hotchkiss car, one of which is shown in Fig. j, 
follows more or less on the usual live-axle lines of con- 
struction. Nickel steel is very largely used in its 
construction, this alloy being employed for the frame, 
the shafts, the gear-wheels, and the axles. The driving 
mechanism is fixed at a somewhat lower level relatively 
to the frame than is usual, and the engine and the gear- 
box are both attached direct 
to the side members of the 
frame. Ball bearings are 
used throughout, not only 
for the gear-box, the live- 
axle, and the wheels, but 
also for the crank-shaft of 
the engine itself — a some- 
what novel departure in an 
engine of this size, and one 
which will be watched at- 
tentively by engineers. 

Other unusual features 
of the Hotchkiss chassis, 
and two by which these 
vehicles can be easily re- 
cognised at a glance, are 
well shown in Fig. 2, and 
in our other illustrations. 
The front wheels are so 
fitted to the tubular axle 
that the pivots about 
which they turn are placed 
right inside the hubs, so 
that the wheels turn about 
their point of contact 
with the road. The con- 



Fig. 2. — View showing the special forms of Steering Head and o» 
Honeycomb Radiator employed on the Hotchkiss Car. 



struction adopted gives considerable strength and 
provides large flat guide surfaces above and beneath the 
axle end close up to the wheel. The other characteristic 
to which we refer is the special shape and form of the 
honeycomb radiator which is used, this being practically 
cylindrical, and having triangular shaped holes for the 
air to pass through. 

The main frame has tapering side members and sub- 
stantial cross members, the arrangement of which is seen in 
the plan, Fig. 3, and in the views of portions of the chassis 
shown in Figs. 4, 5, and 6. The frame is narrower in 
front of the dash than behind it, and is carried by a 
transverse spring at the rear, in addition to the four 

semi-elliptic side springs ; 
this transverse spring is 
fixed centrally to the 
frame, and its downward 
curving ends are shackled 
to the rear ends of the 
side springs, which are 
outside instead of beneath 
the frame. The live-rear- 
axle is tied to the frame 
by radius rods passing 
from it to each side of the 
frame. 

The engine is fixed to 
the frame by four feet 
projecting upwards from 
the lower portion of the 
crank-chamber, and the 
crank-shaft is mounted with 
no less than five ball bear- 
ings in this casting; a 
bearing is fitted between 
each of the crank-pins. 
The engine has its four 
cylinders cast in pairs, 
with their mechanical inlet 
valves arranged on the 



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[January 9, 1904. 



Fig. 3. — Plan of the Hotchkiss Chassis, showing General Arrangement of the Mechanism. 



opposite side to the exhaust valves. Low-tension igni- 
ters constitute the inspection plugs above the inlet valves, 
and the gear-driven magneto is fixed to the crank 
chamber on the left. A circulating pump, of the gear- 
wheel type, is placed in a corresponding position on the 
other side, and is also driven through spur gearing ; it 
circulates the water direct through the jackets and the 
radiator, and the radiator is cooled by a belt-driven fan 
having adjustable blades. An automatic carburettor is 
employed, in which the size of the spray jet is varied 
simultaneously with variations of the volume of the 
combustible charge drawn into the cylinders. 

A clutch of much the usual cone-type is employed, 
and the pedal by which it is operated is fitted so as to 
be pushed forward instead of downward by the driver's 
foot. The power is transmitted from it to the change- 
speed-gear by a comparatively long and flexibly-jointed 



shaft. The gear itself provides for four forward speeds 
and a " reverse," with a direct through-drive on the top 
speed. It is of the Mercedes pattern, in which two 
separate sliding-sleeves are arranged in the gear-box for 
introducing the different gears. The lay-shaft lies to 
the right of the through shaft, and both of them have 
three ball-bearings to support them ; as already said, the 
gear-wheels are made of nickel steel. A metal-to-metal 
brake is fitted to the longitudinal-shaft close behind the 
gear-box, and the propeller-shaft, which transmits the 
power to the live-axle, has universal joints of the usual 
kind. 

The stationary casing surrounding the differential gear 
on the live-axle is divided with a horizontal joint, instead 
of a vertical joint as is more usual ; the upper portion 
can therefore be taken off for examining the gear. The 
casing is fitted with ball bearings, both in front and 



Fig. 4.— A View from Above and Behind, showing a Portion of the Hotchkiss Chassis. The Covers to the Gear-Box and the 

Casing around the Differential Gear have been Removed. 



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Fig. 5. — Showing the Rear Portion from the Left. The Covers 
have been Removed, as in Fig. 4. 



Fig. 6. — Showing the Engine in Place in Front, from the Left. 
Other Views, showing Portions of the Hotchkiss Chassis. 



behind the small bevel wheels driving the differential, 
and both bevels are of very substantial construction. 

The Kotchkiss is, in other respects, similar to the 
majority of vehicles of the live-axle type now on the 
market, and has the usual side levers, foot pedals, 
and small controlling levers above the steering wheel. 



The rear brakes are of the internal expanding pattern, 
and the car has a long wheel base. The Hotchkiss 
Company, as already reported in our columns, are 
manufacturing and entering three racing vehicles for the 
French eliminating trials in connection with this year's 
Gordon-Bennett Race. 



THE "STANLEY" EXHAUST BOX. 




The exhaust box shown in the accompanying illustration 
is specially designed for use on petrol cars, and is con- 
structed in a somewhat novel manner. The underlying 
principle upon which it is based is that of breaking up 
the exhaust gases, and retarding them, by allowing them 
to pass through tubes across which a large number of 
pins are fixed diametrically, so as to form a kind of Archi- 
medean screw inside it. In the box shown, two of these 
tubes, A and B, are fitted in a large expansion chamber, 
the gases from the engine passing into the box through 
the tube, A, and ultimately finding their way out to 
atmosphere through the tube, B. Both tubes are 
studded with diagonal pins, A 2 and B 2 respectively, 
which form two spiral passages through which the 



gases have to pass. The gases emerge from the tube, 
A, into the expansion chamber through the holes, A 1 , at 
the extreme end, and are subsequently allowed to flow 
out through the perforated cap, B 1 , after they have found 
their way through the entire length of the tube, B. 

We have had an opportunity of judging its effective- 
ness under working conditions on a car, and the box 
thus constructed appears to be extremely effective. It is 
the invention of Mr. Stanley \V. Andrews, and is being 
manufactured, under license from him, by the Motor 
Traction Company, who are making it in various sizes, 
both to suit all types of cars and for stationary engines. 
On the authority of Messrs. Panhard and Levassor, who 
have tested one of these silencers, we have it that 
the back pressure is so slight as to be difficult to 
measure. 



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\ lAXUAKY 9, I9C4. 



A TRIUMPH FOR HEAVY OIL. 



Ever since the trials of heavy vehicles of the traction 
engine type two years ago at Aldershot, the military 
authorities have been looking for a tractor that would 
do what a steam tractor could accomplish without its 
demands on fuel, and without requiring to be constantly 
replenished with water. Accordingly, early last year, 
the Secretary for War offered three prizes of ;£ 1,000, 
^750, and ^500 for the three best tractors fulfilling 
certain conditions. The conditions were very stringent. 
In the first place the total weight of the tractor ready 
for the road, with all its fuel and water on board, was 
not to exceed 13 tons, and of course it must be quite 
independent of any extraneous aid. It should be capable 
of hauling a load of 25 tons at an average speed of 



heavy oil engines have acquired such world-wide 
celebrity. 

Messrs. Hornsby and Sons had a single-cylinder heavy 
oil traction engine on the road many years ago, and we 
have referred to it on one or two occasions in the columns 
of the Journal, but their present great success will probably 
wipe out all memory of that experiment ; for the success- 
ful tractor, of which we are able to provide our readers 
with two illustrations, is a remarkable machine from 
every point of view. In the first place, it not only 
obtained the first prize of ^1,000 — though it was the 
only competitor, and though it would have been open to 
the War Office to bestow any smaller amount — but it 
obtained a bonus of ;£i8o as well. The significance of 



The Hornsby Heavy Oil Military Tractor. 



three miles an hour for 40 miles without taking in 
fuel or water. In this 40 miles it should go up gradients 
of 1 in 18, load and all, and should use oil fuel of not 
less than 75 flash point. The tractor should also be 
capable of doing spurts of 8 miles an hour on the flat, 
with half its normal load, viz., x 2^ tons, and should be 
equal to climbing hills of 1 in 6 with this reduced load, 
and going through 2 feet of water. Winding gear was 
also requisite, and the tractor was to carry 75 yards of 
flexible steel rope capable of withstanding a strain of 1 5 
tons. Further conditions were added with regard to 
steam engines, but as no steam tractors turned up these 
are of academic interest only. The competition was 
open to all comers. Even Americans and Germans 
would have been admitted, and some of them talked big 
of the great things they were going to do. But when 
the day of the trials arrived in November only one com- 
petitor rumbled up to the starting post, and that was the 
heavy oil tractor of the well-known firm of Messrs. 
Hornsby and Sons, of Grantham, whose stationary 



this bonus ought to be widely understood. Nobody 
anticipated that a tractor would be able to run more 
than 40 miles with full load without taking in water or 
fuel. In case, however, any competitor should succeed 
in doing so, it was arranged that a bonus should be paid 
of ;£io per mile accomplished in this way above the 
40 miles. As the Hornsby tractor accomplished 58 
miles without taking in fuel or water, it received a bonus 
of ;£i8o. The trials took place at Aldershot over 
practically the same ground as the heavy vehicle trials of 
two years ago, and included the sandy waste of the Long 
Valley. After the trials were concluded the tractor was 
opened and examined in detail, and no traces of wear 
were observable. This is the more significant as the 
tractor before starting for Aldershot had been practised 
about the Lincolnshire wolds for a distance of 200 miles, 
and ran to Aldershot by road on its own power, a dis- 
tance of 150 miles, while the ground covered during the 
trials was 500 miles. 

Most people are familiar with the general arrange- 



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37 



ments of the Hornsby-Akroyd engin?, so widely used 
for electric lighting and other power purposes, so that 
the ingenuity displayed in adapting this type of engine 
to the propulsion of a powerful tractor cannot fail to 
excite general interest. The engine is mounted on 
what we may call an ordinary traction engine frame, 
that is a frame with ordinary traction engine rear driving 
wheels of 7 feet diameter by 18 inches wide, the front 
wheels being 42 inches diameter by 8 inches wide. 

The engine itself consists of two Hornsby-Akroyd 
cylinders mounted at an angle to one another on the 
same vertical plane, and driving by connecting rods on 
to a common crank, the crank-shaft being provided with 
a flywheel of the steel disc pattern, 4 feet 3 inches 
in diameter, and with a rim of 4 inches square cross 
section, the normal speed of the engine is 350 revolutions 
per minute. The motion is transmitted to the driving; 
wheels through a change-speed-gear of the sliding spur- 



more correctly speaking, gasified, in the vaporiser, and 
on the compression stroke the air in the cylinder is 
forced through the water-jacketed neck into the gas 
filling the hot vaporiser, mixes with it, and causes an 
explosion. The governor, which is of the ordinary 
centrifugal type, acts on a modified hit-and-miss principle, 
that is to say, when the normal speed to which it is set 
is exceeded, it opens a by-pass valve on the pum^. 
delivery and allows the oil to return to the reservoir 
instead of being squirted into the vaporiser. It can be 
cut out by a lever on the foot-plate to run the engine at 
starting or for spurts. 

The operation of the engine pre-supposes that the 
vaporising chambers are hot. Therefore foi starting 
they have to be heated by external means, these 
external means consisting of a lamp under each 
vaporiser on the Bunsen principle in which the oil is 
warmed by passing through a coiled tube, and forced 



The Hornsby Heavy Oil Military Tractor. 



wheel type which provides for four speeds forward and a 
reverse, the forward speeds being i£, 3, 5, and 8 miles 
per hour. 

The lower of the two engine cylinders is horizontal, 
and the upper is inclined downwards at a moderate 
angle. They are of the well-known Hornsby type, 
having a vaporiser, which also serves as ignition device, 
forming a continuation of each cylinder and connected 
therewith through an aperture in the back end by a 
water-jacketed neck. The dimensions of the working 
cylinders are 13 ins. diameter, and 18 ins. stroke. Each 
working cylinder is provided with an air inlet-valve and 
exhaust-valve, both mechanically actuated from cams on 
a half speed shaft driven by skew gearing from the crank- 
shaft. The oil, of which 100 gallons is carried in a 
reservoir, is pumped up by a pump and delivered in a 
tine jet into each vaporiser ignition-chamber during the 
intake strokes of the engine when air is being drawn 
into the working cylinders. The oil is vaporised, or 



draught is provided at the commencement. When the 
vaporisers have been sufficiently heated by the lamps, 
the engine is started by the admission of compressed air 
or gas to the lower cylinder, the engine having been pre- 
viously brought into a position in which the piston of 
that cylinder is just over the dead centre, prior to its 
working stroke. The compressed gas is stored in a 
welded steel receiver on the right-hand side of the engine, 
and is admitted by opening a valve by a lever on the 
foot-plate. The passage between the welded steel 
receiver and the engine cylinder is also provided with a 
check valve, so that if the lever is depressed too long 
the explosion is prevented from striking back into the 
receiver. After the engine is started the lamps may be 
extinguished, as the explosions suffice to keep the 
vaporisers hot. The supply of explosive mixture in the 
steel cylinder for starting the engine is kept up by a 
connection between the engine cylinder and the steel 
receiver, through a valve loaded to a certain pressure, so 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 9, 1904. 



that when that pressure is not attained in the receiver a 
portion of the gases from the cylinder passes through 
the valve into it. A small hand-charging pump with 
flywheel is provided to enable the pressure in the receiver 
to be kept up if the engine fails to maintain it. 

The stroke of the pump which delivers the oil to the 
vaporiser can be varied by a hand-lever and quadrant 
mounted on the foot-plate, so as to correspond with the 
load on the engine. 

The exhaust from both cylinders passes to an exhaust- 
box situated in the rear of the chimney visible in the 
illustration, and from this exhaust-box it proceeds up a 
pipe to the top of a vertical cylinder arranged inside that 
chimney, down which it has to pass, and up again between 
the cylinder and the chimney walls before escaping to 
the atmosphere. The noise occasioned by the air inlet- 
valves is muffled by surrounding the tubes leading to 
them with a box perforated at one end. 

The water-cooling arrangements are very effective, the 
water after leaving the cylinders passing to a brass-tube 
Clarkson radiator, surrounded with the usual spiral wire, 
the ends of the tubes being connected to an aluminium 
header, and a vertical expansion tube being added to 
allow for the expansion of the water when it gets hot. 
Air is drawn through the Clarkson radiator by a sirocco 
fan mounted underneath the foot-plate, and driven from 
a cross-shaft actuated by bevel-gearing from the crank- 
shaft. The vertical expansion pipe is fitted with a 
condensing coil to reduce the evaporation to a minimum, 
and the arrangements are so effective that in running 30 
miles only a gallon of water is consumed. The cooler 



and fan, being arranged underneath the vehicle, are 
protected by flanged steel plates of such strength that 
should the tractor sink in sandy soil they are sufficient 
to take the weight of the whole vehicle and prevent 
injury to these structures. 

The lubrication is carefully thought out, and separate 
tubes are taken from the oil reservoir, which is mounted 
high up in front of the driver, to every bearing and im- 
portant point. How effective the lubrication is was 
evidenced by the splendid condition of the bearings and 
other parts when examined after the conclusion of the trial. 

The fuel ordinarily used by the tractor is refined 
Russoline, which usually has a specific gravity of about 
•825. But it is said that similar American, Scotch, and 
Burma oil, and Texas liquid fuel can be employed by 
altering the adjustable compression plates, or varying 
the compression by an adjustment provided at the rear 
end of the connecting rods. Even Astatki, it is said, can 
be employed, though on this point we are a little sceptical. 
In any case the output of the engine with these crude 
fuels is diminished, and we are informed that the 
vaporisers require cleaning out every twelve hours when 
crude fuel is employed. The average consumption of 
oil is i # 2 lbs. per mile with maximum load. 

Altogether the Hornsby Company are to be con- 
gratulated not only on winning the War Office first prize 
with bonus, but on having so successfully applied their 
special type of heavy oil motor to heavy traction pur- 
poses. No doubt they will reap the reward of their 
patience and skill in a large and lucrative demand for 
tractors of this type. 



THE ENGLISH DURYEA PETROL CARS. 



We have already given (November 28th) a brief general 
description of the new British Duryea model, which is 
being built in Coventry, and some parts of it, including 
the engine, by Messrs. Willans and Robinson, of Rugby ; 
a chassis was on view at the last National Cycle and. 
Motor Show. The design is unusual — not to say unique — 
in many radical respects, and we therefore give a plan and 
side elevation which show the form of construction 
adopted. The ash-filled channel steel frame, A, is mounted 
above the live-rear-axle on somewhat curiously shaped 
side-springs, the rear ends of which are carried by the 
projecting horns, A 1 . The two transverse members, A 2 
and A 3 , are fixed to the side members of the frame, and 
are so shaped that they pass down and beneath the engine, 
supporting the crank-chamber, C 1 , and the cylinders, 
C\ respectively. All four corners of the frame, A, are 
stiffened with angle plates, and the front of the frame is 
attached to the front axle by the specially shaped leaf 
springs, A 4 , which are bolted to the frame, and hinged to 
the axle on its under side. The front axle is also tied 
to the frame by the diagonal rods, A 5 , which are rigid 
with each end of the axle, and are attached by universal 
joints to the cross-member, A 2 . The upper framework, 
A\ built of angle steel, is fixed above the engine ; it 
serves to carry the hand levers, D 1 and D 2 , the steering 
tiller, B, and the driver's seat. The front wheels are 
30 ins. in diameter and the rear wheels 36 ins. 

The steering piller, B. is also held at its lower end by 
the bearing formed for it in the cross-member, A 2 . It 
has a hinged tiller at its upper end, and is rigid with a 
pair of lever arms, B 1 , at its lower end. The arms, B 1 , 
are connected by diagonal and crossing rods, B 2 , with 
the steering h^ads of both wheels, and these steering heads 



are also tied together by the usual transverse rod, B 3 , 
just behind the axle. By this arrangement the tiller acts 
with equal directness on each of the front wheels and 
the rods, B 2 , are only called upon to act in tension. 
The steering heads themselves are mounted at an angle 
so that the axis of the pins, about which the stub axles 
are turned, intersects the contact point of the tyre with 
the rod ; inequalities of road surface, or small obstacles, 
have, therefore, but little tendency to deflect the direction 
of travel. The tiller can be turned over about its hinge, 
so that the car can be steered by either occupant. 

The three cylinders, C, are cast in one piece, and are 
mounted at a slight angle from the horizontal, so that the 
oil in them tends to run back into the crank-chamber. 
The cylinders have a bore of 4^ ins., and the stroke of 
the pistons is 4i ins. The engine runs at a normal speed 
of 600 revs, per min., and develops about 12 h.p. The 
inlet and exhaust valves are fitted at right angles in the 
cylinder ends, so that either of them can be removed 
without disturbing the induction — or the exhaust — pipes. 
The valves are held on their seats by a special form of 
grasshopper spring, instead of by helical springs, and 
are operated through horizontal push-rods above the 
cylinders, and pivoted levers behind them, from a cam- 
shaft enclosed in the top of the crank chamber. The 
cranks are set at an angle of 120 degrees to one another, 
and the shaft is mounted on a lower level than the axis 
•of the cylinders, as in some stationary gas engines. The 
carburettor, C-\ is of the float-feed type, and has an 
adjustable needle-valve arranged above the jet to control 
the size of the orifice ; a throttle valve is fitted, and 
the main air supply is also variable. The engine is not 
governed automatically. The induction pipe passes 



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Fig. i.— Plan. | Fig. 2. 

The 12-h.p. British-built Duryea Petrol Chassis. 



-Side Elevation. 



across above the cylinders, and the exhaust pipe, com- 
municating with the exhaust box, C 4 , is beneath them. 
The cylinders are water-jacketed, and the circulating 
pump, which is fixed to the main frame on the right, is 
gear-driven. High-tension ignition plugs are fitted 
vertically into the cylinders, and these are used in con- 
nection with a Dawson high-tension magneto apparatus. 
The power of the engine is controlled by twisting the 
handle on the tiller, and the time of ignition is auto- 
matically controlled by a governor on the magneto. 

The flywheel, C 3 , is fixed just outside the crank- 
chamber on the left, and the change-speed- gear, D, which 
is of the epicyclic type, and has a main clutch combined 
with it, is fitted close up to the flywheel, while the 
sprocket, from which the power is taken by the chain, E, 
to the live-axle, is just outside it. The gearing gives a 
low speed and a reverse, but, for the top-speed, revolves 
as one solid piece with the crank-shaft ; the left-hand end 
of the crank-shaft receives the starting handle. Only one 
set of planets are used in the gear. The high-speed 
clutch, which has a very large friction surface, is of the 
adjustable toggle type, with expanding members. The 



hill-climbing gear gives a speed reduction in the ratio of 
about 3 to 1, and the reverse gear a reduction of 2 to 1. 
The live-axle is constructed with one shaft which runs 
right through from hub to hub, and is fixed to the off- 
side driving-wheel. The near-side wheel is attached to 
a sleeve which runs upon this shaft, the differential gear 
being introduced between the sleeve and the shaft. The 
differential has three planet bevel-wheels, and the large 
chain wheel, which is fixed to its shell, is formed with a 
brake-drum, upon which the band, D 4 , can be caused to 
press by the foot pedal, D*. Other brake-drums are also 
secured to each of the concentric bevel-wheels of the 
differential. The bands, D 3 , which act upon these 
drums, are connected together through a simple com- 
pensating device, and are operated by hand. The 
change-speed-gear and the compensated brakes are 
operated by the two levers, D 1 and D 2 , placed in the 
centre of the seat ; the lever, D l , introduces the reverse, 
if moved in one direction, and the brakes, if moved in 
the other ; the lever, D a , brings the high or the low, 
forward, speed into play, according to the direction in 
which it is moved. Both levers are normally vertical. 



THE DEUTSCH AIRSHIP. 



As most of our readers interested in aeronautics are 
aware, M. Henri Deutsch, the originator of the prize 
won by M. Santos Dumont, has been building a large 
airship of the navigable balloon type for some consider- 
able time past. The airship is now so far advanced that 
it has been taken out of its shed, fully inflated, allowed 
to rise a short distance in the air, and its motor and 
propeller have been tested. On the 31st ult. it was 
inspected by the Prince of Monaco, who expressed 
himself greatly interested and pleased with its design. 

The Deutsch airship, which has been designed by M. 
Tatin, is of what we may call the Santos Dumont type. 
The gas vessel, which has a capacity of 2,000 cubic 
meters, was constructed by M Mallet. The gas vessel 
is equally pointed at both ends, exactly like some cigars ; 
its length is 58 metres and diameter 8*2 metres. It con- 
sists of a double envelope, of which the interior envelope 
is of French silk designed to resist the pressure ; and 
this is enclosed by an envelope of fine varnished 
Japanese silk impermeable to the gas. The French 
silk is capable of withstanding a strain of 800 to 960 
kilogs. per square metre. The weight of the 
Japanese silk envelope is 135 grammes per square 
metre, and that of the French silk 215 grammes per 
square metre, the total weight of the material of 



the gas vessel being 350 kilogs. As in the Santos 
Dumont balloons, the tautness of the gas vessel is ensured 
by the employment of a ballonette, which is of rather 
small proportions, being a complete sphere when fully 
inflated of the same diameter as the gas vessel itself. It 
is situated a little in front of the centre of the latter. 

The hull of the airship, which is 30*4 metres in 
length and weighs 200 kilogs. is also of the Santos 
Dumont type ; the members of the frame are of 
wood, and the struts and ties cross each other so that 
the whole may be said to form a double lattice-girder of 
wood. The hull is suspended from eye-bolts in flaps, 
forming part of the material of the envelope by steel 
wires 2 mm. thick, and hangs 7 metres below it. At the 
rear of the hull, near the propeller, lateral projections, or 
antennas, are attached to the gas vessel by bifurcated 
wires, counteracting the torsional effect of the propeller. 

The motive power is provided by a petrol motor, with 
four cylinders developing 63-h.p., and weighing 450 
kilogs., which revolves a propeller-shaft at 930 revolutions 
per minute. The propeller-shaft drives the two-bladed 
propeller through reduction-gearing, and the propeller 
has a diameter of 7 metres with a pitch of 6 metres. It 
is calculated that the Deutsch airship will be able to 
take up three passengers. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 9, 1904. 



THE 1903 PARIS SALON. 



PARIS SALON. — The Louet Populaire Chassis, in which the special change*speed-gear is placed transversely, 
and the power transmitted by a propeller-shaft from it to the live axle. 



Mons. E. Louet, whose special form of change-speed-gear was 
described by us in connection with the 1902 Paris Salon, had 
two differently constructed chassis on view on his stand and in both 
of which his special form of change-gear is employed. One of these 
was fitted with a single-cylinder engine and the other with an 
18-h.p. 3-cylinder engine; in the former, a very low underframe 
supports the engine and the gear, and the latter lies transversely 
across the frame, with the main-clutch between it and the engine. 
The power is transmitted from the upper shaft of the gear- 
box through a propeller-shaft having universal joints to a live axle. 
The larger chassis has its change-speed gear placed longitudinally 
on the right side, and the power is transmitted from a differential 



countershaft by side-chains. The steering gear on the car is 
unusually large and has the appearance of being unnecessarily 
so. In t>oth engines— as also in a 6-cylinder engine on the 
stall — double-pole ignition plugs are fitted into the heads of each 
cylinder in addition to single-pole plugs lying above the mechanicaL 
inlet -valves. These two plugs are connected in series with one 
another, the one acting as a spark-gap for the other. The large 
engine and one of the single-cylinder type are shown in the 
accompanying illustrations, where it will be noticed that all the 
valves are arranged on the same side of the cylinders, and that 
a double carburettor is employed on the 6-cylinder model ; 
an illustration of the single-cylinder chassis is also given. The 



PARIS SALON. — A 6-cylind*r> and a slnjb cylinder Louet Engine, in which the mechanical inlet and exhaust- 
valves lie alongside one another, and doublz^pole ignition plugs are fitted into the cylinder heads, in addition to 

the single-pole plugs above the inlet-valves. 



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PARIS SALON.— Smaller type of Fouillaron Chassis, in which the power is transmitted by a belt running over 
expanding pulleys from the crank-shaft to a propeller-shaft passing to the rear axle. 



special feature of the change-speed-gear is lhat various alternative 
trains of spur-wheels, for giving the different speeds forward and the 
" reverse, ' are mounted in a cage which can be moved along inside 
the gear-box, so that either train of wheels can be brought between 
a spur-wheel on the driving shaft, and another on the driven shaft. 
A peculiar kind of brake is employed on the rear-hubs, the two ends 
of the brake band being simultaneously and equally tightened when 
the brake is applied. For this purpose the two ends are connected 
together by an endless cable passing around pulleys on the frame, 
one of the pulleys being free to slide, and being caused to do so by 
the driver. 



Amongst other unusual types of vehicles, those fitted with the 
Fouillaron expanding pulley gear were again in evidence— a system 
which we notice 1 in our report of the 1902 Show. The power is 
transmitted by a belt, composed of V-shaped blocks strung together, 
from one expanding pulley to another, the pulleys being simultane- 
ously and inversely operated. In the Populaire type, the one pulley 
is arranged on the continuation of the crank-shaft, and the other is 
fitted to a short shaft on the right, which is connected with the live- 
rear-axle by a universally-jointed propeller-shaft ; a jointed distance 
rod connects the axle with the frame. In the larger chassis the 
btlt runs longitudinally, as seen in our other illustration, the driving 



PARIS SALON.— Fouillaron Chassis. In this car the usual change-speed-gear is replaced by expanding pulUys, 

between which the power is transmitted by a special belt. 



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[January 9, iv<-4- 



PARIS SALON. — Front portion of the 24-h.p. Ader Chassis, the engine of which has its four cylinders 

mounted vertically. 



pulley being connected with the clutch through bevel gearing, and 
the second pulley driving a differential on the live-axle through spur- 
gearing. Pressed' steel frames are used on both vehicles, and the 
construction, except in the radical respects mentioned, follows more 
or less on usual lines. 

• Messrs. Cohendet et Cle. employ a peculiar kind of 
change-speed-gear, which is fitted into a continuation of the crank- 
chamber of the engine. The driven member. of the gear consists 
of an internally- toothed wheel fixed to a shaft mounted in an 
eccentric bearing ; this shaft is connected with a live-rear-axle by a 
universally-jointed propeller-shaft. The driving members of the 
gear consist of spur-wheels placed inside the driven member in such 
a way that it can be brought into mesh with either of them when 
its eccentric bearing block is partially rotated. The internal wheels 
are driven by the engine, and revolve at all times when the engine is 
running ; three forward speeds 
and a reverse are provided. 
The makers showed their inven- 
tion applied to a 4-cylinder, a 
2-cylinder, and a single-cylinder 
engine, as also a chassis of the 
smallest type. 

The Ader Company haw 
this year introduced 2-cylinder 
and 4-cylinder models (of each 
of which they showed a chasMs) 
having vertical cylinders, 
although they still supply cars 
fitted with their special 
"balanced" engine, having 
inclined cylinders. In the in- 
clined types they have now 
introduced mechanically-oper- 
ated inlet-valves, as seen in the 
accompanying illustration. The 
vertical engines, which are of 
12 and 24-h.p. respectively, 
have a bore and stroke of 100 
and no mm. Each cylinder is 
a separate casting in which lhe 
mechanically - operated inlet- 
valves lie on the same side as 
the exhaust-valves. High ten- 
sion ignition plugs are fitted 
into the inspection covers abo\ e 
the inlets and the current for 
them is supplied by a Basse 
Michel magneto. The Crouan 
automatic carburettor is em- 
ployed, this having been adopted 



PARIS SALON.— A ^cylinder V type Ader Engine, showing 
the arrangement of the mechanically-operated inlet-valves 
alongside the exhaust-valves. 



instead of the well-known wick type previously used. The 24-h.p. 
chassis has a pressed steel frame and the 12-h.p. model a tubular 
frame; flexible couplings are introduced between the cone-clutch 
and the gear-box, and a three-point suspension is adopted for the 
latter. A direct-through-drive is obtained to the differential 
countershaft, the ends of the countershaft are provided with ring 
lubricators, and side-chains are used for driving the rear wheels. 

The Minerva stand was rendered particularly attractive by the 
special finish of the chassis \ shown, particularly the cylinder cast- 
ings of the engines. They had a 3-cylinder 12-h.p. chassis, a 
single-cylinder 7-h.p. chassis, and a 4-cylinder engine. The 
armoured-wood main-frames have under-frames for carrying the 
engine and the front end of the gear-box, the rear end of the gear- 
box being supported at a central point only. The cars are of the 
side-chain type, and have tubular axles, outside rear springs and 

internal cone-clutches. The lay 
shaft in the gear-box lies to 
the right of the direct-through- 
shaft, and there are three 
forward speeds and a reverse. 
Each cylinder is a separate 
casting having mechanical inlet- 
valves on the opposite sides to 
the exhaust valves. A high- 
tension system of ignition is 
employed, and the carburettor 
is rendered "automatic" by 
the interaction of two throttle- 
valves, the one in the induction 
pipe and the other in the main 
air supply leading to it. A 
ratchet and pawl device is fitted 
to the countershaft instead of a 
sprag. 

The Vinot and Deguin 
gand 30- h. p. Chassis has 
an armoured wood frame and an 
angle under- frame for the engine 
and the gear ; the side members 
of the frame are stayed on the 
underside. The four cylinders 
are cast in pairs. The mechani- 
cal inlet- valves lie on the one 
side, the exhaust valves on the 
other, and high-tension ignition 
plugs are fitted into all the valve 
chambers ; the one set of plugs 
are operated by the usual 
electric system from a battery, 
and the other set is supplied 



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43 



with current from a high-tension magneto. Means are provided 
for lifting the exhaust- valves off their seats, for reducing the com- 
pression at starting. An ordinary Longuemare carburettor was fitted 
to the chassis we examined, but one of the automatic type is to be 
used on these cars. The change-speed-gear gives four speeds and a 
reverse, with a direct drive to the countershaft on the top speed. 
The sliding gear-wheels are arranged with two independently 
sliding sleeves, either of which can be made to engage with the 
change-speed-lever ; the lever is for this purpose fitted with a small 
catch-lever at the top, which can be drawn up against it by the 
hand, and has the effect of connecting one or other of the sleeves 
with the lever according to its position. The gear-box is rigidly 
fixed to the main frame, and there are m flexible couplings in the 
countershaft. There is a metal-to-metal foot-brake on the counter- 
shaft, and very large internal expanding brakes are fitted to the 
hubs of the rear wheels. The company also make io-h.p. and 
14-h.p. 4-cylinder models of similar general construction. 

The general constr action of the 35-h.p Tony Huber chassis 
is shown in the accompanying illustrations, where it will be 
noticed that this vehicle has a side-chain type of transmission, and 
that the manufacturers have adhered to their engine construction, in 
which copper jackets and steel cylinders are employed. 



immediately behind it. No accumulators are used. The 
electric motor is fixed to the back axle, which is of the 
live type, and drives the differential through spur-gearing. 
Several Milde cars were also on view, and in these a battery of 
accumulators is installed. Consijderable attention has been given 
to the construction of commercial vehicles on this principle by the 
makers, who have adopted a special, form of suspension to allow 
solid tyres to be us-d satisfactorily. The Compagnie de 
V Industrie Electrique et Mecaniquealso exhibited combined 
petrol-electric cars. 

Nothing very novel in the way of electric vehiclts, pure and 
simple, was to be seen, though all the well-known Continential 
makers were represented, and the Electro mobile Company 
were conspicuous amongst' them. The general tendency appears to 
be in the direction of adopting a single motor instead of two, and 
of arranging this in conjunction with a live-rear-axle. 

It would be impossible to even mention the numerous exhibits of 
those firms manufacturing petrol engines alone, but the stall of the 
Aster Company as also of the Compagnie Internationale 
d'Electricite was very prominent in the body of the hall. The 
former Company not only exhibited the latest types of their well- 
known engines, but we also noticed a neat little reversing gear for 



PARIS SALON. — Two views of the 25~h.p. Tony Huber Chassis. Showing the engine, with its copper-jacketed 
steel cylinders, and the change'Speed-gear, with its differential countershaft. 



Although comparatively few motor bicycles were on view, yet we 
noticed one or two models of somewhat unusual design. One of 
these— the Auto Roue Roux— is constructed on the principle of 
the "ring-rail," the motor being mounted inside a spokeless 
wheel, and held in place beneath by a driving pulley, and at each 
side by guide pulleys with springs. In the " ilotO- Cardan " the 
engine is fixed well forward beneath the frame, with its crank-shaft 
lying longitudinally, and the power is transmitted from it by a 
propeller-shaft to bevel-gearing driving the rear wheel. The pro- 
peller-shaft slopes slightly outward to miss the tyre of the wheel, 
and consequently the teeth of the bevel-gears are cut at an unusual 
angle. In some of these machines a two-speed gear is introduced 
between the motor and the cardan- shaft. The Dtitemple bicycle 
motor has a single cylinder, but has two connecting rods, which 
are attached to two parallel crank-shafts. Universally-jointed 
shafts pass rearwardly from each of the crank-shafts (which revolve 
in opposite directions) and carry small friction wheels which can 
be brought into contact with the tyre of the rear wheel, lying 
between them. 

Several combined petrol-electric vehicles were again shown by 
various firms. The Krleger model has a 4-cylinder engine fitted 
with mechanical inlet- valves, coupled direct to a large dynamo 
placed beneath the front seat. The power is transmitted electrically 
to a pair of motors, which drive the rear wheels through gearing, 
and a small battery of 15 cells is employed for assisting in the 
excitation of the field magnets of the dynamo, and of the motors, 
all of which are wound in a special manner, with series, with 
shunt, and with separate exciting windings. The Electrogenia 
chassis is shown in the accompanying illustrations. The 4-cylinder 
16-h.p. Aster engine is fixed low down in front, and the dynamo 



small launches, which they have put upon the market. The " ahead " 
and "astern " clutches are of the internal cone type, and are com- 
pletely enclosed in the casing. The hand-lever is normally held in 
its neutral position by a central notch in a foot pedal forming the 
quadrant for it, and can only be moved in the one direction or in the 
other, when the pedal is depressed; when travelling ahead, a direct- 
through-drive is obtained and the gearing is only introduced for 
astern. The engines of the Compagnie Internationale d'Electricit6 
are made in various sizes,* having one, two, three, or four cylinders. 
The 24-30-h.p. motor has its four cylinders cast separately, 
mechanical inlet-valves opposite the exhaust, and high-tension 
ignition. The crank-shafts are made of nickel steel, and the 
engines appeared to be well and strongly made. 
• The only steam cars for private use were the Gardner- Serpoi- 
let and the Chaboche, both of which firms had interesting stalls, 
that of the former in particular attracting considerable attention 
owing to the presence of the fifih vehicle which this firm has built to 
the order of the Shah of Persia ; this is a 15-h.p. vehicle weighing 
900 kilogs., and capable of running 200 miles without refilling 
the tanks ; it has a pressed steel frame, and seating capacity for four. 
The latest standard model, which is being introduced for 1904, 
differs materially in radical respects from previous types. It is 
normally of 9-h.p., and weighs 640 kilogs. The combined oil and 
water pumps have been dispensed with, the fuel being fed under 
pressure from the tank direct to the burner. The engine itself is 
much as before, and drives the live axle by a twin roller chain. A 
large ecxentric is fitted on the back axle, and this works the feed- 
water pump and the mechanical lubricator. A hand-lever on the 
right of the steering pillar regulates the waier and the fuel valves, 
and another on the left works the variable cut-ofl'and reversing cam- 



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[January 9, 1904. 



gear. The generator has only six coils, which are made of nickel- 
steel tubes, and are considerably larger in diameter than formerly. 
The burner has four pipes, in each of winch there are four holes 
thus giving sixteen jets in all ; quite a small tubular, vaporiser is 
employed in conjunction with it. A large finned tube condenser 
forms the front of the bonnet, the water-tank is fitted beneath 
the bonnet, and a large multitubular condenser is placed hori- 
zontally beneath the front portion of the vehicle. In the 15 and 
40-h.p. vehicles the fuel and water pumps are still inter-connected ; 
in the one they are operated by a stepped cam as before, and in the 
other from a pair of eccentrics, with a kind of link motion between 
them. The new Ctiaboctie car, although the same general 
system as before is retained, differs radically in arrangement, 
and might easily be mistaken at first sight for a petrol vehicle. 
It has a pressed steel frame, with tapering side members, and the 
engine is placed vertically in front of the dash beneath a bonnet. 
The change -spied -gear is mounted in the crank-chamber, and the 
power is transmitted from it to the live-rear-axle by a very long 
universally-jointed propeller-shaft. The fuel tanks are placed 
across the frame, beneath the front and rear seats, whilst the 
pressure drum and the automatic devices are arranged beside the 



business-like appearance. The Hagen Company exhibited the 
chassis of a large 12-h.p. petrol lurry which takes a platform having 
an area of 3*64 square metres. This maker's well known variable- 
speed-gear, in which free-wheel clutches are employed in conjunction 
with a variable-throw crank-pin, is used. The rear wheels are car- 
ried inside the outer frame, and their axle is driven direct by the gear 
mechanism. The main portion of the frame is made of channel 
steel, and the wider, cuter frame of wood. The " Juggernaut" of 
the show was the Larbodler 50-h.p. steam wagon, which weighs 
ten tons, is «even metres long and two metres wide over all. It has 
a large vertical boiler in front and a two-cylinder, compound, vertical 
engine behind it, in the cab. The power is transmitted to a live 
axle through a propeller-shaft, and there is a large central radius- 
rod beneath the propiller-shaft. The Bardon Company showed 
one of their 8-h.p. camions, as also a combined engine and change- 
speed-gear, similar to that illustrated by us on December 12th 
last. The Thlrion fire engine has a two-cylinder 15-h.p. 
horizontal petrol-engine, in which the cylinders are arranged, on 
opposite sides of the crank-chamber. A two-way clutch is provided, 
by which it can be connected with the fire-pumps, or to a propeller 
shaft driving the live-rear-axle. A change-speed-gear, giving three 



PARIS SALON, — The Electrogenia combined petrol^electric chassis, showing the engine and dynamo in front, 

and the electric motor, which drives the rear axle, behind. 



engine, forward. The generator is fixed right behind. No radius 
rods are used, the rear springs having shackles only at the back 
ends instead. A radiator of the G. and A. type, which forms the 
front of the bonnet, serves as the condenser, and a belt driving fan 
is mounted immediately behind it. The chassis has a very long 
wheel base, is substantially constructed, and does not look anything 
like so complicated as did the previous models. 

Several makers showed heavy vehicles of various kinds ; amongst 
these we noticed the De Dion delivery vans, in which the same 
form of transmission and the same engines are used as on the light 
touring vehicles, except that the cardan-shafts drive the rear-wheels 
through speed-reducing spur gearing, instead of direct. The Peu- 
geot Company exhibited a 'bus and a delivery van, both of 
which had solid rubber tyres. They have an unusually wide track, 
and are equipped with twin-cylinder vertical engines placed beneath 
the driver's seat. The engines are of the new 12-h.p. type, to 
which we have already referred, and are fixed transversely in 
the chassis. The change-speed-gear lies alongside them, giving 
four speeds and a " reverse," and the rear axle, which is of 
the live type, is driven by a single central chain — somewhat 
similar to the Renolds silent chain. The Mathian Lurry 
is a very substantially constructed vehicle, which is provided 
with a large two-cylinder petrol engine in front. The wheels 
are shod with steel tyres, the frame is carried on long semi- 
elliptic side-springs, the change-speed -gear is of the sliding 
spur-wheel type, the rear wheels are driven by side-chains, and 
a multitubular radiator is fitted in front ; this lurry has a very 



forward speeds and a reverse, is fitted, and magnetic clutches are 
employed for bringing the required gear into use — the gear wheels 
being at all times in mesh with one another. Mention too should 
be made amongst the heavy vehicles of the Scotte train. 

Messrs. Turgan, Foy and Co., and the Decauville Com- 
pany both exhibited petrol driven coaches constructed for running 
on ordinary lailways. The Turgan-Foy machine is driven by a 
4-cylinder 16-h.p. engine, from which the power is transmitted to one 
of the axles through a change-speed-gear giving three speeds and a 
reverse. The two axles are coupled together by outside connecting 
rods. We understand that the coach is capable of running at a 
speed of about 18 m.p.h., and that, except for a few such cars made 
by the Daimler Company at Cannstatt, it is the only petrol driven 
type in actual service on rails in Europe. The Decauville model has a 
i6-h.p. engine, and the engine and the gear are suspended beneath 
it, driving one of the axles. Messrs. Turgan and Foy are now also 
building touring vehicles of which they showed four sample chassis, 
two with twin-cylinder engines, and two with 4-cylinder engines. 

Reference has already been made to the development shown in 
connection with pressed steel frames, and it has been pointed 
out that they are frequently provided with undernames for carry- 
ing the engine, the gear-box, and both. Some of the interesting 
forms, including several patterns in which the entire frame is 
made in one piece, will be illustrated in our next issue, and it 
will be remembered that the Darracq frame, which forms a par- 
tial sheathing around the engine and the gear-box, has already 
been illustrated in our columns (December 12th, p. 1339). 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



45 



i t ooo MILES RELIABILITY TRIAL. 



Technical and Descriptive Data Concerning the Com- 
peting Cars in order of Official Numbers {Concluded).' 

Class F {Continued).— -Cars more than £700 and not 
more than £900. 

13-tl.p. Peugeot (No. 119). — Three non-stop runs were 
recorded, and on four of the other days marks were alone lost in 
consequence of a water-leak which necessitated re-filling occasionally, 
and was not sufficiently accessible to repair without considerable 
delay. Twenty-five marks in all were lost in this way, and a 
further two, on another occasion, for lubricating. Garage marks 
were also lost in consequence of the water-leak, and a few more for 
attending to the belt-driven fan, apart from ordinary replenishing 
and lubricating. This 4-cylinder vehicle is in general respects 
similar to the twin-cylinder model (No. 71), but it has a pressed 
steel frame, to which the engine and gear-box are fixed direct. 
Both high-tension and magneto-ignition are employed, and the 
mechanical-inlet- valves are placed on the opposite side of the 
cylinders to the exhaust- valves. The compression is about 90 lbs. 
per square inch, the normal speed 900 revolutions per min., and the 
output at 1,400 revolutions per min. ; is about 16-b.h.p. 

30-h.p. Germain (No. 120). — On three days the ignition 
system was responsible for a loss of 75 marks, and 5 more marks 
went on one of these days for replenishing with water on the road ; 
on the other five days non-stops were recorded. The ignition too, 



where 8 marks also went for tyres, and 3 for adjusting the exhaust 
pipe; otherwise the garage deductions were for replenishing and 
lubricatirg. The vehicle has a tubular main frame and underframe, 
and is similar to the smaller model (No. 117). The engine has 
mechanically -operated inlet-valves, however, arranged opposite the 
exhaust valves, its normal speed is 900 revs, per min., and it gives 
about 30 b.h.p. at 1,400 rev6. per min. A Longuemare carburettor 
is used, and high-tension ignition is employed. The front of the 
vehicle is supported above the front axle on a transverse spring. 
The wheel base is 9 ft. 6 in., the track 4 ft. 3 in., the front tyres 
are 870 mm. by 90 mm., and those on the driving wheels are 
850 mm. by 120 mm. 

13-h.p. Wilson-Pilcher (No. 123).— As already reported, a 
gear-wheel driving the pump and commutator-shaft came loose inside 
the gear-box, owing to its not having been locked, and this led to 
the retirement of the car on the first day. This car is similar to the 
10-h.p. model described with illustrations in our issue of January 
31st last, and is constructed on the maker's special system. The 
4-cylinder, horizontal, balanced engine has atmospheric inlet- valves, 
runs at a normal speed of 900 revs, per min., and will develop 
about 16-b.h.p. at 1,300 r.p.m. ; the compression is about 100 lbs. 
per square inch. Four forward speeds are provided by the special 
epicyclic gearing, the top speed being a direct-through-drive to the 
gear-wheel driving the live rear-axle. The " reverse " is fitted on 
the back axle, so that the same speeds are available in both 



1,000 MILES RELIABILITY TRIAL. -The 20-h.p. Germain Petrol Car (No. 120). 



caused a loss of a considerable number of garage marks, these 
amounted to 68 on the first evening, and a few more during the rest 
of the time. This car is similar to. the 15-h.p. model (No. 96), 
though the wheel base is slightly longer and the mechanism is more 
powerful ; the engine can develop about 24-b.h.p. at 1,200 revs, 
per min. 

30-h.p. Beaufort (No. 121). — A non-stop run was made on the 
second day, but otherwise a considerable number of reliability marks 
were lost through various causes. On the first day 10 marks went 
owing to oil in the cylinder, and 2 for adjusting the carburettor. On 
the third day only I mark was lost, and that through gear trouble. On 
the fourth day 18 marks, on the fifth 71, on the sixth 26, on the 
seventh 101, and on the eighth 33, of which 5 were for tyr* s, went 
in consequence of delays caused chiefly by trouble with the ignition 
apparatus, through the carburettor and from the engine over- 
heating. Similar trouble in garage also resulted in a large loss of 
marks. 

20-h.p. Humbcr(No. 122). — Three non-stop runs were actually 
made, and on one other day tyre troubles were alone responsible for 
the loss of 10 marks. The petrol occasioned some little delay on 
the first two days, which, together with a broken plug, cost 54 
reliability marks. On the remaining da>s 2 marks went in refix.ng 
the accumulator box and 7 in replacing a spark plug. The ignition 
apparatus a.'-d the battery box led to some little loss in garage, 



directions. All the gears are introduced by special friction clutches, 
which are externally adjustable. Roller bearings are used in the 
gear-box, and the gear-wheels throughout the car are of special 
construction ; those driving the back axle have spiral teeth, and those 
in the change-speed gear having double helical teeth. The Com- 
pany's special high-tension ignition system, which we described in 
our issue of March 7th last, is used, and the carburettor is of the 
spray type. The wheel base is 7 ft., tne track 4 It. 2 in., and the 
wheels are shod with 910 by 90 Dunlop tyres. 

25-h.p. Maudslay (No. 125).— After a non-stop run o-. the 
first day, delays were experienced, and the car subsequently retired 
on the sixth day through trouble with the ignition apparatus. We 
understand from the makers that the cause of this, which was not 
however ascertained until after the withdrawal of the car, was that 
the commutator on the dashboard tended to overrun the engine 
slightly, and in so doing, severed the electric circuit formed through 
the flexible coupling driving it. A balanced form of commutator, 
having a certain amount of friction, had previously been used by 
them, and they had failed to realise that the substitution of the new 
form of commutator would lead to this result. This car was fully 
descrihed,.with illustrations, in our issue of March 14th last; the 
wheel base is 7 It. 6 in., the track 4 ft. 5 in., and the wheels were 
fitted with 36 in. by 5 in. Dunlop tyres. 

16-h.p. De Dietrich (No, 126).— Only four reliability marks 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL 



[•January 9, 1904. 



were lost, although but five non-stop runs were recorded ; 3 of 
these marks went for replenishing on the road, and 1 for a stop 
on a hill. In garage 5 marks went for attending to the tyres, and a 
further. 3 in fitting a new nut and bolt to one of the chains. This 
well-known vehicle has an armoured-wood main frame and an 
angle steel under frame, a 4-cylinder engine with atmospheric inlet- 
valves, Simms-Bosch magneto ignition, and a spray type of 
carburettor ; the normal speed of the engines is about 700 revs, per 
min. The clutch-spring is arranged vertically just behind the fly- 
wheel, and is easily accessible for adjustment. The wheel base is 
7 ft. 7 in., the track 4 ft. 7 in., and the wheels, which run on plain 
bearings, are shod with 870 by 90 mm. Michelin tyres. 

15-h.p. C.Q.V. (No. 127).— During the first three days, 32 
reliability marks were lost in connection with the accumulator, the 
clutch, and one tyre trouble (5 marks), but after then five consecutive 
non-stop runs were recorded. Apart from replenishing and lubri- 
cating, a few garage marks were lost from the same causes. The 
vehicle, which had, we are informed, already travelled over 20,000 
miles. Its main frame is constructed of square steel tube filled with 
hickory under pressure. The engine has atmospheric inlet-valves, runs 
at a normal speed of 720 revolutions per minute, and will give about 
22 b.h.p. at 1,300 revolutions per minute. Hign-tension electric 
ignition is used, and the carburettor, which is of the float-feed type, 
is water-jacketed. The clutch is of the ordinary cone type, and 
the power is transmitted from a gear-box, of the Panhard type, by 
side-chains connecting the differential countershaft with the rear 
wheels. The wheel base is 6 ft. 9 ins. the track 4 ft. io£ ins., and 
the wheels, which run on ball-bearings, have 870 by 90 Clincher - 
Michelin tyres. 



15-h.p. Rochet- Schneider (No. 130).— Five non-stop runs 
were recorded, 2 reliability marks were lost by a clutch trouble, 
2 for adjusting the magneto, and 1 in attending to a brake. In 
garage, 5 marks were lost for making minor adjustments apart from 
replenishing and lubricating. The car is similar to that described 
with illustrations in our issue of May 9th, 1903. The wheel base 
is 7 ft. 8£ ins., and the track about 4 ft. 5 ins.; the wheels, which run 
on ball-bearings, were shod with 910 by 90 mm. Michelin tyres. 

18 h. p. Mors (No. 131).— During the first four days, 61 
reliability marks were lost through various small troubles on the 
road, including cleaning spark-plugs, making sundry adjustments, 
replenishing, and one tyre trouble ; on the fifth day the car had to 
retire at Ewell owing to a collision with a gate in the fog. It has a 
pressed steel frame, and the engine is carried on an underframe. 
Mechanically operated inlet-valves are arranged on the opposite 
side of the cylinders to the exhaust-valves. . The normal speed of the 
engine is 1,200 revolutions per minute, and it is capable of develop- 
ing about 22 b.h.p. at 1,300 revolutions. per minute. A low-tension 
magneto system of ignition is employed, and the carburettor is of 
the float-feed spray type. A circulating pump *of the gear wheel 
type, which is gear-driven from the engine, is employed in conjunc- 
tion with a honeycomb radiator, behind which a belt-driven fan is 
fixed. The gear is of the Mors well-known type, giving four 
speeds and a "reverse" with a direct-through drive on the top 
speed. Clincher- Michelin tyres, 920 by 120 mm., are fitted, the 
wheels run on plain bearings, the wheel base is 7 ft. 8 in., and the 
track 4 ft. 7 in. . 

20-h.p. Molcar (No. 132).— This vehicle retired on the first 
day owing partly to tyre troubles, and largely because it was the Co.'s 



1,000 MILES RELIABILITY TRIAL.— The 15-h.p. Pipe Petrol Car, with Magnetic Clutch (No. 129). 



18-h.p. Chenard and Walcker (No. 128).— This vehicle was 
not finished in time to take part in the trials, although it ran during 
the first day ; it was, therefore, withdrawn. In general respects it 
is constructed on the same lines as the 14-h.p. model, described by 
us in our issue of April nth last, but has a larger engine, and is 
improved in many respects. We referred to it briefly last week in 
connection with the Paris Salon. 

15-h.p. Pipe (No. 129). — Three non-stop runs were made, and 
the trips on three of the other days were only spoilt in having to 
renew the carbons for the magnetic clutch, costing 1, 2, and 3 marks 
respectively on these occasions. On the first day, the carburettor 
caused delay, representing 20 marks, ond two more marks went in 
replacing a spark-plug. The clutch (4 marks) and an engine trouble 
(3 marks) occurred on the remaining day. In garage a few marks 
went on five different occasions for starting, and one or two more for 
replacing plugs, adjusting a brake, and attending to the tyres, apart 
from replenishing and lubricating. The car does not differ materially 
from that described by us in our issue of Dec. 20th, 1902, except 
that it is fitted with the Jenatzy magnetic clutch, with which our 
readers are familiar (Vol. VIII., page 693). The engine has 
mechanically-operated inlet-valves arranged on the same side as the 
exhaust-valves, the cylinders are cast in pairs, and the engine is 
governed on the throttle. Its normal speed is 750 revs, per 
min., and the compression is about 70 lbs. per sq. in. High tension 
electric ignition is used, and the carburettor is water-jacketed. The 
wheels run on plain bearings and are shod with 910 "by 90 mm. 
Clipper-Michelin tyres. The wheel base is 7 ft. 1 in., and the 
track 4 ft. 6 in. 



first experimental car, no other machine being ready in time. It 
has a trussed channel iron frame, and differs considerably from other 
cars in several respects. The engine has its four cylinders placed 
diagonally, and the inlet- valves are operated mechanically. The 
compression is about 70 lbs. per square inch, and the normal speed 
about 850 revs, per min. High-tension ignition is used, and the 
carburettor is of a special pulsating type, having no float-feed 
device. The cylinders are water-jacketed, the radiator is 
arranged round the engine, and the centrifugal pump is gear-driven. 
A double-grip main-clutch is used, and the change-speed-gear is of 
the epicyclic pattern. The power is transmitted to the live-rear- 
axle by a propeller-shaft, and the road-wheels run on tubular exten- 
sions of the stationary portion of the axle. The wheel base is 
7 ft. 9 ins., the track 4 ft. 7 ins., and the wheels are shod with 32 in. 
by 4 in. new (irappler tyres. 

20-h.p. /Vl.M.C. (No. 133).— No delays on the road occurred 
except on the sixth day, when 9 stops were made for ignition 
troubles, and no less than 58 marks were tost ; otherwise non-stop 
runs were recorded throughout the trials. In garage, on the evening 
of the sixth day, 119 marks were lost in overhauling in the repair 
tent, presumably in connection with the ignition troubles of that 
day, but otherwise, except for 5 marks deducted through replacing 
a plug and adjusting the commutator, the only garage marks lost 
were for replenishing and lubricating. This car, which gained the 
silver medal in its class, has an armoured wood frame and no under- 
frame ; the engine has mechanically-operated inlet-valves, arranged 
on the same side as the exhaust- valves. Its normal speed is 1,050 
revs, per min., at which it develops abDiit 25 b.h.p., and at a speed of 



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January 9, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



47 



1,200 revs, per min. it gives about 26 J b.h.p. ; the compression is 
about 65 lbs. per sq. in. The ordinary high-tension electric ignition 
was fitted, as also the Eisemann high-tension magneto system. The 
radiator is of the Albany tubular type, and has a gear-driven fan 
behind it ; the centrifugal pump is also driven by gearing. The 
M.M.C. gear-box, in which the toothed -wheels remain in mesh 
with one another, gives three forward speeds and a " reverse,*' the 
power being transmitted through it to a differential countershaft 
driving the rear wheels through side-chains. The wheel-base is 
8 ft. il in., the track 4 ft. 5 in., and the wheels, which run on 
plain bearings, were shod with 870 by 90 mm. Michelin tyres. The 
M.M.C. cars were fully described by us on October nth, 1902. 



speed of 750 revs, per mm. ; at 1,100 r.p.m., it is capable of 
developing about 27 b.h.p. High-tension electric ignition is em- 
ployed, the carburettor is of the Maybach float feed type, and the 
Co.'s fan-cooled radiator is fitted. The centrifugal circulating 
pump is chain-driven, and the fan is belt-driven. The gear-box 
gives four speeds and a " reverse " ; and the countershaft has ring- 
lubricated bearings. Two compensated brakes are mounted on the 
ends of the countershaft, and the pedal which operates them is 
inter-connected with the clutch ; the hand-brake, which acts on 
both rear-wheels, and is also arranged with a compensating device, 
is not connected with the clutch. The body is hinged to render the 
chassis readily accessible, and the maker's curved dashboard is fitted. 



1,000 MILES RELIABILITY TRIAL.— The 18^h.p. Mors Petrol Car (No. 130.). 



16-h.p. F.I.A.T. (No. 134). — Five non-stops were made, and 
on the other days, 4 reliability marks were lost for cleaning the 
clutch on two occasions, and 16 for cleaning the carburettor on two 
other occasions. Except for replenishing and lubricating only 2 
garage marks were forfeited, these being for pumping a tyre. A 
fully illustrated description of this actual vehicle was given by us on 
December 5th last. 

Class G.— Cars more than £900. 

23-h.p. Daimler Brake (No. 136).— This vehicle, which was 
awarded a special gold medal for general excellence, and carried ten 
passengers, made five non-stop runs, and on one of the other days 
only lost one mark for petrol troubles. On the sixth day 103 relia- 
bility marks were forfeited in consequence of a broken tooth in the 
differential gear, and on the remaining day the battery occasioned a 
loss of 1 mark, and a chipped bevel wheel 24. Apart from re- 
plenishing and lubricating, re-making an exhaust joint cost 3 garage 
marks, the differential gear 4, and " adjusting " another 4. The 
car is a duplicate of that supplied to the King, and is constructed 
on the well-known Daimler lines. It has a special form of 
armoured wood frame, to which the engine and the gear-box are 
fixed direct. The engine has atmospheric inlet-valves, has a com- 
pression of about 70 lbs. per square inch, and runs at a normal 



The wheelbase is 10 ft. 6 in., and the track 4 ft. 9 in. The rear 
wheels were fitted with 36 in. by 4 in. Goodyear solid tyres, and 
the front wheels 36 in. by 5 in. pneumatics. 

23-h.p. Daimler (No. 137).— It will be remembered that this 
car, which was awarded the Gold Medal in its class, was one of 
those which made non-stop runs daily throughout the trials. In 
garage, apart from replenishing and lubricating, 20 marks in all 
were lost for testing and making small adjustments. The chassis is 
practically identical with that of the brake (No. 136), except that 
the wheel base is 8 ft. and the track 4 ft. 5 in. The wheels 
were shod with 870 by 105 mm. Michelin flat-treaded tyres, and the 
car was geared about 30 per cent, higher than the other. 

24 -h. p. De Dietrich (No. 140). — Non-stop runs were made on 
each of the last six days, and 12 reliability marks were lost on the 
first two, these being for replenishing, cleaning the inlet-valves, 
and for a momentary stop on a hill. In garage four marks went 
in adjusting the foot-brake, but otherwise deductions were only 
necessary for replenishing and lubricating. The design of this car 
is practically identical with the 16-h.p. model (No. 126). The 
b.h.p. of the engine at normal speed is about 30, the wheel base is 
7 ft. 7 in., and the track is 4 ft. 7 in. ; Michelin tyres were fitted, 
those on the back wheel being 920 by 120 mm., and those on the 
front 910 by 90 mm. 



Henri Fournier is not only an experienced and 
fearless driver of racing automobiles, but is a man with 
shrewd business judgment. He has just taken up the 
sole agency for the Oldsmobile car in France under 
arrangement with Messrs. Charles Jarrott and Letts, 
Limited, having previously, by practical experience, 
satisfied himself in regard to the qualities of this little 
runabout. 



In very convenient form for the pocket, a memo- 
booklet is to hand from the Continental Caoutchouc and 
Gutta Percha Company, Limited. The interior is not 
taken up with a lot of superfluous contents, and beyond 
the depots of the firm in England and abroad, and a 
speed table, the entire book is available for memorandum. 
On the back and front covers calendars for 1904 and 
1905 are given. 



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January 9, 1904. 



RACES, RECORDS, AND TRIALS. 



GORDON BENNETT CUP RACE. 

British makers who have entered cars for the Eliminat- 
ing Trials on behalf of Great Britain are the Wolseley 
Company and the British Darracq Company, in addition 
to S. F. Edge, Limited, with 5 Napiers, and J. E. 
Hutton, Limited, with the special cars now being 
completed. Of the three Wolseley cars, two will be of 
96 nom. h.p., and the third 72 nom. h.p. There 
will be many novel points embodied in their con- 
struction, and the surface exposed to wind pressure 
will be reduced to the lowest possible point. The 
design of the car also provides for the centre of 
gravity being brought extremely low, and the horizontal 
4-cylinder type of motor will be retained as being deemed 
particularly suitable for a racing car, enabling corners and 
bends in the road to be negotiated at a very high rate 
of speed. The British cars must be ready for the 
Eliminating Test on April 16th. In the event of the 
proposal to have part of the test over the Circuit des 
Ardennes being carried through, the timing for the British 
cars will probably be done by representatives of the 
British club, and in the case of the French cars by 
representatives of the French club. 

Beyond the eight firms mentioned by us last week as 
having entered in the French Eliminating Trials, as we 
anticipated, one more entry was received after we had 
gone to press, viz., from the Gardner-Serpollet Company, 
bringing the total number of cars entered on behalf of 
France up to 29. The full list of the French cars 
entered are: De Dietrich, Panhard, Bayard Clement, 
Darracq, Mors, G. Rochard Brasier, Gobron-Brillie, 
Hotchkiss, Turcat-Mery, and Gardner-Serpollet. All of 
these have entered three cars, with the exception of 
Turcat-Mery, who have two. Renault Frefes have 
determined to abstain from taking part in this year's 
contest, owing no doubt to the fearful calamity in the 
Paris-Bordeaux race which cost Marcel Renault his 
life. 

The French Club, before deciding to make use of the 
Ardennes course, propose to arrange, if possible, for an 
eliminating "circuit" in France, but before taking serious 
steps in this direction, the Government authorities are to 
be approached and a definite answer obtained, Yes or 
No, whether authorisation would be given to the race 
being held in the event of such a course being located 
and proper precautions taken for the protection of the 
public during the event. The French club have in hand 
nearly ^6,000 in entrance fees for the purpose of pro- 
viding against the expenses, and this should therefore be 
ample to provide for every necessary precaution which 
the French authorities might require. 

For America, the definite entries received by the A.C. 
of America are (1), from Peter Cooper Hewitt, of New 
York, son of the late Ex-Mayor Abram S. Hewitt, with a 
car of his own design, now nearing completion at the 
Trenton Iron Works, Trenton, N.J. ; (2), Alden Sampson ; 
and (3), the Peerless Motor Car Co., of Cleveland, who 
also came forward at the last moment to represent 
America, 



On the Daytona-Ormonde Beach (California), on 
January 1st, Nest man n, on a Stevens- Duryea car, 
covered the mile in 57^ sec., and the kilometre in 
35 ^ sec. The next day Schmidt, on the Packard " Gray 
Wolf," covered one mile in 50J sec, and 5 miles in 
4 min. 2 if sec. Schmidt's best kilometre time was 
3 1 \ sec. — all new American records. Again, on the 3rd, 
Schmidt eclipsed his earlier performances, putting up 
29! sec. for the kilom., 46 J for the mile, and 4 min. 
2 1 \ sec. for the 5 miles. 



A race for motor bicyclists on the Paris-Bordeaux 
road is under consideration by the Auto Cycle Club of 
France. 

The Spa authorities have offered gratis a site for the 
construction of a motodrome, and a scheme to carry out 
the idea is now under consideration. 



Between Milan and Nice a trial for motor wagons 
is to be organised by the Gazetta dello Sport during the 
coming season. The military authorities have arranged 
to watch these trials and follow them, so far as they take 
place on Italian soil. 



Following the date of the Gordon- Bennett Cup Race 
the Moscow Automobile Club propose organising a 
tourist " caravan " from that city to St. Petersburg and 
Kiew. The idea is to gain experience by this run for a 
more ambitious tour between Paris, Moscow, and St. 
Petersburg, and an extended Endurance Trial in Russia 
of 1,500 versts. 



When the entries closed on, December 31st at single 
entrance fees for the Monaco motor boat races in April 
next, 76 boats had been entered, comprising 38 racers, 
29 cruisers, 7 bossoirs, and 2 fishing boats. Mr. S. F. 
Edge's " Napier Minor" comes into the 8-1 2 metre class, 
last year's Napier boat, now the property of M. Henri 
Deutsch, being classed in the 12-18 metre class. No 
less than eight Ader boats are entered in the various 
classes, including one in the racing section, and three 
boats each by Bayard-Clement, Dalifol, and Titan are 
entered. The other leading boats we mentioned last 
week when we published the full regulations and pro- 
gramme of this important event. The entries, at double 
fees, finally close on the 15th inst. 



The automobile meeting at Milan arranged by the A.C. 
of Italy from May 1 ith to the 1 5th will, in addition to the 
endurance trial lasting four days, also include speed 
trials on the flat and on hills. 



The growing general interest in motor boats is illus- 
trated by a somewhat ambitious article on the subject in 
the Winter and Mediterranean number of the Yachting 
V/orld on "The Future of the Motor Boat." The 
article is well illustrated by examples of the application 
of the petrol motor as an auxiliary means of propulsion 
to small sailing vessels, and from that point of view is 
suggestive and calculated to stimulate interest in the 
subject. 

M. Rigolly, who has made during the past year such 
sensational times on his 100-h.p. Gobron-Brillie, using 
alcohol as fuel, has been decorated with the Green 
Ribbon of Merit by the French Minister of Agriculture 
for the services which he has rendered to agricultural 
interests in France. 



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49 



CLUB DOINGS. 

Sheffield Automobile Club. — Although rain and sleet were 
experienced at the start, the Non-stop Run organised by this club 
for Boxing Day was successfully carried through, seven cars 
taking part. The run was from Sheffield to Newark, via 
Worksop, and back to the Hop Pole Hotel at Ollerton. Soon 
after leaving the Sheffield Town Hall, where a considerable number 
of the public had gathered to witness the send-off, the weather 
considerably brightened, and, although the roads were most of the 
way in an extremely heavy condition, particularly between Sheffield 
and Worksop, the legal speed-limit was well maintained throughout. 
Of the seven cars which started, four completed the distance without 
a hitch of any sort, viz., Mr. B. Hinde's 9-h.p. Clement, Mr. J. E. 
Evans' 12-h.p. Darracq, Mr. J. H. Pickford's 10-h.p. Wolseley, 
and Mr. B. Shaw's 6-h.p. De Dion. The three who were unfortu- 
nate in having slight mishaps were Mr. J. Hinde on a 6-h.p. La 
Plata, who within a few minutes of the finishing point ran short of 
petrol ; Mr. J. F. Pickering on a 10 h.p. Norfolk, and Mr. C. A. 
Clark on a 6-h.p. Gladiator, lx>th of whom had ignition troubles. 
The arrangements for the trial were admirably carried out under the 
direction of Mr. F. B. Cawood and Mr. E. F. Coupe. The 
observers acting on the different cars were Messrs. J. T. Thompson 
Lindley, J. Needham, W. James, C. Holden, and G. D. Flather. 



Th£ Automotor Journal stand is No. 91 at the 
Society of Motor Manufacturers' Exhibition, opening at 
the Crystal Palace on February 12th. 

Mr. Harvey du Cros, at the next General Election, 
will be recommended by the Candidate Committee as 
Parliamentary candidate for Hastings, to oppose Mr. 
Freeman Thomas, M.P. 



Turner's Motor Manufacturing Company, 
Limited, of Wolverhampton, have purchased the Wul- 
fruna Cycle Works in that town for the purpose of 
increasing their output of the Miesse steam car. 



The Long Acre Motor Car Company (Limited) have 
removed to new premises at 1 to 5, Poland Street, W., 
and at the same time have changed their title to the 
Lacre Motor Car Company (Limited), to avoid miscon- 
ception in regard to their address ; otherwise there is no 
alteration whatever in the construction of the Company. 



The Packard Racer, *• Gray Wolf/' on which Schmidt has this week broken all previous American records for the 
kilometre, the mile, and for 5 miles. The car has a pressed-steel frame, mounted on semi-elliptic side-springs at 
the rear, and an inverted transverse spring in front. The 24-h.p. engine has four cylinders, and is governed on 
the throttle* The change-speed-gear, which gives three forward speeds and a "reverse," is combined with the 
live-rear-axle, and is enclosed in the same casing with it; the shafts and axles have ball bearings* The car 

weighs 1,310 lbs. in running order. 



South Lincolnshire Automobile Club. — Under this title a 
club has been formed. Mr. W. Garfit, M.P., has been invited to 
become President, with the following as supporters : — Lord Wil- 
loughby de Eresby, M.P., the Marquis of Exeter, the Earl of 
Ancaster, Alderman Joseph Cooke (Mayor of Boston), Mr. H. R. 
Mansfield, M.P., Mr. G. H. Faber, Mr. E. M. Pollock, Mr. R. W. 
S tan i land, and Mr. Meaburn Staniland. Dr. Miller will act as 
chairman of the committee. 



The Annual General Meeting of the Yorkshire Automobile 
Club will beheld on the 14th inst., at the Great Northern Hotel, 
Leeds. As already announced, a lantern lecture by Mr. E. Faiers, 
of Bradford, will follow the General Meeting. 



Our congratulations to Mr. Basil H. Joy, the Techni- 
cal Secretary of the Automobile Club, on his marriage 
on Wednesday last to Miss May Gooch, at Datchet. 



Mr. George Alexander was this week elected a 
member of the Automobile Club. 



For the future, " Brooke " cars for London and 
district will be entirely in the hands of Mr. Bernard B. 
Redwood, who has secured the sole agency for these 
excellent vehicles, and will have them on view on the 
premises of J. E. Hutton, Limited, 81-82, Shaftesbury 
Avenue, W. In addition to the 3-cylinder standard type 
and light type cars, the prices of which have been 
reduced to ^450, a new 4-cylinder 20-h.p. car at ^500 
is being put on the market for 1904. This vehicle, we 
understand, will contain a considerable number of 
improvements, and will probably be exhibited at the 
Agricultural Hall. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 9* 1904. 



We cannot help commiserating the Marquis de St. 
Mars on being summoned for exceeding the speed limit 
in Hyde Park on almost the last day on which the old 
Act remained in force, after a six years' unsummoned 
record in this country. He was fined £2 and 2s. costs. 
The policeman, of course, maintained he was going 28 
miles an hour (presumably with an eye to the new Act), 
so, perhaps, the Marquis was not so unlucky as he sup- 
posed in not being summoned a few days later. 

In reference to the article on the Edison battery in 
last week's Automotor Journal, a correspondent points 
out that it is only at high rates of discharge (in the 
neighbourhood of 150 amperes) that the loss of capacity 
that would result from stopping the discharge at 1 volt 
would amount to more than 10 per cent. At 30 amperes, 
he states, it would only be 29 per cent. Our corre- 
spondent also considers that we underestimated the cost 
of replacing the positives in lead batteries. Manu- 
facturers' figures, of course, differ, but our correspondent's 
estimate — of upwards of 27 per cent. — appears extra- 
ordinarily high. 



Our contemporary, the Surrey Times, is, of course, 
still opposed to the 20-mile speed limit. In an article 
dealing with the new motor law, it says that though the 
reckless or dangerous clause may be sufficient to protect 
the public, " the public will not think so as it sees the 
cars whizz by at a good 20 miles an hour in thorough- 
fares which are certainly not free from other traffic, 
vehicular or pedestrian." Quite so, but that is just what 
motorists* as we have frequently insisted, must not do 
when there is considerable traffic about. Let all who 
are tempted in this way remember that they are giving 
the text to papers like the Surrey Times to agitate for 
the further reduction of the speed limit when the present 
Act expires. 

The United Motor Industries catalogue of accessories 
shows the extremely comprehensive manner in which 
this firm deals with the accessories business. Almost 
every form of motor accessory, including such different 
branches as various makes of tyres, wheels, and even 
complete change-speed and steering gears, water circu- 
lating pumps, radiators, and every kind of lamp, and a 
variety of sparking plugs, and all the various items of 
electric ignition, are catered for. As a good example of 
the extent to which this enterprising company are up-to- 
date, we would specially mention their " Castle " back- 
light, which is designed to illuminate the rear number- 
plates of motor vehicles in accordance with the Act 
which is now in force. 



A special Providence sometimes seems to watch over 
the lives of motorists. At least we conclude a special 
Providence watches over Mr. Tudor Owen, of the county 
of Shropshire. His motor car recently ran away with 
him down the steep street of Shrewsbury which leads 
along the old Castle Hill to the historical Traitor's Gate. 
The runaway car got up such a speed that it is reported 
to have smashed off wooden posts and beams with which 
it came in contact like matchwood, and finally jumped a 
high wall into the Severn. With a presence of mind 
reminiscent of Baron Munchausen, Mr. Owen jumped 
at the psychological moment, when the car was also 
executing its leap, and came off unhurt. Mr. Tudor 
Owen is evidently reserved for something great. 



The Inland Revenue are making what is certainly a 
sensible concession to car owners and others who 
hire out carriages. In future, carriage hirers are 
to pay duty only on the greatest number of vehicles 
which they have let out on hire at any one time during 
the year, provided that they will permit the statement to 
be verified, if desired, by allowing the Board's officers to 
inspect their books. As, of course, every hirer out of 
carriages usually has a certain number of reserved 
vehicles, and as it may only very rarely, and in some 
cases never, happen, that his whole ordinary stock is out 
at once, this arrangement will be of distinct advantage 
to the trade. As a precedent to govern the motor car 
industry this decision is valuable. 



A good sign for the coming season is that the 
Wolseley Company are a great deal busier than they 
have ever been before — so busy, in fact, that at their 
Adderley Park Works, Birmingham, more new shops are 
being erected, and they contemplate putting on a 
night shift to keep up with the extreme rush of 
business which they are now enjoying. The average out- 
put during the past year from these works has been at 
the rate of nine finished cars per week, without taking 
into consideration a lot of extra work which the Company 
have carried out for Government Departments. As 
announced some time ago, the Wolseley Company have 
acquired extensive works at Crayford, in Kent, and they 
are now installing the most up-to-date machinery there, 
which will very shortly be capable of turning out as many 
as twenty cars per week. The Crayford works will be 
devoted almost exclusively to the manufacture of the 
6-h.p. light car, and as there are grounds of 25 acres in 
extent attached to them, a track is being constructed for 
testing the cars before leaving the works. 



Messrs. Charles Jarrott and Letts, Ltd., have 
practically bought up the British Locomobile Company — 
that is to say, they have formed a syndicate, of which 
they are the principal directors, which has purchased 
that business, and they are now going to combine 
the extensive garage and works in the Brompton Road 
with their own business. They will still keep on the 
same car business, supplying Locomobiles as before, and 
they have made special arrangements for executing every 
class of repair that the owners of these machines may 
require, while, as they have every Locomobile part in 
stock, everything required can be obtained at 24 hours' 
notice. They have also at the Kensington works exten- 
sive facilities for charging electromobiles. The main 
idea which Messrs. Jarrott and I^etts entertain, how- 
ever, is to develop the unique extensive garage 
accommodation in the Brompton Road for the con- 
venience of all owners of cars of whatever build, 
and as they have a very large staff and extensive 
works in connection with them, any repairs required 
can be carried out on the premises. As they are 
also desirous of entering into business relationships with 
garage "owners in other parts of the town who have not 
the same facilities for effecting repairs, they will be willing 
to make special arrangements for doing this class of work 
for proprietors of such establishments. Mr. Perman, 
who has made himself so generally known and universally 
liked while in charge of the Gladiator Company, has been 
engaged as general manager of the garage, and Mr. 
George Shave will be works manager. 



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January 9, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



Si 



Fiat Motors, Limited, of 37, Long Acre, W.C., 
notify us that they are the sole concessionaires for Great 
Britain and Ireland of the well-known Fiat cars. We 
quite recently gave an illustrated description of this 
system. The new 1904 models will be of 16, 24, and 
60-h.p. 

In Mr. E. H. Lancaster's announcement of the 
Clement cars, for which he is agent, the correct tele- 
phone number is as it appears this week, viz., 1970 
Gerrard. In our last week's issue the two centre figures 
unfortunately were reversed. Mr. Lancaster is prepared 
to consider applications for agencies for the sale of 
Clement cars in the United Kingdom. 



The lecture on radium delivered by Sir Oliver Lodge 
on Tuesday last, at Birmingham, with Mr. Chamberlain 
as chairman, consisted of a summary of practically all 
that is known about the history, properties, and theories 
relating to this astonishing substance in Sir Oliver's 
usually lucid, stimulating, and attractive style. The vista 
of possibilities opened up by radium is so extensive, and 
the revolution in our notions of energy which it effects 
so penetrating, that it is impossible to say whether in 
the future it may not in some way be pressed into the 
service of automobilists. At present, however, the 
suggestion of a Transatlantic contemporary, that it may 
be used for devising an inextinguishable and ever-ready 
lamp for motor vehicles and other purposes, is to say 
the least, a little premature. It is true that radium 
bromide in close juxta-position to sulphide of zinc pro- 
duces (apparently permanently) a certain amount of 
light, but the light is not very powerful and the expense 
is prohibitive. 

We learn with much pleasure from the Roots Oil 
Motor and Motor Car, Limited, that their 5-h.p. cars 
have been giving great satisfaction since their manufac- 
ture was taken over by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth 
and Company, Limited. The cars have been subjected 
to a very searching test — running the mails regularly 
between Newcastle and Sunderland, vid South Shields 
(a daily trip of 40 miles), for upwards of the last three 
months. The test has been a very severe one, as the 
vehicles were originally designed to carry only three 
persons with a light passenger body. As used for 
carrying the mails, a small van body about three times 
the weight of the passenger body has been substituted, 
and the car has frequently had occasion to carry 
as much as 7^ cwt. of mails, the total load being 
therefore about twice the normal. During the rush of 
work in the Christmas fortnight, the reserve car 
was also put on, and carried a similar load for 
the same distance during the day, neither car 
experiencing anything in the nature of a breakdown, 
while not the slightest hitch occurred in the service. A 
steady test of this kind, of some 280 miles every week, 
at double the ordinary load, is, it must be admitted, a 
most exhaustive reliability test. The chassis employed 
is the Roots standard 5-h.p. model with solid rubber 
tyres, the total weight of the mail van being over 1 ton 
including the driver. The only alteration that has been 
made is in the sprockets, which have been changed in 
order to reduce speed. The average consumption of oil 
has been 1 gallon for every 16 miles run, which we are 
informed works out at 0*31 of id. per ton mile. 



Visitors to the Empire Theatre can always be assured 
of a splendid programme. On Monday night to the 
usual entertainment was added a new sensation. " Loop- 
ing the loop" having been voted fairly tame, a Mr. 
Barber went one better by riding a bicycle 18 feet 
through space in mid-air, when riding head downwards. 
The public preparations occupied some five or seven 
minutes, but the actual performance was over in consider- 
ably under 30 seconds. It was hardly necessary for the 
injunction, given from the stage, for perfect stillness to 
be maintained, as at the moment of Mr. Barber's descent 
from a high point in the wings, the audience involuntarily 
held their breath in view of the new sensation, and were 
much relieved when, after a few minutes' interval, the 
performer appeared in front of the curtain. Unfor- 
tunately, after finishing his astonishing performance, he 
had come in contact with a fire bucket and appeared to 
have rather badly cut his shin, which gave rise amongst 
a certain portion of the audience to the suggestion that 
he had been injured in the actual performance of the 
feat, which as a fact was not so. The " turn " was 
almost as thrilling as running the gauntlet of the Surrey 
police on an automobile. 

It is satisfactory to find the daily papers discussing 
occasionally, sometimes at considerable length, the 
question of the cheap automobile. A thoughtful article 
on this subject, in one of our daily contemporaries, points 
out that the chief obstacle to the cheapening of the 
cheap car is the hilly nature of the English roads, and 
draws attention to the fact, which every road user has 
had but too frequent occasion to lament, that the old 
road engineers seldom recognised that though the dis- 
tance between two points might be the same, or nearly 
the same, over the top or round a hill, the expenditure 
of energy required by the alternative routes was vastly 
different. " But for the hills on our roads," says our 
contemporary, " the ^100 car could be built to-morrow." 
It would follow that in flat districts like Holland, or the 
East of England, it might be worth while for manufac- 
turers to specialise in the production of cheap cars for 
flat districts. Even as it is, however, there are excellent 
light cars for two passengers to be had at ^150, and as 
the market for these increases there is little doubt that 
they will approximate more and more to the figure which 
appears to be the ideal of that rather mythical person- 
age, " the man of moderate means." Many of them are 
excellent hill-climbers, too, though, of course, their 
owner must not mind being left on hills by high-powered 
cars costing ten times as much. In the automobile in- 
dustry, as in every other, growth of demand and increase 
of market is bound to be followed by increasing cheapness. 

M. Santos Dumont, who has been appointed a 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honpur, sailed last Saturday 
for America mainly with the object of superintending 
the arrangements for the installation of his airship at 
the St. Louis World's Fair. M. Dumont will take part in 
the great aeronautical contest being held there this year. 

Among the multitudinous varieties of experimental 
aeroplanes, a small model machine by Mr. James 
Douglas, of Kalamazoo, Michigan, is said to have been 
successfully tried over the short distance of 30 metres 
without touching the ground. This, of course, is nothing 
in the way of a flight, but the machine is of interest as we 
believe it is the first model of an aeroplane which has been 
provided with a steam turbine for actuating its propeller. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 9, 1904. 



The battle about the sex of the automobile is again 
raging in France. 

Panhard's American agents are threatened with 
action by the Association who are attempting to uphold 
the claims under the Selden Patent. 



Entries for the Turin International Automobile 
Exhibition, which will be held from February 6th to 
2 1 st, will close on January 19th. A special section for 
aeronautics has been determined upon, and a strong 
feature is to be made of this department. 



The use of automobiles is steadily increasing in 
Belgium. At the end of 1901, 2,046 were in use (714 
motor bicycles); in 1902, 3,418 (1,427 motor bicycles). 
For the past year the numbers were 5,299 (2,671 motor 
bicycles). 

The Adam-Boudin spherical motor boat has arrived 
at the stage of experiment. The machine, which recently 
covered a distance of 400 metres on the water in 2 mins. 
54 sees., is externally almost a perfect sphere. It con- 
sists of two concentric spheres of sheet steel of a thickness 
of 3 mm., arranged inside one another like a Chinese 
puzzle, the internal sphere carrying a 24-h.p. petrol 
motor, and the exterior sphere being outwardly provided 
with a number of paddle blades on either side of a ridge 
or keel, which completely surrounds its circumference. 
The diameter of the whole is 3 metres, and its displace- 
ment 3 tons. The 2 -cylinder petrol motor of 24-h.p., 
which provides the motive power, has electrical ignition, 
with four speeds and a reverse. The mechanical 
arrangements are such as to cause the outer sphere to 
roll round the inner one when the motor is in action, 
and in this way the boat progresses. The passengers 
get inside it through lateral openings, and the exhaust 
pipe is also carried out laterally. M. Georges Hulin, of 
jOAuto 4 who witnessed the trials of the machine, thinks 
that they were absolutely satisfactory, though how the 
passengers are to see out of it, or what means are pro- 
vided for seeing the direction taken, is at present 
unapparent. 

Last April we published certain particulars in regard 
to import duty leviable on motor vehicles in foreign 
countries and British possessions, as announced by the 
Board of Trade. The following further particulars are 
now available from the same source : — 

Foreign Countries : 

Sweden, 15 per cent, ad valorem. 

Peru, free of import duty. 

Argentine Repuolic, 62 per cent, on the value as assessed by 
the Customs authorities. 
British Possessions : 

India, 5 per cent, ad valorem. 

Ceylon, if not for trad ion purposes, 5 J per cent ad valorem. 
If for traction purposes, free of duty. 

Mauritius, 10*4 per cent, ad valorem. 

Falkland Islands, free importation. 

South African Customs Union (Cape Colony, Natal, Orange 
River Colony, Transvaal, Southern Rhodesia), 5 per cent, 
ad valorem, with a rebate of one-fourth of the duty leviable 
if the goods are of British manufacture, and accompanied 
by a certificate to that effect in due form. 

Canada. Automobiles are not specifically named, but come 
under the head of " carriages and vehicles," and pay 35 
per cent, ad valorem, with a rebate of one-third off all 
British manufactures. Duty on automobiles, not new, in 
use by tourists coming temporarily to Canada, is refunded 
on re-exportation within a period not exceeding six months. 

Newfoundland, 30 per cent, ad valorem. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

The name and address of the writer {not necessarily for 
publication) MUST in all cases accompany letter intended 
for insertion, or containing aueries. 



THE ADVANTAGES ACCRUING TO HORSES FROM 
THE USE OF AUTOMOTORS. 

To the Editor of The Automotor Journal. 

Sir, — The Church Society for the Promotion of Kindness to 
Animals wishes to make known everywhere that the general use of 
automotors would be immeasurably to the advantage of horses. But 
its means are too small for it to do much. Will readers of The 
Automotor Journal help? 

F. Lawrence, Hon. Sec. 
7, Park Mansions, South Lambeth Road, S.W., 
December 29, 1903. 



Court of Bankruptcy.— Re A. E. Hodgson.— At the 

adjourned meeting, on the 4th instant, of the creditors held under 
this failure, Mr. W. S. Ogle, chartered accountant, was appointed 
to wind up the estate in bankruptcy. 



DOINGS OF PUBLIC COMPANIES. 

NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. 

[Taking powers to manufacture or deal in motors, motor cars, or 
accessories, either as their principal or part of their objects.] 

Acme Engine Company (Limited), Acme Works, Budhill, 
Shettleston, Glasgow. — Capital, j£ 12,000 in £\ shares. Object, to 
acquire the patents for improvements relating to gas or internal 
combustion engines, &c. 

A In wick Motor Oarage and Cycle Company ( Limited).— 
Capital ,£5,000 in £\ shares. First directors, T. Pringle and C. B. 
Ford. 

Electric and General Assurance (Limited).— Capital, 
;£ 10,000 in £1 shares. Object, to insure against loss or damage 
arising from electric or other tramway, light railway, omnibus, 
motor car, and similar accidents, &c. First directors, P. G. H. 
Carvill (chairman and managing director), J. H. Albright, J. Devon- 
shire, and G. Cornwallis-West. A. W. Johanning is assistant 
manager and secretary. 

James Ogllvie (Limited).— Capital, ;£ 1,500 in £1 shares. 
Object, to acquire the business carried on by J. Ogilvie, 128, Ren- 
field Street, Glasgow, of factors and manufacturers of cycles and 
motors and accessories therefor. 

Kidderminster Motor and Cycle Company (Limited), 
Mill Street, Kidderminster. — Capital, ,£5,000 in £1 shares. 
First directors, H. M. McAllister, T. W. Bowen, R. S. Brinton, 
D. S. Bowen, R. Woodward, A. S. Thursfield, and W. P. Yates. 

Lacoste and Battmann (Limited).— Capital, j£ 160,000 in 
£1 shares. — Object, to acquire the business of motor car manu- 
facturers carried on at 16, Rue Chaptal, Levallois Perret, near 
Paris, by Messrs. Lacoste and Battman. 

NEW INVENTIONS. 

Patent Specifications Published. 

Applied for la 1003. 

Published January yth, 1904. 
W. C. Peters and C. Bellamy. Pneumatic tyres. 
P. N. LucasGirardville and L. Mekarski. Combined internal 

combustion and compressed air motors. 
E. H. Bouhey and R. A. lb Grand. Transmission mechanism. 
E. C. Hagen. Lever transmission gear. 
E. C. Hagen. Mechanism for converting reciprocating into rotary 

motion. 
E. C. Hagbn. Motor car mechanism. 
E. C. Hagen. Adjustable mechanism for lever transmission systems 

with variable stroke. 
Cie. France des Nouvelles Pompes a Air. Pumpj for inflating 

pneumatic tyres. 

Applied for In 1003. 

Published J anuary 7th, 1904. 
J. W. Hall. Hydraulic variable transmission mechanism. 
A. Rose. Gear for motor cycles and motor cars. 
W. B. Burchall. Internal combustion engines and steam engines. 
H Moxon. Internal combustion engines. 
A. Hekz. Electric spark-plug. 
J. Hood Controlling apparatus. 
E. J. S. Starkey and J. Rumball. Sprags. 
P. A. and D. A. Martin. Elastic tyres for wheels. 
M. Bourcart. Flying mechanism. 

W. C. Owen. Elevated platforms for repairing and cleaning 
W. W. Adams. Transmission gear. 



25,304. 
27.370- 

27,381. 
27.653- 
27,654- 

27,655. 
27,656. 

28,106. 



442. 
955- 

1,808. 

2,152. 

2,286. 

2,896. 

2,899. 
18,768. 
1 9.324- 
23,575- 



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The Automotor Jonrnal, January 16th, 1904.]] 



The AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL 



A RECORD AND REVIEW OF APPLIED AUTOMATIC LOCOMOTION. 

Circulates amongst Makers and Users of Motor Cars, Cycles, etc., in the United Kingdom, the 

Colonies, and the Continent. 



Offices: 44, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C. 



Wo. 168. (No. 3, Vol. IX.)] JANUARY 16TH, 1904. [ Re t'^«^p^ I>0 ] [^SE&Kw? 1, 



Lieut.'Col. Mark Mayhew and his 100-h.p. Napier Racer, which he hopzs to drive — as one of the selected 
representatives of Great Britain — in the Race for the Gordon -Bennett Cup in Germany this year ; he will therefore 
take part in the Eliminating Trials which are to be held in connection with that event. (For description, see p. 71), 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 16, 1904. 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



Telephone No.— 

1828 Oerrard. 



Telegraphic Address - 

Traditux, London. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 
Advertisements should be addressed to F. King and Co., 
Limited, 44, St, Martin's Lane, London, W.C., where Trade 
Advertising Rates may be had on application. 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES. 

Thr AUTOMOTOR Journal will be forwarded, post free, to any 
part of the world at the following rates : — 

United Kingdom. Abroad. 





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3 Months, Post Free .. 


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3 Months, Post Free . 


. 4 6 


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■ 7 1 


1 6 „ 


..90 


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Nearly all the bach numbers can still be obtained separately 
by application to the Publishers, and bound volumes at the following 
prices : — 

Vol. I ... Prick £5 $j. I Vol. V Prick 9*. 

Vol. II ... „ 16s. \ Vol. VI (6 Monthly Nos. ) 5*. 6d. 

Vol. Ill ... „ i6j. Vol. VII (37 Weekly Nos.) 21s. 

Vol. IV ... ,, gs. | Vol. VIII Prick 20s. 

COVERS FOR BINDING VOLUMES 

Price is. 6d. ; Post free, is. gd. Can be obtained through the 
usual Agents, or direct from the Publishers. 

Cheques and Post Office Orders should be made payable to 
F. King and Co., Limited, and crossed London and County 
Bank ; otherwise no responsibility will be accepted. 



Special Notice. 

The Automotor Journal can be obtained from all Messrs. 
W. H. Smith and Son's, and Willing and Co., Ltd.'s book- 
stalls and usual newsagents. 

Paris.— -W. H. Smith and Son, NeaVs Library, 248, Rut de 
Rivoli. 

When any difficulty is experienced in procuring the Journal from 
local newsvendors, intending subscribers can obtain each issue direct 
from the Publishing Office, by forwarding remittance as above. 



DIARY OF FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 



1904. 

Jan. 13 

*Jan. 14 
Jan. 15-23 
Jan. 18 

*Jan. 21 
*Jan. 28 

Feb. 1 
Feb. 1 

Feb. 2-6 

♦Feb. 11 

Feb. 12-24 

•Feb. 12 
Feb. 23-27 
Mar. 4 



Mar. 7-12 
Mar. 19-26 . 

Mar. 25-30 .. 
April or May., 



British Events. 

" Motor Vehicles," by W. Norris (Liverpool En- 
' gineering Society). 
Smoking Concert (Automobile Club). 
Leeds Cycle and Motor Show. 
" Reminiscences of the Road," by Mr. C. Jarrott 

(Scottish A. C). 
The Motor Car Act, by Earl Russell (A.C. Paper). 
" Railway Companies and the Motor Problem," 

by Mr. George Montagu, M.P. (A.C. Paper). 
Final Entry Day for British International Cup 
" Evolution of Road-making in Scotland," by 

Mr. R. Drummond, C.E. (Scottish A.C). 
Liverpool Cycle and Motor Show (St. George's 

Hall). 
" The British Automobile Industry," by Mr. T. C. 

Aveling (A. C. Paper). 
2nd Annual Exhibition of the Society of Motor 

Manufacturers and Traders at the Crystal Palace. 
Quarterly 100 Miles Trial. 
Hull Cycle and Motor Show (Assembly Rooms). 
" Some Practical Notes on Electric Storage Bat- 
teries," by G. C. Allingham (Junior Institute 

of Engineers). 
Manchester Motor Show (St. James's Hall). 
Cordingley and Co.'s Motor Car Exhibition at the 

Agricultural Hail. 
*Side-S!ip Trials. 
British Gordon-Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 



May 19-20 ... 
June 1-7 
August 

Sept 

Oct. -Nov. ... 



Glasgow- London Non-Stop Run. 

Motor Bicycle Endurance Trial. 

British International Cup for Motor Boats. 

•Reliability Trials. 

•Light Van Trials (about 2,000 miles). 



* Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland Events. 

Foreign Events (Trials, Races, Ac). 



(All French 

1904. 
Tan. 16-23 .. 
Jan. 23- Feb. 4 
Jan. 25-30 ... 
Jan. 26-30 ... 

Feb 

Feb. 3-6 ... 
Feb. 6-13 ... 
Feb. 6-21 
Feb. 14 
Feb. 15-20 ... 
Feb. 23-27 ... 
Feb. 29- Mar. c 

Mar 

Mar. 6-12 ... 
Mar. 13-20 ... 
Mar. 14-19 ... 
Mar. 15-16 ... 
Mar. 19-27 ... 
Mar. 20-29 ••• 
Mar. 21-26 ... 
Mar. 23-27 ... 
Apl. 5-15 - 
Apl. i6-Ma/3i 
Apl. 17 
Apl. 18-23 •• 

May 

May 

May 

May 1-12 
May 11-15 ••• 
May 12 
May 12-15 ■•• 
May 14-15 ... 
May 16-23 ••• 
May 23-31 ... 
June 7 
June 7 
June 17 

July 

July 

July 16-17 ••• 

July 17 

July 18-23 •• 
July 23-25 ... 
Aug. 5-1 1 

Aug. 12 

Aug. 15 

Sept 

Sept. 2 

Oct. 5 

Oct. 9 

Oct. 14-22 ... 

Nov. 20 

Dec 



road racing fixtures are subject to confirmation by 
the French authorities.) 

Madison Square (New York) Show. 

Brussels Automobile Salon. 

Ormond-Daytona Races (Florida). 

Philadelphia Show. 

Tourist Run and Consumption Trial {UAuto). 

Paris-Turin Tourist Run {France Automobile). 

Chicago Show. 

Turin Exhibition. 

Coupe Sneyden 1 kilom. on flat (A.C. Algeria). 

Detroit Show. 

Anti-Skid Trials at Versailles. 
Cleveland Show. 

Paris- Rome {La France Automobile). 
Buffalo Show. 

Cannes Automobile Week. 

Boston Show. 

A.C. America Commercial Vehicle Trials. 

Frankfort Exhibition. 

Nice Week (details, Oct. 31, p. 1168). 

Washington (U.S.A.) Auto Show. 

Electric Vehicle Trials {Monde Sportif). 

Monaco Motor Boat Week (details, Jan. 2, p. 25). 

Vienna Auto Show. 

Coupe Meyan ( Motor Boats). 

Nice-Rome. 

Circuit des Ardennes (A.C. Belgium). 

French Gordon- Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 

Guadarrama Hill Climb (A.C. Spain). 

A.C. Bordelais Automobile Fortnight. 

Milan Exhibition and Tourist Trial. 

Perigueux Hill Climb (A.C. Dordogne). 

Tours Tourist Trial. 

J^antes-Croisic (Motor Boats), Monde Sportif. 

Circuit National Beige. 

Aix-les-Bains Week. 

Namur Week. 

Spa Week. 

Gordon- Bennett Race. 

Mont-Cenis Hill Climb (A.C. Italy). 

Speed Trials {VAuto). 

< >stende Motor Boat Race*. 

Antwerp-Ostende Motor Boat Run. 

Ostende Week. 

Lucerne Motor Boat Races. 

Paris-Deauville Motor Boat Race. 

Motor Boat Race for Gaston Menier Cup. 

Ventoux Hill Climb (Avignon). 

Deauville Automobile Meeting {VAuto). 

Chateau Thierry Hill Climb {L'Auto). 

Dourdan Kilometre Trials {Monde Sportif). 

Gaillon Hill Climb {VAuto). 

Leipzig Cycle and Motor Show. 

100 Kiloms. Trial (A.C. Algeria). 

Paris Salon. 



LEADING CONTENTS. 



Pack. 
Diary of Forthcoming Events 

Passing Events . . . . ' \ * 

The j 904 Cottereau Petrol Cars ^1 

The Peugeot Shock Damper 1° 

The Brouhot Petrol Cars " j£ 

The Motobloc Petrol Car " " g 

The Longridge Two-Stroke Engine 60 - 

Napier Racing Car " • 

Races, Records, and Trials " 1 

Club Doings " " 7 2 

Reviews of Books 1 

A Novel Motor Bicycle *" " y 

Doings of Public Companies .'.' li 

New Inventions . , 76 



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January 16, 1904-] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



55 



PASSING EVENTS. 

* Society o! Encouragement" or Amateur Trading 
Corporation ? ? ? 

Since " Notes and Notices " was converted into the 
Automobile Club Journal, we have from time to time 
expressed our disapproval both of that organ itself, of 
the manner in which it is being conducted, and of what 
we consider the decidedly mistaken policy of which it is 
the unattractive offspring. Our views on this policy, and 
on the impropriety of conducting a club publication as 
a trade journal, are not only shared by the whole of the 
automobile Press, but are, we believe, held by most 
members of the automobile community. We have 
expressed these views freely during the past few months, 
because by doing so we had hoped that the members 
both of the Club Committee and of the Sub-Committee 
that was appointed to enquire into and report on the 
club Journal question would see the wisdom of altering 
this policy in the future. That hope we must, for the 
present, at any rate, abandon. The Sub-Committee 
appointed on the club Jcurnal question has reported to 
the General Committee of the club in favour of con- 
tinuing the Journal on its present lines, and the Club 
Committee has decided to accept the report of the 
Sub-Committee. Thus the Club Committee may be 
regarded as having nailed its colours to the mast, as far 
as the Journal and the policy (if it can be called a 
policy) which animates its utterances are concerned. 

We do not for a moment believe that in adopting this 
attitude the Club Committee are really acting as the 
exponents of the general wishes of the majority of the 
members of the club. We have the best of reasons for 
believing that the non-official members of the club 
may be divided into those who have not troubled 
about the question of the Journal at all, who pro- 
bably never read it, and on its arrival consign it to 
the waste-paper basket, and those who understand the 
question and are opposed to a policy which, without their 
consent and over their heads, has made them partners 
in a trading concern. Those who approve of, and arc- 
responsible for, the policy of continuing the Journal are, 
we believe, a small minority. Some of them are gentlemen 
who have a considerable amount of spare time on their 
hands, are anxious to arrange a pastime for themselves, 
are glad to provide an outlet for their energies, and are 
therefore just the very men whose honorary services 
might be valuable to any " Society of Encouragement." 
But that people in this position are either fitted for, or 
should be permitted to have, the control of a trade 
paper — or of any other commercial venture — is open to 
the gravest doubt. They have the funds of a powerful 
organisation behind them, and can consequently continue 
complacently to carry the Journal on at a loss, without 
worry or pecuniary sacrifices to themselves. That they 
should frequently yield to the temptation to air their own 
crochets, and that the tendency should be to develop a 
mutual admiration society, is one of the dangers in such 
a situation. The crux of the matter is, however, that as 
soon as a " Society of Encouragement " becomes a 
" trading corporation " its entire prestige inevitably 
disappears, for not only must it lose the support of all 
distinguished members, but its proper functions will be 
sadly neglected, while its reputation for impartiality in 
trials, non-stop runs, and all other events of the kind 
cannot fail to be seriously impaired. 



Encouragement (?) and the Trade. 

The effect that the present policy of the Club is 
already having on the future of the automobile move T 
ment is serious to a degree. It will provoke, and is 
already provoking, the intense hostility of the trade, to 
say nothing of that of a number of public men who 
have a kindly feeling towards the industry. To all 
interested in the welfare of the automobile movement, 
the influence, dignity, and success of whatever 
body represents the industry nationally cannot be a 
matter of indifference. But no such body can continue 
to represent the industry effectively that does not com- 
mand the cordial support and hearty co-operation of the 
trade as a whole. A ministry attempting to carry on the 
government of the country, with the majority of 
Parliament in opposition, would not be in a worse 
position. And the chief danger to the future position 
and the influence of the A.C.G.B.I. — and in consequence 
a serious menance to the prosperity of the automobile 
movement — is to be found in the fact that the policy of 
carrying on the c\ub Journal is ranging the trade solidly 
against the club. For it is the trade that is finding the 
funds for conducting the Journal, and doubtless it 
would find the same amount willingly enough if it were 
used for benefitting the industry. The trade is finding 
the money because it is making what is in effect and 
what it also feels to be a " forced contribution " to the 
expenses of running that publication, of which no part 
is used in any real sense for purposes of " encourage- 
ment. " It is a "forced contribution" because the 
amounts paid are for advertisements which are not of 
real value. 

It is commonly recognised that advertisements in 
journals, the circulation of which is largely complimen- 
tary or gratuitous, are practically of only the smallest 
value. And this is what the circulation of the club 
Journal to all intents and putposes is. The sales of the 
club Journal, apart from its free distribution, brought in 
in the ten months January to October, ^24 $s. 9 i.e„ 
under 1,000 copies were sold during that period, or 
about an average of 25 copies per week. Few even of 
this small number have been, we believe, bona fide sales 
to the public, but have been largely purchased for 
private distribution in batches, for the sake of some 
laudatory or flattering article. Why, then, have the 
trade supported the club Journal to the extent they 
have done? We learn from a passage in the recent 
report, which, by the way, acknowledges the impropriety 
of canvassing for advertisements, and proposes that it 
should in future be abandoned, that they have hitherto 
been obtained through canvassing done by members of 
the club staff. What is the position of a manufacturer 
who is canvassed for an advertisement in the club 
Journal} In the majority of cases he gives the adver- 
tisement, not because he thinks it is worth the money, 
but because he, not unnaturally, fears that if he refused it 
he might incur the hostility of a powerful organisation, or 
at any rate of some of its leading members. It is this 
feeling which is rendering the whole policy so unpopular 
with the trade, and is making the trade as a whole 
inimical to the club as a body. That the Sub-Com- 
mittee feel this is clearly shown by their laying down, 
as we have mentioned, that some scheme should be 
evolved by which this canvassing can be avoided. A 
condition of affairs which thus tends to promote and 
foster a feeling of hostility towards the club, on the part 
of the trade, is, we repeat, certain to have a prejudicial 
effect upon the future of the automobile movement. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 16, 1904. 



The Journal. Cost v. Value. 
Nor must it be imagined that these forced contribu- 
tions are trifling. They are even at present exacted at 
the rate of upwards of ^6,000 a year, and, if the trade 
permits them to continue, it will find the club Journal 
a veritable Old Man of the Sea. The stronger it grows 
the greater will be its strength to extort further exactions. 
If the position is such that the trade has felt compelled 
to yield to the tune of ^6,000 per annum to the com- 
paratively feeble pressure that it can now bring to 
bear when it only incurs a loss, what will be the position 
if it should succeed in making a considerable profit. 
At present it causes a loss of ^137 15 s. ^d. It 
has been attempted to disguise this fact in the 
editorial columns of the Journal, by representing 
this loss as practically a gain. The argument 
adopted is ingenious. It is said that if the Journal 
were not conducted as a trade paper it would cost 
-£395 6j. *]d. alone for postage to the members, 
but as it only costs the club the smaller sum of 
;£ J 37 l 5 s ' 5^-i tne y are therefore getting it for a third 
of the postage cost. In any case there is a refreshing 
audacity in " squeezing " the trade to the extent ot 
^5,088 to save ^257 1 1 s. 2d. in postage to members 
of the club. But this assumes that a journal of 
this kind is a necessity. The contention is, of course, a 
pure sophistry. A real club paper, such as existed 
before the change of policy and as published by other 
institutions of a similar kind, and confined to the 
publication and dissemination of strictly club news and 
information, appearing once or twice a month, is the 
most that is needed for conveying private intelligence to 
the members, because most notices of any urgency could 
easily be inserted in the ordinary automobile press. In 
fact, this would be much better for the club, because its 
doings and deliberations would then be more fully dealt 
with in the general and the automobile press, and in 
that way obtain much wider publicity than they do at 
present in a journal which has had practically no public 
circulation, and is in future to have none at all. 
♦ ♦ ♦ 

A Pleasant Prospect I— for the Trade. 

If the trade consider its own true interests it will put 
its foot down firmly in this matter. For it is evidently 
intended to carry this principle of enforced contributions 
a great deal further. A member of the Journal Com- 
mittee — and one whose name now appears on the 
Publication Committee — has openly boasted that in a 
few years' time there will only be one journal — the Club 
Journal ; that, when that is the case, advertisements in its 
pages will be of such value that the Trade will probably 
have to assemble and bid against each other at auction 
to secure advertisement space in its pages. This is, of 
course, a ludicrous exaggeration of anything that can 
possibly be effected, but it shows that those responsible 
for the policy have the distinct intention of using the 
club influence and the club position in an attempt to 
build up a property the value of which will depend on 
the exactions which, having the club behind it, it will 
be enabled to make. It is a distinct attempt to corner 
the Trade, and if the Trade does not mean to be cor- 
nered, it must put its foot down hard — and now. 

All that the trade is now contributing to the Club 
Journal, by payment for advertisements, is actually 
tending to assist in building up a threatening monopoly 
of this kind. The stronger the fournal grows the more 
difficult it will be to prevent its further growth, and the 



more difficult it will be to combat it. It is, therefore, 
now and at once that the trade must decide whether it 
will any longer tolerate a " Society of Encouragement " 
misusing its position in this manner. The trade can 
stop the mischief at once by a combined and decided 
attitude. If it neglects to do so now it may find such 
action beyond its power in the future. 

There is no reason why the Club should confine its 
trading merely to running a trade paper. Several 
attempts have been made in the past to commence a 
business in accessories, &c. They have, so far, been 
promptly stopped. If the Journal is permitted to go on 
on its present lines, there is, however, no reason why 
these attempts should not be renewed, and extended 
possibly to trading in cars, the whole movement being 
backed up by the club Journal. The Journal is the 
first attempt at general trading, and the Trade would be 
well advised to stop it, and to stop it quickly. 



For the Club's Own Sake. 

Nor is this the only important aspect of the question. 
Until comparatively recently the Club occupied a 
unique position. It commanded the respect of the 
public generally, the confidence of all automobilists, the 
support of the trade, and the friendly consideration of 
the Government and of all local authorities. Every 
one of these advantages it has either wholly or 
partly sacrificed since the change of policy which has 
taken effect in the conversion of Notes and Notices 
into the Automobile Club Journal. This is to 
some extent due to the regrettable absence of 
tact, judgment, and capability with which that Journal 
itself has been conducted, and to which we have, 
from time to time, in the public interest, felt called 
upon to draw attention. But it is inherent in 
the situation. In running a trade journal for profit 
(correctly speaking for present loss which it is hoped to 
convert into profit), the Club is becoming a trade cor- 
poration just as much as if it manufactured a special car 
or a special carburettor, and put them on the market as 
the Club car or the Club carburettor. Neither Govern- 
ments, local authorities, nor the public can look on such 
a corporation in the same way as they formerly looked 
upon the Club, as consisting mainly of men of position 
interested in a new movement, doing all they could to 
promote it, both as an industry and as a sport, often at 
the cost of considerable self sacrifice and in every way 
standing as a Society of Encouragement upon the same 
platform as the Automobile Clubs of France and 
Germany. The truth of these observations is illus- 
trated with painful clearness by the conspicuous 
manner in which, when framing its regulations under 
the new Act, the Local Government Board preferred 
to confer with a special Committee called together 
by the Hon. J. Scott Montagu, and with other interested 
bodies, rather than have any dealings whatever with 
the Automobile Club. These facts speak for themselves, 
and form the most powerful commentary and condemna- 
tion of the policy of which we have repeatedly felt called 
upon to disapprove. At its commencement the Auto- 
mobile Club pre-eminently assumed the role of a 
Society of Encouragement — an institution whose 
principal raison d'etre was to assist and benefit the 
automobile movement in every possible way. By run- 
ning the club Journal it has, as we have shown, pre- 
judiced its position in the eyes of the public and the 



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January 16, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



57 



responsible authorities of the country, and as far as the 
Journal itself is concerned, the Club is not contributing 
to the benefit of the industry, but is exploiting the trade 
to provide funds for entirely imaginary needs of its own. 



An Important Legislative Delay. 

In a letter which we publish in our correspondence 
columns Dr. Brightmore draws attention to the very 
unsatisfactory condition of affairs which the muddled 
and hurried Motor Car Act of 1903 has permitted to 
obtain in regard to heavy traction. Section 20 of the 
Act of 1903 states that the term "motor car " in this 
Act has the same meaning as " light locomotive " in the 
Act of 1896. When we turn to the latter Act we find in 
Section 1 that the enactments in the Schedule to the 
Act "shall not apply to any vehicle propelled by 
mechanical power if it is under 3 tons m weight." 
Consequently, if a motor vehicle weighs 3 tons or 
more, it is to all intents and purposes, as Dr. Brightmore 
points out, a traction-engine, and the registering 
authorities are justified in refusing to register it as a 
motor car. Being a traction-engine, it cannot go more 
than four miles an hour, and must have at least two 
men in charge of it. Now many lurries in the 
country weigh over 3 tons ; in fact they cannot be 
well and substantially built without weighing in most 
cases a good deal more. It is true that they have 
hitherto been permitted to run as weighing under 
3 tons, and it is for this reason that we occasionally 
see steam and other lurries embellished with a large and 
legible inscription setting forth that they weigh 2 tons 
19 cwt., and generally some quarters — even if they 
weigh this, and more. But things are different now that 
they have to be registered, and of course manufacturers 
do not like adopting the course of registering lurries at 
what they well know is less than their real weight. The 
situation is serious, for the heavy lurry industry is being 
seriously interfered with by this legislative muddle. The 
Local Government Board have promised to go into this 
question repeatedly. 

The Act of 1903 gives them full power to do so. 
Dr. Brightmore urges that the tare weight should not be 
less than 7 tons, or, say, a gross load of 16 tons. For 
goodness sake let the Local Government Board urge the 
Departmental Committee they have appointed to go into 
this matter, to come to a decision at the earliest possible 
moment. A most promising branch of automobilism, 
and the one which English engineers have made 
peculiarly their own, is the manufacture of the com- 
mercial vehicle. That is now largely at a standstill. 
It cannot revive till the Local Government Board take 
action. , This surely is a matter of urgency if ever 
there were one. 

With men of such practical experience and adminis- 
trative capacity serving on the Committee as the Hon. 
Arthur Stanley, MJ\, Sir John Thornycroft, F.R.S., 
Major Lindsay- Lloyd, R.E., to whom have recently been 
added, to represent more directly the trade, Mr. Burford 
and Mr. S. Straker, there is no doubt that sensible and 
useful regulations will be drawn up. The important 
point is that they should be formulated at the earliest 

possible moment. 

♦ «o» ♦ 

Misapprehension in High Places. 
We wish someone would inform us how the mistaken 
notion, that a lower limit than 10 miles an hour can be 



legally prescribed, arose. Is it an invention of the 
daily papers which they have repeated so often 
that people have come to believe it? At any rate 
the annoying misunderstanding continues to be insisted 
upon and to spread. The County Councils' Association 
and the Municipal Corporations' Association recently 
held a conference at Westminster, which was attended 
by Mr. H. C. Monro, C.B., on behalf of the Local 
Government Board, and Mr. J. N. Dobbs for the Scot- 
tish Office. The object of the meeting was to suggest 
uniformity in the designs adopted for the notice boards 
in various parts of the country on roads where the 
10-mile limit is to be adopted, and on those which are 
prohibited altogether. In addition, the conference dis- 
cussed the question of certain designs of notice boards 
to show dangerous corners, cross roads, and sudden dips. 
It is at present suggested, and the suggestion will 
probably be adopted, that for the 10 miles an hour limi; 
a round white ring 18 inches in diameter shall be used 
with a plate below, giving the limit in figures. A solid red 
disc of the same diameter is to be used for total pro- 
hibition, while a hollow green equilateral triangle is to 
be used as a danger signal. All other notices under the 
Act are to be on diamond-shaped boards. During the 
discussion, it was stated that a lower limit than 10 miles 
an hour could be legally adopted under Section 8 of the 
Act. There is certainly no power to do so under 
Section 9, which is the section designed for regulating 
the rate of speed. If an attempt is being made to twist 
the phraseology of Section 8 (dralted for a totally 
different purpose) in order to enable speed to be still 
further restricted, it is of importance that every auto- 
mobilist in the country, and particularly those who are 
to be looked upon as the guardians of the interests of the 
movement, should keep a look out. Section 8 states 
that the Local Government Board may by regulations 
made under Section 6 of the principal Act (ihat is the 
Act of 1896) prohibit or restrict the driving of any 
special kind of motor cars on any specified highway or 
part of a highway which does not exceed 16 feet in width, 
or on which ordinary motor traffic would in their opinion 
be specially dangerous. The clear meaning of the word 
" restrict," taking the context of this section into con- 
sideration, would obviously refer to regulations stating 
that, say, not more than so many cars may pass along 
the particular road at once, but considering that there 
were other sections specially referring to the rate of 
speed, it would be nothing short of monstrous to allow 
the phraseology of this section to be perverted in such a 
manner. We feel quite certain that the Local Govern- 
ment Board will not permit anything of the kind to be 
done. 



The General Committee o! the Motor Union. 

The first meeting of the General Committee of the 
Motor Union was held on Monday, the nth inst.^at 
4.30 p.m. at the Automobile Club. The representatives 
of the affiliated provincial clubs who have seats on this 
Committee met in solemn conclave on this occasion for 
the first time. Various matters of general interest were 
discussed, and among other decisions taken, a resolution 
to provide ^50 towards the expenses of prosecuting a 
certain well-known Metropolitan policeman for alleged 
perjury was duly carried. We are glad to see the new 
year commenced by such a step in the right direction as 
this. 



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[jANUAkY l6, I904. 



THE 1904 COTTEREAU PETROL CARS. 



Fig. i.— The 3-Cylinder Cottereau Petrol Car. 



The most interesting departure made by the enterprising 
firm of Cottereau and Co., of Dijon, is the introduction 
this year of a 3-cylinder 12 to 16-h.p. vehicle, which is not 
only constructed on thoroughly up-to-date lines, but differs 
in many important respects from their other well-known 
models. A chassis of this type formed the chief attrac- 
tion on their stall at the recent Paris Salon, and a com- 
plete vehicle of the same pattern was available in the 
neighbourhood of the Exhibition for demonstrating the 
good points of the new model to customers. We took 
advantage of the opportunity thus offered of giving it a 
practical trial, and were impressed with its comfort, 
silence, and absence of vibration. It is apparently in all 
respects equal to many good 4-cylinder vehicles, and it 
has plenty of power as an all-round touring vehicle for 
four passengers. 

A good general idea of this model, which it will be 
observed is of the side-chain type, can be obtained from 
the accompanying illustrations, Figs. 1 to 3, and the 
more important portions of it are shown in the further 
illustrations, Figs. 4 to 10 inclusive. Fig. 1 is repro- 
duced from a photograph of the complete car, which is 
fitted with a well-made and nicely finished tonneau body 
of the usual form. Fig. 2 is a view of the complete 
chassis from above, in which the positions of the various 
portions of the mechanism are well seen, and in Fig. 3 the 
central part of the chassis, as seen from the left side — is 
well indicated, the gear-box, the regulating levers and 
pedals, and the fittings on the dash being particularly 
prominent. 

The main frame is constructed of pressed steel, and 
is formed with a substantial underframe, which supports 
the engine and the gear-box. The underframe is ren- 
dered rigid with the frame proper by strong pressed 
steel brackets, connecting these two parts together at 
intervals. The frame is carried upon long flat semi- 
elliptic side springs in much the usual way, and those above 
the back axle are placed outside the frame itself, with 



shackles at each end. The back axle is tubular and the 
front axle is a solid forging. The former is straight and 
is connected with the frame by the usual adjustable 
radius rods, whilst the latter bows downwards beneath 
the engine and is bifurcated at its ends to support the 
steering heads both above and below. Substantial 
wheels of the artillery type are employed, and these run> 
on ball-bearings ; the wheels are made in two standard 
sizes, to take 810 by 90 mm. tyres, or 870 by 90 mm., 
at the option of the purchaser ; the chassis in the »Salor> 
had Collier tyres. The wheel base is 7 ft. 8 in., the 
track 4 ft. 4 in., and the weight of the chassis is about 
15 cwt. The steering gear is of the irreversible type, 
with sloping steering pillar; it is specially arranged so 
as to prevent vibration or shocks from being transmitted 
to the driver's hand. 

The appearance of the engine, removed from the 
chassis, is seen in Fig. 4, which is reproduced from a 
photograph taken from the left-hand side. It is seen 
from the other side, fixed in place on the car, in Fig. 5, 
and is further shown by two vertical sections in Figs. 6 
and 7 transversely and longitudinally respectively. Each 
of the three cylinders is formed by a separate casting, 
which is bolted to the upper portion of the aluminium 
crank-chamber. The cylinders have a bore of 95 mm. r 
and the stroke is 120 mm. ; at the normal speed of 1,200 
revs, per min. the engine develops 16-b.h.p., and in 
practice it is capable of doing useful work when running 
at as low a speed as 150 r.p.m. The inlet-valve 
chambers are formed on the right side, and the exhaust- 
valve chambers on the left. All six valves are inter- 
changeable, and have inspection covers screwed into the 
casting above them. The covers above the inlet-valves 
receive the ignition-plugs, which are of the ordinary high- 
tension pattern, and are used in conjunction with accu- 
mulators and induction coils. The upper portion of the 
cylinders have large water-jackets, as seen in Figs. 6 and 
7, and have half compression cocks fitted centrally above 



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Fig. 2. — View of the 3-Cylinder Cottercau Chassis from above. 

the cylinders. The water is led into each jacket around set at an angle of 1 20 degrees from one another. The 
the inlet-valve chambers, and is led out at the opposite valves are so timed that the explosions occur at equal 
side near the exhaust-valve chambers. The crank- intervals in the cylinders, giving an explosion at each two- 
chamber is made in two pieces with a horizontal joint on thirds of a revolution, as clearly shown in the accompany- 
the centre line of the crank-shaft ; between these it forms ing diagram (Fig. 8), which will be easily understood, 
three separate compartments, each of which has a large The upper portion of the crank-chamber is so con- 
inspection cover at its lowest point. A separate bearing structed that the camshafts on either side can be slid 
is thus provided between each of the cranks, which are into place from the front end, together with the brasses 



FlG. 3. — Central Portion of the 3-Cylinder Cottercau Chassis from the left side, showing Gear-lox, Fevers, Pedals, and Fittings on the Dash. 



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Fig. 4. — The 3 -Cylinder Cottereau Engine, from the left side. 



which form bearings for them between the cams. The 
brasses themselves are held in place by small set-screws 
passing through the outer wall of the casting, and are 
slightly larger than the cams. Each of these shafts 
has a gear-wheel at its forward end which meshes with 
a wheel on a central intermediate shaft, geared in the 
ratio of two to one to a wheel on the crank-shaft. All 
these four wheels are enclosed in a separate casing 
forming the front of the crank-chamber, and the casing 
also encloses the centrifugal governor on the front end 



of the exhaust cam-shaft. The intermediate shaft pro- 
jects forward through the casing, and is coupled flexibly, 
though direct, with a circulating pump fixed to the 
frame. The front end of the crank-shaft carries a pulley, 
from which the fan behind the honeycomb radiator is 
driven by a belt, and the commutator is mounted on 
the front end of the inlet -cam-shaft. 

All the valves are operated through push-rods in much 
the usual way, but, as can be seen in Fig. 6, the lower 
ends of these rods have additional pin-guides to steady 



Fig. 5. — The J-Cylinder Cottereau Engine, fixed in place in the Chassis — from the right side. 



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Fig. 6. — Transverse Vertical Section of the 3-Cylinder 
Cottereau Engine. 



Fig. 7. — Longitudinal Vertical Section of the 3-Cylinder Cottereau Engine. 



them. The push-rods for the inlet valves are constructed 
so that their effective length can be varied from a hand- 
lever mounted on the steering-pillar. Their construc- 
tion for this purpose is clearly shown in Fig. 9, which 
not only shows one of these rods complete in its guide- 
casting, A, but also shows this mechanism taken 
apart entirely. The upper portion, B, of the push-rod 
has a screw-thread at its lower end and has long pinion 
teeth cut around its middle portion. The lower part, C, 
of the push-rod is drilled and tapped out for the upper 
part, B, to screw into, and the head at its lower end is 
shaped to ride on the cam. This head is also steadied 
by the guide-pin, G, that passes through it, the pin itself 
projecting downward from the crank-chamber casting. 
The rod, D, forms a toothed rack which is free to slide 
lengthwise in the horizontal guide formed for it in the 
casting, A, and its teeth engage in those in the rack 
B. The entire push-rod is therefore free to re- 
ciprocate — and thus allow the cam to lift the valve — 
but the portion, B, can 

at the same time be ^ ^y A\ 

rotated about its axis 
by sliding the rack, D, 
longitudinally. The 

rod, B, can therefore 
be screwed further into 
or more out of the 
lower portion, C, of 
the push-rod, thus allow- 
ing any desired amount 
of back-lash to exist 
between the cam and 
the valve, causing the 
valve to open early or 
later, to open to a 
greater or less extent, 
and to close later or 
earlier ; the quantity of 
mixture drawn into the 
cylinder during the 
suction strokes can thus 
be varied by the driver. 
The sliding rods, D, 
are all three connected 
together, as seen in 
Fig. 5, and are simul- 
taneously moved by the 



D. 1 st cylinder 

2 nd cylinder 
3 rd cylinder 




Fig. 8. — Diagram showing cycle of operations in each of the three Cylinders 
in relation to the half-speed Cam-Shaft — eacli circle represents two 



.r .a 



revolutions of the Engine. 



rod, D 1 , which is connected with them through the 
pivoted lever, D a . 

The commutator is connected with a small hand-lever 
fixed on the right side of the dash, by which the time of 
ignition can be varied. A separate coil is used for each 
cylinder, but a single trembler serves for all three of 
them. The carburettor is of the same float-feed-spray 
type, of which we gave an illustrated description on 
March 7th last. The throttle- valve is connected with 
the governor in conjunction with an accelator pedal, and 
the valve which regulates the richness of the mixture is 
operated by a second hand-lever on the steering pillar. 
The carburettor is placed to the left of the engine, and 
the petrol flows to it from an 8-gall. tank, placed: beneath 
the seat, by gravity. The exhaust gases are led .by a 
single pipe to a large expansion chamber, placed longitu- 
dinally to the left of the gear-box, and are subsequently 
conducted from it to the exhaust box proper, which is 
placed transversely at the rear. The honeycomb- 
radiator has a capacity 
of about 3 gals., and 
the fan, which draws 
the air through it, is 
mounted in ball bear- 
ings. 

The main clutch is 
of the ordinary cone 
type, and is connected 
with the change-speed- 
gear by a shaft having 
flexible couplings. The 
entire transmission gear 
runs on ball bearings, 
which are of the ad- 
justable type. The 
gear-box is rigidly fixed 
to the frame, and is of 
that type in which three 
speeds and a reverse 
are available, with a 
direct-through-drive to 
the differential counter- 
shaft on the top speed. 
A view of the box from 
beneath, with the bot- 
tom cover removed, is 
given in Fig. 10 — in 



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[January 16, 1904. 



referring to this it 
must be remembered 
that the box is ap- 
parently upside down. 
The first - motion- 
shaft, F, has a square 
section inside the 
box, the spur-wheels, 
F, sliding upon it, for 
giving either of the 
three forward speeds. 
The shaft takes a 
bearing inside the 
gear-wheel, G, which 
is rigid with the bevel- 
wheel, G 1 , and this 
wheel, G, has jaw- 
clutch members 
formed in it to cor- 
respond with those 
on the rear end of 
the sliding wheel - 
sleeve. Three spur- 
wheels, H 1 , are fixed 

on the lay-shaft, H, one of them being at all times 
in mesh with the wheel, G, and the other two being 
so placed that the wheels, F 1 , can be brought into 
gear with them. A separate hand-lever beside the 
driver is used for introducing the " reverse," this being 
connected with the intermediate wheel, J, causing it to 
come into mesh with the low-speed wheels on the shafts, 
F and H. The bevel-wheel, G l , meshes with a larger 
bevel fixed to the shell of the differential-gear, K, and 
the brake drum, K l , is also fixed to this shell. The two 
differential shafts terminate in flexible coupling members, 
L, with which engage the two halves of the countershaft 
carrying the sprockets. The countershaft brake is acted 




Fig. 9.— The Variable-Lift Inlet- Valve Mechanism on the 3-Cylinder and Single- 
Cylinder 1904 Cottercau Engines, showing one of the Push-Rods complete in its 
Guide, and the same parts disconnected and separate. 



upon by metal shoes, 
and is operated by a 
foot- pedal as usual. 
The side brakes, too, 
are of the metal- 
to - metal external 
band type, and are 
simultaneously ac- 
tuated by the side 
lever. 

The engine is fed 
with oil from an 
automatic lubricator 
on the dash, and 
the gear-box, which 
is partly filled with 
oil, lubricates it - 
self. 

The other Cot- 
tereau models for 
this year consist of 
their " Populaire " 
voiturette, which is 
now supplied either 
as a two-seated vehicle or with a tonneau for four, of 7-h.p. 
and 10-h.p. twin-cylinder vehicles, and of a 4-cylinder 
16 to 20-h.p. car. The engine on the Populaire is now 
of increased power, the cylinder having a bore of 105 
nim., and the stroke being 118 mm. Its nominal power 
is 7 to 8-h.p., and the normal speed is 1,100 revs, per 
min. This handy little vehicle was illustrated and 
described by us on October 3rd and 10th last, and is 
unaltered in general respects this year. The engine, 
however, has the variable - lift inlet -valve device, 
described above, and the live axle is fitted with ball 
bearings. The chassis has its wheel base increased by 
eight inches when intended for use as a four-seater. 



Fig. 10.— View of the Change-Speed-Gear on the 3-Cyliuder Cottereau Car— taken rom beneath, with the Bottom Cover removed. 



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The 7-h.p. car has cylinders 85 mm. by 105 mm., and 
those on the 10-h.p. vehicle have a larger bore— by 
5 mm. ; the respective normal speeds of these two 
engines is 1,200 and 1,300 revs, per min. A very full 
description of the 16 to 20-h.p. model appeared in our 
issue of March 7 th last. This car has four forward 
speeds instead of three, as in the other models, and its 
cylinder dimensions are 92 mtn. by 120 mm., the normal 
speed being 1,000 revs, per min. The change-speed- 
gear is similar to that on the Mors cars, a separate bevel 
gear being used between each of the gear shafts and the 
differential. The engine has high-tension and low- 
tension ignition, but the lift of the mechanically- 



operated inlet-valves is not variable. The sample chassis 
of this type, which was shown in the Paris Salon, was 
illustrated by us on December 19th last, p. 1359. The 
1904 Cottereau models, which are well and strongly 
designed, show that the manufacturers are determined to 
keep in the front ranks amongst automobile manu- 
facturers. They are in particular to be congratulated 
upon the new 3-cylinder car which they have so suc- 
cessfully produced. It will be remembered that Messrs. 
McNeil, Hutchison, and Borthwick, of 4, St. Mary's 
Parsonage, Manchester, are their sole and exclusive 
agents for .the whole of the British Empire, and are the 
owners of the Cottereau patents over that area. 



THE PEUGEOT SHOCK . DAMPER. 



We are now able to give illustrations of the device 
fitted by the Peugeot Company, on some of their cars, to 
prevent the side-springs from having excessive free play 
when the vehicle is travelling over very bumpy roads, and 
when it would (without it) be caused to swing up and 
down unduly. One of these devices is introduced 
between each axle and each side of the frame, so that 
there are four in all on the car. The first of our illus- 
trations shows the one end of a rear-live-axle, and the 



other shows the end of the stationary axle on a chain- 
driven car. In both cases a bracket, A, is rigidly fixed 
to the frame, and the link, B, is pivoted to it. Another 
link, C, which is pivoted to a bracket, D, — fixed rigidly 
to the axle — is connected with the link, B, through a 
strong spiral spring enclosed in the casing, E. The spring, 
E, becomes tightened on itself when the axle moves any 
considerable distance upward towards the frame, and thus 
acts as a dash-pot for restraining the ordinary side-springs. 



Interesting statistics are published by LAuto 
relative to the export and import trade in Belgium for 
the past year. From these we find that the import of 
motor cars from France has been very considerable, 
being more than ten times the amount of the imports 
from any other country. Curiously enough, the exports 
to France are also considerable, and while the imports 
from Great Britain are very small, the exports to Great 
Britain come second to those to France. Belgium is a 
great importer of accessories and subsidiary parts, mainly 
from France and Germany, so we may conclude that 
a large part of the Belgian industry consists in putting 
cars together and exporting complete vehicles. It is 
only in motor cycles that the Belgian exports to France 
exceed the imports from that country. 



Mr. C. J. Glidden, of Boston, whose exploits in 
driving a motor car north of the Arctic Circle we 
chronicled last summer, has decided on undertaking a 
tour round the world. Mr. Glidden intends starting 
next July, and will journey through France and Switzer- 
land to the South of Italy, whence he will cross to 
Algeria, travelling along the northern coast of Africa, 
through Arabia, to India — if he can. We say " if he 
can " advisedly, as the difficulties he will encounter in 
Arabia and Baluchistan will make him look back on his 
Swedish experiences as a pleasant pastime in comparison. 
From India Mr. Glidden intends to cross China, and 
return across America to Boston. A new 24-h.p. Napier 
car is being built for Mr. Glidden's trip, at the new 
Napier works at Acton. 



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[January 16, 1904. 



THE BROUHOT PETROL CARS. 



The latest Brouhot 4-cylinder models, which are being 
made in four sizes of 12-14, 15-18, 20-24, an d 40-60 h.p., 
are well-made machines, having many interesting 
features ; they have either armoured wood or pressed 
steel frames to suit the wishes of purchasers. A 15 to 
18-h.p. car, fitted with a phaeton body, having a canopy 
top and glass windows, is shown in one of our illustra- 
tions, and a 40 to 60-h.p. racing car in another. A 
12-h.p. chassis, typical of them all, formed the central 
attraction of their stall at the Paris Salon, and the illus- 
trations we give are reproduced from photographs taken 
of it. Fig. 1 shows the rear portion of the chassis, and 
is taken from behind and above. The vehicle is of the 
chain-driven type, and is constructed with a pressed 
nickel steel frame. The engine has four cylinders, and 
is mounted upon an underframe. The semi-elliptic side 
springs above the rear axle are arranged outside the 



and is of the gear-wheel type ; the water-pipes connecting 
it with the cylinder-jackets and the radiator are very 
short, and are made of nickel steel tubing. 

The automatic carburettor is particularly interesting. 
It is seen in position in Figs. 2 and 3, and is shown 
separately with the removable jet taken out in Fig. 4. 
The branched induction pipes, A, which lead to each 
pair of cylinders, are fitted with a throttle-valve, B, con- 
trolled by the governor through the rod, B 1 , but subject 
to hand and foot accelerator controls. This fitting is 
attached to the mixing-chamber, C, by the flange, A 1 
(Fig. 4). The mixing-chamber, C, is a simple cylinder, 
in through the bottom of which the petrol is free to 
flow by the pipe fitting, D 1 , from the float-feed-chamber, 
D. The port in the mixing-chamber is a conical hole, 
into which a corresponding spigot in the bottom of the 
removable jet-casting, C 2 , fits accurately. A passage is 



A 15-18-h.p. Brouhot Petrol Car, fitted with Canopy Top. 



frame, are very long and flat; they are attached to long 
spring-horns projecting from the frame proper. The 
general appearance of the engine is seen in Figs. 2 and 
3, where it will be noticed that a belt-driven fan is 
arranged behind a honeycomb radiator in front. 
1 The engine has its cylinders cast in pairs. All the 
valves are operated mechanically, and are arranged on 
the same side. An ordinary high-tension ignition system 
is employed, though the company fit a dynamo for auto- 
matically recharging the accumulators when required. 
The ignition plugs used are of unusually large size, and 
are fitted centrally into the heads of the c>linders. The 
commutator is carried on the end of the cam-shaft, and 
is accessible from the front of the car. A separate coil 
is used for each cylinder, and each coil has its own 
trembler. The crankshaft is made of specially hard 
^nickel steel, and the bearings in which.it is carried in 
the crank-shaft are adjustable. The base of the crank- 
chamber can be taken off without disturbing the bearings, 
and the upper portion has four feet, by which it is fixed 
to the underframe. The circulating pump is gear-driven, 



drilled up through the spigot in the casting, C 2 , com- 
municating with the jet, C 3 . This casting, C 2 , is held 
down in place in the chamber, C, by the cap, C l , which 
is screwed down above it. The air enters the mixing- 
chamber, C, through the pipe, E, in which a spring- 
loaded valve is fitted so as to retard its flow. The 
air enters the mixing-chamber past the jet, C 2 , and 
has to flow around over the surface of. the casting, C 2 , 
before it can find its way to the throttle-valve, B, and the 
induction pipes, A. The valve in the tube, E, is a flat 
circular disc, which more or less obstructs the passage of 
the air, according to its position in a conical portion of 
the tube surrounding it. As the quantity of mixture 
required by the engine increases, so the valve is forced 
by the entering air to offer less resistance to its passage, 
thus approximately retaining a constant degree of vacuum 
in the mixing-chamber ; the valve can be adjusted by the 
screw, E 1 . The entire air supply is warmed by a per- 
forated portion of the pipe- fitting, E, which is arranged 
outside one of the exhaust pipes, as seen in Figs. 2 and 3. 
The temperature of the air can be varied by sliding the 



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Fig. 1. — View of the 12-h.p. Brouhot Chassis frcm above and behind. 



sleeve, F, over the perforated pipe, and a small screw, 
F l , is arranged for locking it in any required position. 
A spring-loaded auxiliary air-valve, G, is also arranged in 
the induction pipe-fitting between the throttle-valve, B, 
and the cylinders, so that a certain amount of cold, 
auxiliary air is admitted if the throttle-valve is sufficiently 
closed to give the required suction. 

The main-clutch is of a special internal type, acting 
in much the same manner as an ordinary brake. The 
band is lined with camel-hair, and is so arranged that 
it can easily be removed for replacing the lining, if re- 
quired. The band is made to grip a drum inside the 
flywheel by the action of a spring and is freed by a 
clutch-pedal, as usual. By this construction a very light 



pressure on the pedal is sufficient, and a nice soft action 
is ensured. A flexible coupling is introduced between 
the clutch and the gear-box, and the clutch pedal is inter- 
connected with both the foot and hand brakes. 

The change-speed-gear is of the sliding-spur-wheel 
type, and gives three speeds and a reverse, with a direct- 
through-drive on the top speed to the countershaft. 
The lay shaft, which lies to the left of the direct-through- 
shaft, is disconnected from the latter entirely when the 
top speed is in use, and it does not, therefore, revolve 
at that time. The gears are all operated by a single lever 
in the usual way. The gear-box is fixed at some distance 
behind the clutch, and has a three-point suspension en 
the frame ; its weight is taken by the countershaft at the 



Fig. 2. — A 12-h.p. Brouhot Engine in place in the Car. 



Fig. 3. — A closer view, showing the Brouhot Automatic Carburettor fixed 
in Place on the Engine. 



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C! 



Fig. 4.— The Brouhot Automatic Carburettor, with its Removable Jet taken out from the Mixing Chamber. 



rear, and self-aligning bearings are arranged at each 
end of this shaft. 

A metal-to-metal foot brake is fitted on the counter- 
shaft, and this is arranged so that it is water-cooled 
automatically when applied. The rear brakes on the 
hubs of the driving wheels are of much the same 
pattern as the clutch ; their action is compensated by a 
steel cable. 

We have already referred to the vibration-damping 
device which is fitted upon this car, and are now able to 
show the way in which it is arranged. One of the brake- 
drums, K 1 , which are fixed near each end of the 
stationary back-axle, is seen in place in Fig. 5, where it 
will be noticed that it is encircled by a brake-band, K, 
the two ends of which are held together by a sliding-pin 
and the spring, K 2 . The brake-band, K, is secured to 
the main-frame by the swinging link, L, and it is on the 
upper side connected by a steel cord, H 1 , with a large 
helical spring enclosed in a stationary tube, II; the position 
of the tubes, H, is seen in Fig. 1. The front ends of the 
large helical springs are attached to drums, J, which can 
be tightened up to the desired extent, and are, for this 
purpose, fitted with pawl-and-ratchet gear. It is difficult 
to explain or even to see quite how this device works, but 



it will be noticed that any sudden movement of the back 
axle relatively to the frame will cause the link, L, to 
press the band, K, down tangentially about the drum. 
As the band is moved in this way the tendency is for it 
to pull on the steel cable, H 1 , stretching the large helical 
spring. The combined action of these forces tends to 
lock the axle to the frame, and this effect apparently is 
sufficient to prevent too free a motion of the ordinary 
side springs when the car is travelling over extraordinarily 
bumpy roads. After traversing such abnormally rough 
surfaces, it is probable that the band, K, gradually slips 
upon the drum, K 1 , and that any movements of the axle 
up and down are insufficient to make the band, K, bite. 
The cylinders on the 12-14-h.p. engine have a bore 
of 90 mm. and a stroke 0/ 100 mm., those on the 
15-18-h.p. model have cylinders 100 by no mm., and 
the bore and stroke of the 20-24-h.p. engine are 120 by 
140 mm. respectively. The normal speed in all cases is 
900 revs, per min. and the maximum speed about 
1,200 revs, per min. The smallest of these three engines 
has a minimum useful speed of 120 revs, per min., and 
the two larger sizes will run satisfactorily at 1 00 and at 
80 revs, per min. respectively. The Brouhot Company 
also make 2-cylinder models. 



Fig. 5. — The Shock- Damping Device fitted to the Brouhot Car. 



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THE MOTOBLOC PETROL CAR. 



The Motobloc is one of the comparatively few French 
vehicles, shown at the recent Salon, which does not follow 
any usual orthodox arrangement in its design. Although 
not a new creation — for it was shown at the 1902 Salon, 
as briefly recorded by us at that time — and although it 
is unlikely to become the rage to any very great extent, 
yet it is not without interest, and deserves a somewhat 
fuller record than it has hitherto received in our columns. 
The object of the designers has been to condense the 
engine and the change-speed-gear into as small a compass 
as possible, and in fact, as the name implies, to construct 
them as a single unit rather than as distinct mechanisms. 
There is, of course, nothing particularly novel in this, 
for it has been the aim of several makers at different 
times during the past few years — even if their endeavours 
have not met with any very conspicuous success — but we 
are inclined to think that more ingenuity than usual is 
displayed in the construction of the Motobloc mechanism. 



up to the crank-chamber, and its other end carries a spur- 
wheel, on the face of which jaw-clutch members are 
formed. This end of the crank-shaft is bored out 
to receive the inner end of the direct-through-shaft of the 
change-speed-gear, which at its other end projects 
through the casing, and is fitted with a main clutch. 
The spur-wheel on the crank-shaft is at all times in mesh 
with a corresponding wheel of twice the size on a shaft, 
enclosed in the same casing, which acts as the cam-shaft 
for operating the exhaust-valves, and as the lay- shaft for 
the change-speed-gear. This lay-shaft has three other spur- 
wheels fitted to it, one of which is at all times in mesh 
with an intermediate wheel for giving the u reverse." 
The direct-through-shaft has a square section, inside the 
box, and upon it slides the usual sleeve, carrying two 
spur wheels and a jaw-clutch member, for giving the 
three forward speeds and " reverse." The lay-shaft also 
has a skew-gear wheel mounted on it, which meshes 



Fig. 1. — The 10-h.p. Motobloc Chassis. 



A complete chassis is shown in Fig. 1, and two views 
of the combined engine and gear are given in Figs. 2 
and 3. The engine has two cylinders, which are cast in 
one piece, and are bolted at an angle of about 45 ° to 
a crank-chamber, which has a detachable cover fitted to 
it. The inlet-valves, which are operated atmospherically, 
are fitted into the upper side of the cylinder head, and 
the exhaust-valves face them on the under side. These 
valves are of large size, and are so constructed that they 
can be entirely removed, together with their seats. High 
tension ignition plugs are mounted in the ends of the 
cylinders, and half-compression cocks are screwed in 
through the walls. The carburettor, which is of the 
float-feed-type, is bolted to the cylinder casting, and the 
explosive mixture is led, through a throttle- valve, from it 
to a port passing through the casting to the valves. The 
crank-chamber casting is divided into two compartments, 
the one of which contains the crank-shaft, and the other 
a change-speed-gear of the sliding spur-wheel type. The 
flywheel is fixed to the outer end of the crank-shaft, close 



with a corresponding wheel on the inner end of the 
horizontal shaft seen in Fig. 3, the outer end of which is 
fitted with a pulley wheel, containing a centrifugal 
governor, and the commutator. 

The main clutch, outside the gear-box, is of the internal- 
cone type, with ball thrust bearings, and has its inner 
member fixed adjustably (though rigidly) to the outer end 
of the direct-through shaft. The external member of the 
clutch is rigid with a sprocket wheel lying between it 
and the crank-chamber casting, the power being trans- 
mitted from this sprocket to the live-rear-axle of the car 
by a single chain. It will be noticed that, contrary to 
usual practice, the main clutch is thus introduced between 
the change-speed-gear and the axle, instead of between 
the engine and the gear. The governor on the horizontal 
shaft is connected with the throttle valve, and the carbu- 
rettor is water-jacketed. The engine is nominally of 
10-h.p., and runs at a normal speed of 1,000 revs, per 
min. 

The chassis is constructed with an armoured wood 



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[January 16, 1904. 



Fig. 2.- 



-View of the Motobloc Combined Engine and Gear, from above and behind 
— the Cover to the Crank- and Gear- Chamber removed. 



frame, upon two transverse 
members of which rest four 
feet, projecting from the crank- 
chamber casting. The engine 
lies beneath the dash, with its 
cylinders projecting forward 
beneath the bonnet, and its 
crank-chamber beneath the 
driver's feet. A honeycomb 
radiator is fixed in front of 
the bonnet, and a fan is 
mounted just behind it ; the 
fan is driven by a belt from 
the pulley on the governor 
shaft, and the same belt runs 
over a pulley on the pump, 
which circulates the water 
through the cylinder jackets 
and the radiator. The frame 
is mounted upon semi-elliptic 
springs above the front and 
rear axles ; the rear springs, 
which have shackles at both 
ends, lie outside the frame. 
The two halves of the live- 
axle are enclosed in tubes 
which are rigid with the 

shell of the differential. The differential gear it- 
self is placed centrally, and the chain-wheel by 



which it is driven lies about mid- 
way between it and the spring on the 
right-hand side. The axle runs in plain 
bearings at each end, the bearings having 
oil baths, in which run .toothed wheels 
fixed to the revolving axles ; ttiese wheels 
splash up the oil and keep the bearings 
well lubricated. 

A brake-drum is fixed to the chain- 
wheel on the axle, the band on which is 
operated by a foot-pedal, and is double- 
acting. The usual brake-drums are also 
fitted to the hubs of each wheel, and 
these brakes are connected as usual with 
a hand lever. Radius rods are fitted at 
each side of the car between the axle and 
the frame. 

The speed of the engine is controlled 
by two small hand levers fitted to the 
steering pillar, the one of which acts upon 
the governor - controlled throttle - valve, 
and the other "times" the ignition. The 
crank-chamber and the gear-chamber are 



Fig. 3. 



View of the Motobloc combined Engine and Gear from the right side, showing \he 
Carburettor, the Governor, and the Main Clutch. 



lubricated from a force-pump on the dash, which is 
fitted with a two-way cock for this purpose. 



An effort is being made by the Society of Motor 
Manufacturers and Traders to bring together a repre- 
sentative British exhibit of automobiles for the St. Louis 
Exhibition, opening in May this year. America has a 
huge allotment of space, and both Fiance and Germany 
have arranged for a very extensive representation. The 
fact that the space is free and no duty is payable on 
goods entering the United States for the purpose of the 
St. Louis Exhibition should help to ensure Great 
Britain not being entirely left out in the ecld. Special 
arrangements for cheap transit of exhibits have also 
been elaborated. 



One of the strong features in connection with the 
Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders' Exhibition 
at the Crystal Palace next month will be the running of 
cars and cycles in the Crystal Palace grounds. A charge 
is to be made for this privilege of 3 guineas for each car 
and 1 guinea for each cycle during the run of the 
Exhibition. No firm will be allowed more than two 
cars or cycles in the grounds at one time. 



u The Wanderings of an Electric Spark " is the 
original title of a lecture to be given by Professor 
Simpson on February 5th before the Nottingham and 
District Automobile Club. 



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69 



THE LONGRIDGE TWO^STROKE ENGINE. 



Some particulars are now available concerning the two- 
stroke 'engine to which Captain Longridge made 
special reference in the paper read by him, entitled 
u Oil Motor Cars of 1902," before the Institute of 
Mechanical Engineers in October, 1902, his patent 
specification having now been published. The engine 
is constructed with two, or a multiple of two, working 
cylinders, which are closed at both 
ends, so that the portion on the 
underside of the piston forms a 
pump for delivering compressed air 
to the upper side of the piston] in 
the other cylinder. The two crank 
pins are set opposite one another, 
so that the pistons reciprocate in 
opposite directions in their respec- 
tive cylinders. While the explosion 
is taking place in the rear end of 
the one cylinder, its piston is com- 
pressing air in the front end, and 
this air is admitted through a 
mechanically-operated inlet-valve to 
the other cylinder when its piston- 
rod has about half completed its 
upward stroke, and has driven out 
some of the exhaust gases through 
its mechanically-operated exhaust 
valve. The piston in this cylinder con- 
tinues, while ascending, to compress 
the air, and a rich charge of car- 
buretted air is forced by an independent pump into the 
head of the cylinder at the time that combustion is required. 
The general arrangement of such a twin-cylinder 
engine is seen in the illustration which we reproduce, in 
which A is the casting forming the two cylinders, B is 
the upper portion of the crank-chamber, B l the lower 
portion, and B 2 the crank shaft. The inlet and exhaust 
valves, C, are only shown on the one cylinder, but 
similar valves are fitted to the other, and all are mechani- 
cally operated by cams on the shaft, F, which is driven 




through bevel-gearing and the vertical shaft, F 1 , at the 
same speed as the crank shaft. Atmospheric valves are 
fitted to allow the air to enter the lower portion of the 
cylinders, and similarly spring-loaded non-return valves 
are arranged between these ends of the cylinders and 
the pipe A, which leads from them to the inlet valves on 
top. The fuel-pump, E, is driven by an eccentric, E 1 , on 
the cam-shaft, F, and a governor, G, 
is fitted to control a valve, G 1 , 
through which the fuel finds its way 
to the pump. The pump has two 
suction valves, the one for the fuel 
and the other for air. The passage 
for the former leads into the 
bottom of the pump cylinder, and 
the passage from the other leads 
into the cylinder at a higher level. 
During the commencement of each 
suction stroke, fuel is drawn into 
the pump, and during the latter 
portion of that stroke, some of the 
air, which has already been com- 
pressed beneath the pistons in the 
working cylinder, is admitted into 
it. The delivery valve of the pump 
is fitted into the bottom of the 
pump-cylinder, and communicates 
with a spray nozzle which projects 
through the head of the working 
cylinder into the combustion 
chamber. A similar pump is used for each cylinder, 
and provision is made for timing the moments at 
which they force the rich mixture of fuel and air into 
their respective cylinders. 

Any form of ignition system may be used when start- 
ing, but subsequently the intention is that it should be 
dispensed with, and the charge fired automatically. 

The patent specification is numbered 4604 of 1903, 
and is unusually brief, although accompanied by three 
sheets of illustrations. 



The learned professions are one and all coming to 
recognise in the motor car the future reformer of our 
social system. We have Mr. Douglas Mackenzie, at 
the Surveyors' Institute, pointing out to an appreciative 
audience that the development of the motor industry is 
bound, sooner or later, to have a marked effect in decen- 
tralising industries by enabling workmen and employees 
to live at much greater distances from the scenes of their 
labours. Mr. Mackenzie also declared that motor trans- 
port for goods was much cheaper than railway transit, 
though at present our roads are unfit for an adequate 
development of this particular service. Of course, the 
railway rates, particularly for home produce, are prepos- 
terously and unconscionably high. Probably the lowering 
of those rates to something like a reasonable figure will 
be one of the first effects which the general introduction 
of motor transport may be expected to produce. 



An American investigator has been discovering that 
gasolene or petrol has a remarkable effect in causing the 
potato to sprout. He replaced the cork of a gasolene can 
one day with a potato, and the next day it was sprouting 
vigorously. After continuing the process for a few days it 
withered away. He has repeated the experiment with a 
number of potatoes, and finds that the effect of the gaso- 
lene in this respect is unquestionable. Probably the sub- 
sequent withering away was due to the potato not being 
supplied with sufficient moisture to provide substance for 
the sprouting portion. Whether petrol could be em- 
ployed, considering the rapidity with which it evaporates, 
to promote the growth of potatoes from an agricultural 
point of view, must, therefore, remain doubtful ; but, 
perhaps, if success is ever attained in applying it in this 
way it may do something to correct the hostility of 
agriculturists towards the petrol-driven car. 



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[January 16, 1904. 






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January 16, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



71 



A ujo4 NAPIER RACING CAR. 



One of the new Napier racers which has been built for 
Lieut.-Col. Mark May hew, and "will, it is hoped, take 
part in the Gordon-Bennett race th's year, forms the 
subject of our frontispiece this week, and we are able, by 
ihe courtesy of Mr. S. F. Edge, to give the following 
general particulars concerning it. 

It is of the live-axle type, and has been rendered as 
light and frictionless as possible by the adoption of 
hollow shafts and roller bearings wherever convenient. It 
has a rolled steel frame, which tapers off towards each 
end, and this is prolonged in front to avoid the use of 
long spring-hangers. The front axle has an X cross 
section, and is a steel forging of great strength. 

The engine, which is nominally of ioo-h.p., is placed 
some little way to the rear of the front axle, so as to 
increase the weight on the driving wheels, and the 
radiator, too, is for the same purpose fixed further back 
than usual. The engine has four cylinders, which are 
built up of cast-iron liners, forced by hydraulic pressure 
into aluminium jacket-castings. It has mechanically- 
operated inlet-valves, which are actuated by cams on 
the same shaft as those which lift the exhaust- valves, 
and they are operated through rods and levers which 
have adjustable tappets ; the valves can be inspected 
very readily. A hollow crank-shaft is employed, giving 
great strength with small weight. All parts of the engine 
are lubricated by a drip-feed, which ensures that every 
bearing is kept properly oiled. A high-tension system of 
ignition arranged in such a way as to ensure proper 
synchronism is employed. The petrol is fed to the 
carburettor either by gravity or pressure, and the power 
of the engine is controlled by a special throttle-valve, 
regulated from the steering-wheel. The cooling water is 
circulated by a chain-driven centrifugal pump, which 



forces it through the jackets and the radiator. The 
radiator is of the Albany type, with an unusually large 
filler cap on top. It has a belt-driven enclosed fan, and 
is fixed in such a position that natural circulation will 
take place in the event of the pump failing to work. 

The clutch is of the Napier metal-to-metal type, and 
is self-contained. It is so constructed that it can be 
operated satisfactorily whether it is covered with oil or 
is dry, and it is so designed that it is not damaged if 
allowed to slip. A very light pressure on the pedal is 
sufficient to release it, and it is said to be very soft in 
action, although not liable to slip when transmitting the 
full power of the engine. The pedal is fitted so as to 
be pushed forward by the driver's feet, and the driver's 
seat is so placed that he is relieved of much of the strain 
in a long race, because the clutch can be used with but 
very little exertion. The clutch is normally held in 
engagement by three easily adjustable springs, and all the 
thrusts are taken by ball bearings. 

The shafts in the change- speed-gear are hollow, and are 
mounted in roller bearings. The gear is so designed that 
a direct-thTough-drive is obtained on the top-speed, and 
that the lay-shaft can then remain stationary. The universal 
joint on the forward end of the propeller-shaft is fitted 
inside the gear-box, and therefore runs in oil, and the 
back, compensating square shaft is so made as to need 
no lubrication. The live-axle has roller bearings through- 
out, and is so arranged that they run in an oil bath. 
We are told that the brakes are extremely powerful, and 
it is believed that this is the highest-powered car having 
a live-axle which has ever been successfully built. The 
usual Napier steering-gear, which, it will be remembered, 
is adjustable wherever wear can take place, is employed 
on this powerful racer. 



RACES, RECORDS, AND TRIALS, 



GORDON-BENNETT CUP RACE. 

The German Club intend to leave no stone unturned to 
ensure an absolutely complete success for the running of 
the race in June. Every precaution is being taken to 
avoid the possibility of accidents, and although it is 
officially acknowledged that the arrangements will be 
based upon the extremely successful lines laid down 
for the race held in Ireland last year, it is hoped to 
even surpass that perfect organisation on the Taunus 
Circuit. 

In France the discussion is still very keen in regard 
to the locality for holding the French Eliminating Tests. 
Naturally the Circuit des Argonnes, in the French 
Ardennes, is first favourite, not only with the French 
Club and drivers, but also with all those in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of the circuit, but the French 
Government remain to be reckoned with. So far they 
have not accorded their official consent. The actual 
circuit proposed is to start from Flize, and return to the 
same spot vid Chemery, Beaumont, Carrefour de Stenay, 
Buzancy, Carrefour de Vouziers, Le Chesne, Carre- 
four de Poix, a total distance of about 130 kiloms. 
In the whole of this run there are only three villages, 
viz., at Beaumont, Buzancy, and Le Chesne, and these 
are only very sparsely populated. 



Another course is the Circuit du Sud-Ouest, which 
has been the scene in past years of some splendid racing, 
in which Albert Lemaitre, Ren£ de Knyff, and Maurice 
Farman have been conspicuous. The third suggested 
course is the Algerian Circuit, but the cost of reaching 
this course very greatly militates against the possibility 
of its being chosen, and, failing the tests being run on 
French soil, there is little doubt that the Belgian Circuit 
des Ardennes will be the favoured spot, in which case 
arrangements would be made to not only have the timing 
of the French cars carried through by French timers,, 
but as far as possible the Taunus route would be imitated 
in regard to neutralised portions, &c. 

Some slight variations in the actual route for the 
Ardennes course will probably be made, starting from 
Bastogne, which will give 138 kiloms. to the complete 
circuit. 

A few further names of likely drivers have transpired 
since our last issue, amongst these being Thery, who 
will drive a G. Richard-Brasier for France, and Augieres, 
who will be in the " Pipe " team for Belgium. 

Herr Theodore Dreher, the Austrian beer king, is 
owner of one of the Wiener-Neustadt cars which will 
take part on behalf of Austria. 



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[January 16, 1904. 



In the " standing start " and " standing stop " 
500-metre event, held at Antwerp on Sunday last by 
the A.C. of Antwerp, the best time was made by 
Elskamp, of 50! sees, on a 20-h.p. Gobron-Brillie car ; 
Joostens was second in 59! sees, on a 1 2-h p. Clement, 
and De Beukelaer third, on a 16-h p. Vinck, in 1 min. 
if sees. In the consumption trial following, in which 
the competing cars received 1 litre of petrol per 
1,000 kilogs. of weight of their vehicle, the winner was 
Joostens on his Clement (1*090 kilogs.), who accom- 
plished the distance of n'85 kiloms. on his fuel allow- 
ance. De Beukelaer, on his Vinck (1,070 kilogs.), was 
second with a distance of 7*1 kiloms., and Knoops, on 
a Vivinus (825 kilogs.), was third with 5*4 kiloms. 



With a mile flying start H. Ford, on his 70-h.p. racer, 
is announced by cable from America to have covered 
the mile in 39! sees. This gives the marvellous speed 
of 91*37 mile> per hour, beating Augicre's World's 
Record on a Mors by 6| sees. The record took place 
on an ice-covered inlet off Lake St. Clair, where a 
4-mile course was swept clear of snow for the purpose. 



A number of competitions will be decided during the 
Brussels Automobile Salon. In addition to the regular 
prizes for well-appointed cars, both open and shut, 
decoration and lighting of the stands, there will be a 
competition for silencers for motors over 8-h.p. A 
further prize is being offered for a novel object, viz., for 
the most effective souvenir presented to visitors by 
-exhibitors. 



Following the lead of Great Britain and France, the 
AC. of Belgium are also organising side-slip trials, 
which will probably last six months. 



The German Automobile Club are organising a motor 
boat, contest in connection with the Kiel Regatta in 
June, immediately following the Gordon-Bennett Race. 



Every effort is being made by those responsible fo r 
the Ormonde-Daytona races in California, commencing 
at the end of this month, to ensure a huge success to 
the meeting. Their efforts in the interests of the auto- 
mobile industry are the more praiseworthy as there is 
no revenue whatever derived from the meeting. Elec- 
trical apparatus for timing is in course of erection. 30 
miles of wire being required for the purpose. 



W. K. Vanderbilt, Jun., who has entered for all 
-events possible at the Ormonde-Daytona meet, has 
offered the American Automobile Association a magni- 
ficent Cup, as a prize for a contest in America over a 
■distance of between 200 and 300 miles. 



March 15-16 are the dates appointed by the A.C. of 
America for their second annual contest for light and 
heavy commercial vehicles. 



Mr. Max Desmouceaux has devised a submersible 
boat actuated by an explosion motor and driven by 
" picratine." This vessel, which is destined for extensive 
trials at Brest, has been already experimented with on 
the Marne, where, however, it unfortunately experienced 
an accident owing to the clutch sticking and the boat 
running aground in consequence. 



CLUB DOINGS. 

Peterborough and District Motor Club.— A meeting was held 
at Peterborough on Saturday, January 9th, to consider the desir- 
ability of establishing a motor club for the district in order to 
further the cause of automobilisra, to promote the sport and pastime 
of motoring, and to arrange reliability trials, tours, and other com- 
petitions. There was a satisfactory attendance, and it was unani- 
mously decided to form a club to be called " The Peterborough 
and District Motor Club." Upwards of thirty motorists have 
already given in their names to support the club, the headquarters 
of which will be at the Angel Hotel, Peterborough. The subscrip- 
tion has l>een fixed at 10s. (yd. per annum. Mr. F. T. Heighton, 
of the " Vinco" Cycle Works, Elton, Peterborough, has undertaken 
the secretarial duties with Mr. P. Mays, of Bourne, as Assistant 
Secretary. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

# # 7 he name and address of the writer {not necessarily for 
publication) MUST in all cases accompany Utter intended 
for insertion, or containing aueries. 



THE POSITION OF MOTOR VEHICLES OVER THREE 
TONS IN WEIGHT UNDER THE LAW OF 1903. 

To the Editor of The Automotor Journal. 

Sir,— I took up this week's copy of The Automotor Journal 
expecting to find indignant letters from manufacturers and users of 
heavy motor vehicles. It speaks volumes for the patience and for- 
bearance of this section of automobilists that so little is heard of 
their grievances. The Act of 1903 has now come into force, and it 
is found that no provision has been made for the registration of motor 
vehicles weighing over 3 tons. Not to be eligible to carry a number 
may not at first sight appear to be a serious grievance, until it is 
realised that now all unnumbered motor vehicles are traction 
engines ! That this is no imaginary difficulty is proved by the fact 
that at least one County Council— and probably more— have refused 
to register vehicles of declared weight over 3 tons — as no doubt the 
law entitles them to do. Only two courses are open to users of such 
vehicles— either to return a false weight and so get registered, or to 
take out a licence as a traction engine, with its attendant restric- 
tions. 

If neither of these courses are followed, the user is liable to pro- 
secution, until the Local Government Board publish their new 
regulations. But as, I understand, the Departmental Committee 
to consider these has not yet been appointed, there appears little 
prospect of a speedy settlement of the question, and some working 
arrangement ought to be come to in the meantime, to avoid the 
enormous loss that would be entailed by all the motor vehicles over 
3 tons being prevented from running except as traction engines. 

Of course such vehicles on the road are at present illegal, but the 
experience of builders is that a heavy motor lurry that will carry 
sufficient load to make it a commercial success, and not be in con- 
tinual need of repairs, cannot be built to weigh anything like 
3 tons. No attempt has been made by the authorities to stop the 
use of heavier vehicles, although it has been a matter of common 
knowledge that the legal weight is far exceeded in the majority of 
cases ; consequently makers have been encouraged to go on 
building, in the expectation of the weight limit being considerably 
raised ; and now a large number of such vehicles exist. 

It behoves manufacturers of heavy vehicles not to miss this oppor- 
tunity, which may not recur for a long time, of impressing their 
views on the Local Government Board, as to the limit of weight 
within which it is possible to build commercially successful vehicles. 
In my opinion the permissible tare weight should certainly not be 
limited to less than 7 tons ; or, say, a gross load of 16 tons, including 
the we : ght of vehicle, water, coke, oil, tools, &c, and useful load. 
In order to protect bridges of inferior strength, it would be more 
logical to limit the gross axle load, and allowing for the fact that 
the load on the back axle is generally considerably greater than 
that on the front wheels, this should not be less than 9 or 10 tons. 
The width of tyres should of course l>e proportional to the axle load. 

These loads will probably be considered rather under than over 
the mark, and unless the new regulations, when published, con- 
template loads at least equal to the above, great monetary loss and 
discouragement will be inflicted on a large body of enterprising 
manufacturers, who, in advance of the law, have done their part to 
establish and maintain the supremacy of Great Britain, in this class 
of manufacture, at a time when the country can ill afford to sacrifice 
a promising industry. 

Yours, &c, 

A. W. Brightmore. 

Egham, Jan. Sih. 



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REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 

"Encyclopaedia Britannica." — 10th Edition. Volumes 
34 and 35. (Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh 



and London, and The 
Square, London, E.C.) 



Times, Printing House 



THEse two volumes, which terminate the ioth edition of 
this monumental work, include respectively the maps, 
with geographical index, and the general index to the 
whole Encyclopaedia, including the 9th edition. The 
Volume 34 comprises a really wonderful collection of 
maps. The detail at every point at which we have been 
able to test it, is marvellous., the smallest places being re- 
produced, while the general get-up, colouring, and 
appearance of the maps are equal to the finest atlases 
published, though, of course, the size of the volume pre- 
cludes the possibility of the maps attaining their ordinary 
dimensions. This, however, is no real disadvantage, as it 
is much more satisfactory and handy to have the various 
countries cut up into small sheets than to have to hunt 
across a huge page. The index to the maps forms pro- 
bably the most complete gazetteer yet published. How- 
ever small the place that one may desire to find, one can 
spot it at once with the assistance of this marvellous 
index. 

The general index to the volumes includes the index 
to the maps (an almost unnecessary refinement), so that 
one has one's choice of looking up a place either in the 
map index or in the general index. The methods of 
cross reference adopted are all that can be desired, and, 
where a place or name is spelt more than one way, it is 
duly indexed under both spellings. Even the names of 



firms, as Panhard and Levassor, appear under both 
names. 

The printing and get-up of both volumes are in the 
same handsome style as the other volumes, and the 
purchaser of Volume 35 will have the satisfaction of 
knowing that he has a complete index, not only to the 
new volumes comprising the ioth edition, but to the 
whole of the 9th edition as well. 

The new Motor Car Act has already produced some 
legal manuals. We have pleasure in noticing amongst 
these : — " The Law Relating to Motor Cars," by 
H. I^tngford Lewis and VV. Haldane Porter, both 
Barristers of the Middle Temple, at 2s. 6d. net. 
(London : Butterworth and Co., Bell Yard.) This 
is a little work of very handy size, giving both the 
Acts of 1903 and 1896, with commentaries, and, as far 
as we can see, all the cases that have been decided in 
the Divisional Courts on any of the main points. It 
is a sort of book that every automobilist will find useful. 
It is lucid, well put together, and the discussion of 
cases is kept within bounds, while it enables the motoiist 
to form an accurate idea of what he is to expect. 
There is only one fault to be found with the work — 
that the index is very fragmentary, and is, in Fact, an 
index in little more than name. 

A similar work, "A Handbook on the Motor Car 
Acts," by James McConnell, Barrister-at-law, has been 
published by Mecredy, Percy and Co., of Dublin, at is. 
net. It is much on the same lines as the preceding. 
It gives the two Acts, accompanied by a very short com- 
mentary which cites cases, though not quite as fully as 
the work above referred to. It has, however, the advan- 
tage of a more complete index. 



A NOVEL MOTOR BICYCLE. 



A very attractive variety of the motor bicycle has 
been designed by M. Meijer of Velp, near Arnhem. It 
combines some of the advantages of the motor bicycle — 
the single-line track, lightness and ready storeability, with 
a good deal of the comfort of the small voiturette. The 
illustrations, which we reproduce from La France Auto- 
mobile, are self-explanatory. A strong double frame 
carries a basket seat like that of a trailer instead of the 
ordinary cycle seat. The motor is mounted under the 
forked down-tube of the frame, and wheel steering is 
employed. The drive is by belt to the rear wheel, and 
this is tightened by a jockey pulley. The motor is first 



started by a handle, the rider then takes up position, 
with one foot on the footboard, pushes off and mounts 
on one of the steps, gradually tightening the belt by 
depressing the jockey pulley by means of the lever 
shown on the right-hand side of the seat. When a 
certain speed has been attained he can quietly sit down 
on his seat and drive as if on a car. Should the new 
design prove satisfactory in practice it is likely to be 
very popular, as it enables the possessor to avail himself 
of some of the principal advantages of the motor bicycle 
without its attendant disadvantages and comparative 
discomfort. 



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[January 16, 1904. 



' On January 13th Mr. Eric Stuart Bruce will give a 
lecture at the Society of Arts, particularly adapted for 
juveniles, upon the " Navigation of the Air." 



The total number of Cars registered in the London 
County Council district is gradually creeping up. 
Already 3,000 cars and cycles have had their numbers 
allotted, and close on 4,000 drivers have inscribed their 
names. 



Amongst the latest firms elected as members of the 
Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders are the 
Continental Caoutchouc and Guttapercha Company, 
Limited, the Gladiator Company, and La Soci£t£ 
Franchise des Clements et Gladiator. 



After covering 30,000 miles on a motor tricycle it is 
hardly unreasonable to expect the gears to commence 
being slightly noisy. Mr. G. Burnell, from Rugeleyj 
writes that he has ridden his Ariel tricycle that distance 
and for the first time on a recent trip had occasion to 
complain of a little " music." 



still needed, of the additional power of enjoyment which 
the motor vehicle confers upon its possessors. The 
whole Royal party were enabled to travel the exceedingly 
hilly road from Chatsworth through Chesterfield to 
Hardwick, lunch there, inspect the picture gallery, hall,, 
and grounds, and return to Chatsworth again by five 
o'clock. 



The appointment some time ago of a special Advisory 
Motor Board, by the General Accident Assurance Cor- 
poration, Limited, has proved in practice of considerable 
value to the Corporation in handling satisfactorily the 
rapidly growing business which has been brought into 
existence by the automobile industry. A number of 
well-known men in the automobile industry have for 
some little time been on this Advisory Board, and the 
latest addition is Lieut.-Col. Arthur F. Mulliner, V.D.; 
of Northampton. 



The First Victim* — Mr. Harry Smith, of Coliseum 
Terrace, Regent's Park, enjoys the distinction of being 



A 40-50-h.p. Brouhot Petrol Racer. — A Description of this System appears on pp. 64-66." 



Considerable efforts have been made by the Auto- 
mobile Club Secretary to ensure the success of the first 
smoking concert of the season, which was announced to 
take place at the Club house on Thursday of this week, 
commencing at 9.30, preceded by a House dinner at 7.30. 

A grant of ^250 has been approved by the War 
Office to members of the Motor Volunteer Corps for 
exceptional wear and tear of cars used in last year's army 
manoeuvres. This is the promised contribution by the 
military authorities referred to at the Motor Volunteer 
Annual Dinner, which was dealt with by us in our issue 
for December 12th. 



Major Bower, the Chief Constable for the North 
Riding, has been allotted ^300 by the Yorkshire 
authorities towards the purchase of a motor car in lieu 
of the present allowance of jQbo per annum for his 
railway pass for the next five years. This will enable 
the Chief Constable to pay more frequent visits to the 
several stations in the North Riding than has hitherto 
been possible by rail travelling. 



The visit of the King and Queen to Chatsworth has 
provided one more trenchant object lesson, if any were 



the first victim whom the police have offered up on the 
altar of the new Act. A police constable charged him 
with being drunk while driving a motor car at S o'clock 
on Tuesday morning. It was admitted that he was 
going slow, but the reported evidence does not show 
that he was drunk, nor even "the worse for liquor." 
The policeman merely asserted that he wobbled about, 
and was on the wrong side of the road on one 
occasion. Mr. Smith explained that he was on 
the wrong side of the road in attempting to get 
past some horse-drawn vehicles which were block- 
ing him. The worthy magistrate, Mr. Marsham, 
came to the conclusion that Mr. Smith was clearly 
driving recklessly and to the common danger, although, 
be it observed, the policeman even admitted he was 
going slowly. As the maximum penalty is ^20, the 
magistrate considerately fined the defendant ^"io, with 
a further 5*. fine for not having his licence with him, 
and the reassuring promise that future cases of being 
without a licence would be more severely dealt with. 
This is a nice sample of the first-fruits of the new Act— 
;£io fine straight off in a more than doubtful case. It 
illustrates I he beautiful elasticity of the expressions 
"recklessly" and "to the common danger^ in the 
magisterial mind. 



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75 



To 'be assured in the event of sudden tyre troubles 
when far from home that no mistake will be made in 
■dispatching the correct tyre is a matter of very great 
moment to the stranded autoraobilist. With the idea of 
providing for this difficulty the Continental Caoutchouc 
and Gutta Percha Company have just issued a special 
telegraphic code for ordering their Clipper-Continental 
motor tyres, so that any form of tyre, whether complete 
with rim, short or long valve, inner tube, &c, can be 
ordered by telegraphing, in most cases, one word. 



The Car and General Insurance Corporation, Limited, 
have now moved into permanent head offices on the 
first floor of 1, Queen Victoria Street (Mansion House), 
E.C. It is gratifying to learn that a large amount of 
support has already been ac- 
corded to this newly-estab- 
lished Company, and Mr. 
Fred Thoresby, the general 
manager, is extremely san- 
guine in connection with the 
business, the pressure to 
deal with which requires his 
personal attention until 9 
and 10 o'clock every night. 



Opening on May 1st, 
the Arras Automobile Salon 
promises to be of consider- 
able importance, as not only 
has the Government accor- 
ded its official patronage, 
but the King of the Belgians 
is the honorary president, 
and the inauguration of the 
Exhibition will coincide with 
the visit of the President of 
the French Republic, M. 
Loubet, and the ministers 
and the Governor-General of 
Algeria. Picturesqueness 
will be given to the opening 
ceremony by the suite of 
Arab chiefs who will accom- 
pany the Algerian Governor- 
General. A reliability trial 
and speed events will be 
run off. 



The Adaxn'Boudin spherical motor boat, of which we gave 
some ^particulars last week, is seen in the above illustration. 
The 24-h.p. motor and the passengers are accommodated in 
an inner stationary sphere around which the external sphere 
revolves, propelling the " boat " along by the paddles on its 
periphery. Access is had to the interior through the central 
trunnions which form bearings (or the revolving portion, and 
prisms are arranged in these caps to enable the pilot to see 
where he is going. The claims made for this peculiar craft 
are that it is unsinkable, unusually stable, and is useful 
either for transport or salvage. 



It is rather annoying to learn that the silly restrictions 
which in many parts of Switzerland are so much inter- 
fering with the freedom of automobile tourists are being 
introduced to a great extent also in the Black Forest. 
The Black Forest has not only exquisitely picturesque 
scenery but magnificent roads as well, and it is more 
unfortunate, therefore, that the local authorities have 
seen fit to close some of the important roads to auto- 
mobiles and exact a penalty of as much as 60 marks 
from any automobilist who presumes to drive his car 
along them. It appears possible to get through the 
greater part of the Black Forest in spite of this 
restriction, but tourists would do well to ascertain 
beforehand from the local authorities whether 
any roads on the tour they intend to make are 
prohibited. 



Pending the completion of the railway from Locarno 1 
to Gravelona on the eastern shore of Lake Maggiore, an 
international service of automobiles is to be run, joining 
up the Simplon and Gothard railways. 



Ten horses and three drivers are to be replaced by a 
motor wagonette, built by the Mobile Company of 
America, for running between Santa Maria and Gauda- 
loup, California. The distance between these two points 
is 10 miles, and the motor wagonette will be able to 
carry 1 2 passengers, accomplishing the distance in about 
half an hour. The roads are both good and level. 



The ambitions of M. Archdeacon, who, as our readers 
know, takes a great interest in aeronautics, have been 

fired by the experiments of 
the Brothers Wright. He 
has been looking round in 
consequence for some sand- 
dunes, like those of North 
Carolina, on the coast of 
France, and has, we under- 
stand, discovered a suitable 
spot in the neighbourhood of 
Merlimont, north of where 
the Somme flows into the 
English Channel. There, 
we trust, M. Archdeacon 
will soon be found learning 
to imitate the birds as suc- 
cessfully as the Brothers 
Wright have learned to do 
in Carolina, and that before 
long he will be able to 
attach a motor to his aero- 
plane, soar across the Chan- 
nel, and alight at the Lord 
Warden Hotel. But M. 
Archdeacon must remember 
that the sand-dunes are not 
the only things required for 
successful experiments in 
aviation. One of the feat- 
ures of the North Carolina 
coast is the steady breeze 
which, for months together, 
blows shoreward from the 
Atlantic at an average pace 
of 20 miles an hour. It is 
this breeze that has enabled 
Wrights to make such successful use of their 
own abnormal dexterity and great ingenuity. In 
attempting similar experiments amid the treacherous 
breezes of the Channel coast, M. Archdeacon will have 
to exercise most extraordinary care and vigilance. 
Should he attain success his triumph will be all the 
greater. 



the 



Mr. Short, of London, is going to take part in the 
St. Louis World's Fair aeronautical contest. While 
most other competitors are building navigable balloons, 
airships, and flying machines for this competition, Mr. 
Short is constructing a balloon with which he hopes to 
attain greater altitudes in the atmosphere than ever have 
been reached before. One of the difficulties attending 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 16, 1904. 



attempts to reach the higher strata is due to the diffi- 
culties which the aeronauts have experienced in breath- 
ing above a certain height. Mr. Short's balloon is 
designed to overcome this difficulty. His machine will 
consist of an enormous balloon of 500,000 cubic feet 
capacity. Below this will be carried the ballast car, 
from which ballast can be shot by a system of levers 
operated by ropes from the car proper. The car proper 
containing the passengers will hang below this and take 
the form of a steel shell, which can be hermetically 
sealed in and provided with a supply of compressed air 
carried in suitable tanks. By this means it is hoped the 
pressure and air inside the passenger's car will be main- 
tained in such a condition that they will be able to 
breathe at any altitude the balloon may reach without 
difficulty. Of course, there is the further trouble that 
the lifting power of the balloon diminishes the higher it 
rises in the atmosphere, but presumably this can be got 
over by an adequate supply of ballast. 



There is a veteran Daimler car at present out in 
Madagascar over whose somewhat inglorious end it is 
impossible to avoid shedding an automobilious and 
petrolescent tear. This venerable production of the 
genius of Gottlieb Daimler ran in the Paris-Marseilles 
Race in 1895, though we have not been able to learn 
exactly where it came in on that occasion. It was 
taken out to end its days in Madagascar in 1900, 
where it was perhaps thought that the warm southern 
climate would mitigate the rigours of approaching old 
age ; but, alas and alack ! the roads in that recently- 
acquired French earthly paradise are far from having 
attained the excellence of those in the mother country, 
and on its first tour of 357 kilometres from Majunga to 
Antananarivo it broke down badly, and arrived at the 
latter town under the escort of two mules, arranged 
tandem and ridden postillion by two of the natives. The 
old car was patched up again, and ran for some time, 
but its owner has now taken off the motor and sold it to 
a manufacturer, who uses it to run machinery. All the 
gear has likewise been removed, but the exceedingly 
comfortable body and wheels have been provided with 
shafts and converted into a kind of two-seated rickshaw, 
in which the owner and his wife and family may now be 
encountered tugged by natives about the mountainous 
Madagascar roads. Sic transit. 



If the description of the rather unromantic end of 
this ancient vehicle should convey the impression that 
automobilism is being neglected in that island, that 
impression would be a very false one. The French are 
proceeding to civilise their new possession by the 
motor car, and already several modern Panhard 
machines have been imported and are doing good 
service, particularly on the east coast. The roads 
generally throughout the island have until recently been 
little better than tracks, but the French engineers, 
notably Capt. Gruss, seconded by Adjutant Grimaud, 
are getting to work upon them, and now Madagascar 
can boast several considerable stretches of excellent 
road. Like the Romans in old times, the French have 
shown themselves pre-eminently the road builders of the 
modern world, and if they provide Madagascar with a 
system of roads constructed and engineered in their 
usual excellent style, the gift will go a long way to justify 
their acquisition of the dependency. 



The Motogear Engineering Company notify us that 
they have removed to more extensive premises at 12,. 
Emerald Street, Theobald's Road, W.C. The speciality 
of this firm, as our readers will remember, is high-class 
gearing of every description, including special raw hide 
and fibre pinions. --* 



We are advised by the Automobile Components, Limited, that 
they have acquired a fifteen years' lease of extensive premises at 
366-368, Euston Road, Regent's Park, N.W. These premises, 
which have been suitably fitted up for the motor car industry, consist 
of four floors, 196 feet long by 30 feet wide. It is requested that 
all communications shall for the future be sent to their new address. 



Jamks Milne, of 60, High Street, Inverurie, is placing on the 
market a detachable back number illuminator, which, in addition 
to complying with the new regulations requiring the registered 
number to be visible at night, also shows red lights, thereby killing 
two birds with one stone. 



DOINGS OF PUBLIC COMPANIES. 

NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. 

[Taking powers to manufacture or deal in motors, motor cars, or 
accessories, either as their principal or part of their objects.] 



S. R. Bailey and Lambert (Limited), 217, Piccadilly, 
W. — Capital, ,£5,000 in £1 shares. Object, to adopt an agree- 
ment with S. R. Bailey and L. Lambert, and to carry on the busi- 
ness of manufacturers of, dealers in, and agents for motor cars, 
carriages, &c. First directors, S. R. Bailey and L. Lambert 
(managing directors). 

J. S. Critchley (Limited), 77, Chancery Lane, W.C — 
Capital, £3,000 in £1 shares. Object, to adopt an agreement with 
J. S. Critchley for the acquisition of the business of manufacturers 
of motor cars and motors for launches, &c, carried on by him. 
First directors, J. S. Critchley and W. II. Brown. 

Kidderminster Motor and Cycle Company (Limited), 
Mill Street, Kidderminster. — Capital, ,£5,000 in £1 shares. 

Samson Leather Treads and Tyre Company (Limited). 
— Capital, ^8,000 in £1 shares. Object, to carry on the business 
of manufacturers of and dealers in pneumatic and other tyres. 
(Registered in Guernsey.) 

West Midland Motor and Cycle Company (Limited). 
—■Capital, ^"3,000 in £1 shares. Object, to adopt an agreement 
with F. W. Baker and Mrs. B. H. Baker, to acquire the business 
carried on at New Road, Stourbridge, as the West Midland Cycle 
Company. 

MEW INVENTIONS. 

Patent Specifications Published. 
Applied for In 100a. 

Published January 21st, 1904. 
28,053. J. C. Phslon. S oray carburettors. 
28,075. K. Butler and others. Explosion engines. 
28,145. H. S. Hel* Shaw. Friction clutches, brakes, and the like 
28,145*. H. S. Hele-Shaw. Starting, stopping, speed .controlling and 

reversing gear. 
28,471. R. H. Rains. Brake. 

28.593- J- W. Faulkner and Hilton. Two-speed gearing. 
28,612. G. £. Bennett. Brake mechanism. 

Applied for in 1003. 

Published January 21$/, 1904. 

120. W. E. Carmont. Road motor vehicles. 

437. H. S. Chapman and A. O. Tarvis. Internal combust io a engines. 

870. J. W. Madigin. Storage batteries. 

2,762. C. H. Woksnop. Rtflectors for motor lamps. 

3,398. C. Challiner. Pneumatic tyres. 

3,578. A. Duncan. Motor bicycles. 

3,824. T. and S Bradshaw and M. Sutton. Motor wagons. 

4,044. S. Butler. Non-skidding device. 

4.104. G F. Lawrence and A. J. Field. Motorcycles. 

4i235« W. Rose. Starting device. 

4,267. J. W. Hunter. Single-track motor cars. 

4,418. T. G. Accles and others. Motor cycles. 

4,510. W. J. Ckossley. Internal combustion engines. 

5,981. M. 8. Napier and A. J. Rowledge. Carburettors. 

6,704. P. G. TACcmand others. Speed-change gear. 

7,451. J. and J. F. Inshaw and A. W. Auster. Axle caps for facilitating 
lubrication. 

21,307. X. Wehrle. Driving and transmission mechanism. 

22,574. G. Trinkler. Internal combustion motors. 

2 3i3*5« V. Lamy and E. Chenal. Petrol or gas motor. 

2 3i403« J. E. Thomas and ). Lee. Seats for motor cars. 

24,679. L. I. Giuds. Running-gear for vehicles. 



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The AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL 



A RECORD AND REVIEW OF APPLIED AUTOMATIC LOCOMOTION. 

Circulates amongst Makers and Users of Motor Cars, Cycles, etc., in the United Kingdom, the 

Colonies, and the Continent. 



Offices : 44, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C. 



No. 169. (No. 4, Vol. IX.)] JANUARY 2 3 RD, 1904. [ R ^£££ P °] [^.^^ 



Every year sees an increase in the luzuriousness with which motor vehicles are finished. This is well il lust rated 
by the very elaborate saloon car built by the Motor Manufacturing Company, which attracted considerable attention, 
at the Paris Salon, and which is reproduced above. As will be seen from a view of its interior, which we 
reproduce on another page, it is very handsomely finished and upholstered, the inner fittings being silver-plated,, 
and the inside top having a celling of white Lincrusta ; four luxurious arm-chairs form the seats. The curtains are 
of dark green velvet with silver embroidery and the vehicle is artificially heated. In front, in addition to a 
clock, a thermometer and barometer are fitted, and an "engine-room telegraph" communicates with the driver. 
The engine, which has four cylinders and a honeycomb radiator, develops 25~h.p. ; the gear gives four speeds, 
with direct-through-drive on top speed. Both high tension magneto and the ordinary high tension induction* 

coil ignition are fitted. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 23, 1904. 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



Telephone No.— 

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When any difficulty is experienced in procuring the Journal from 
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DIARY OF FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 



1 
•Jan. 


[904. 
28 


Feb. 
Feb. 


1 
1 


Feb. 


2-6 


Feb. 


3 


♦Feb 


. 11 


Feb. 


12-24 . 


•Feb 
Feb. 
Mar. 


. 12 

23-27 

4 


Mar. 
Mar. 


7-12 . 
19-26 


Mar. 25-30 . 
April or May- 
May 19-20 . 
June 1-7 



British Events. 

" Railway Companies and the Motor Problem," 
by Mr. George Montagu, M.P. (A.C. Paper). 

Final Entry Day for British International Cup. 

" Evolution of Road-making in Scotland," by 
Mr. R. Drummond, C.E. (Scottish A.C). 

Liverpool Cycle and Motor Show (St. George's 
Hall). 

44 Steam Cars for Public Service," by T. Clarkson 
(Society of Arts). 

" The British Automobile Industry," by Mr. T. C. 
Aveling (A. C. Paper). 

2nd Annual Exhibition of the Society of Motor 
Manufacturers and Traders at the Crystal Palace. 

Quarterly 100 Miles Trial. 

Hull Cycle and Motor Show (Assembly Rooms). 

" Some Practical Notes on Electric Storage Bat- 
teries," by G. C. AUingham (Junior Institute 
of Engineers). 

Manchester Motor Show (St. James's Hall). 

Cordingley and Co.'s Motor Car Exhibition at the 
Agricultural Hail. 

*Side-Slip Trials. 

British Gordon-Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 

Glasgow- London Non-Stop Run. 

Motor Bicycle Endurance Trial. 



August ... British International Cup for Motor Boats. 

Sept * Reliability Trials. 

Oct. -Nov. ... *Light Van Trials (about 2,000 miles). 

* Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland Events. 

Foreign Events (Trials, Races, &c). 

(All French road racing fixtures are subject to confirmation l>y 
the French authorities. ) 

1904. 

Jan. 23- Feb. 4 Brussels Automobile Salon. 

Jan. 25-30 ... Ormond-Daytona Races (Florida). 

Jan. 26-30 ... Philadelphia Show. 

Feb Tourist Run and Consumption Trial (VAuto). 

Feb. 3-6 ... Paris-Turin Tourist Run {France Automobile). 

Feb. 6-13 Chicago Show. 

Feb. 6-21 ... Turin Exhibition. 

Feb. 14 ... Coupe Sneyden 1 kilom. on flat (A.C. Algeria). 

Feb. 15-20 ... Detroit Show. 

Feb. 23-27 ... Anti-Skid Trials at Versailles. 

Feb. 29- Mar. 5 Cleveland Show. 

Mar Paris- Rome (La France Automobile). 

Mar. 3, 4, 5 .. Fuel Consumption Trials (VAuto). 

Mar. 6-12 ... Buffalo Show. 

Mar. 13-20 ... Cannes Automobile Week. 

Mar. 14-19 ... Boston Show. 

Mar. 15-16 ... A.C. America Commercial Vehicle Trials. 

Mar. 19-27 ... Frankfort Exhibition. 

Mar. 20-29 ••• Nice Week (details, Oct. 31, p. 1168). 

Mar. 21-26 ... Washington (U.S.A.) Auto Show. 

Mar. 23-27 ... Electric Vehicle Trials (Monde Sportif). 

Apl. 5-15 ... Monaco Motor Boat Week (details, Jan. 2, p. 25). 

Apl. i6-May3i Vienna Auto Show. 

Apl. 17 .„ Coupe Meyan (Motor Boats). 

Apl. 18-23 ••• Nice- Rome. 

May Circuit des Ardennes (A. C. Belgium). 

May French Gordon-Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 

May Guadarrama Hill Climb (A.C. Spain). 

May 1-12 ... A.C. Bordelais Automobile Fortnight. 

May 1 1- 1 5 ... Milan Exhibition and Tourist Trial. 

May 12 ... Perigueux Hill Climb (A.C. Dordogne). 

May 1 2- 1 5 ... Tours Tourist Trial. 

May 14-15 ... Nantes-Croisic (Motor Boats), Monde Sportif. 

May 16-23 ••• Circuit National Beige. 

May 23-31 ... Aix-les- Bains Week. 

June 7 ... Namur Week. 

June 7 ... Spa Week. 

June 17 ... Gordon-Bennett Race. 

July ... ... Mont-Cenis Hill Climb (A.C. Italy). 

July Speed Trials (VAuto). 

July 16-17 ••• Ostende Motor Boat Races. 

July 171 ... Antwerp-Ostende Motor Boat Run. 

July 18-23 ••• Ostende Week. 

July 23-25 ... Lucerne Motor Boat Races. 

Aug. 5-1 1 Paris-Deauville Motor Boat Race. 

Aug. 12 ... Motor Boat Race for Gaston Menier Cup. 

Aug. 13-14 ... Calais-Dover-Calais (motor boats). 

Aug. 15 ... Calais-Boulogne-Calais (motor boats). 

Aug. 15 ... Ventoux Hill Climb (Avignon). 

Sept Deauville Automobile Meeting (VAuto). 

Sept. 2 ... Chateau Thierry Hill Climb (VAuto). 

Oct. 5 ... Dourdan Kilometre Trials (Monde Sportif). 

Oct. 9 ... Gaillon Hill Climb (VAuto). 

Oct. 14-22 ... Leipzig Cycle and Motor Show. 

Nov. 20 ... 100 Kiloms. Trial (A.C. Algeria). 

Dec Paris Salon. 



LEADING CONTENTS. 



Page 

Diary of Forthcoming Events 77 

Passing Events 79 

The 1904 Chenard and Walcker Petrol Cars 81 

The Arbel Steel Wheel 85 

Thi Universal Transferable Steering Propulsor 86 

Translators Still Active 86 

Motor Coaches for Railways 87 

Plan of Exhibits at the Crystal Palace 88 

The Recent Development of the Pedrail 90 

Club Doings . . . . 94 

Races, Records, and Trials . . . . . . • • 97 



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PASSING EVENTS. 

The Coming Show at the Crystal Palace. 

We feel no diffidence in prophesying that the Auto- 
mobile Exhibition to be held at the Crystal Palace from 
February 12th to the 24th will be much the finest 
Exhibition of its kind which has ever opened its doors 
in the. British Islands. The promoters, the Society of 
Motor Manufacturers and Traders, are firmly convinced 
that in almost every respect it will be the equal of the 
Paris Salon, while the more spacious and imposing 
character of the building, the vastly greater convenience 
and comfort which it affords to visitors, and, above all, 
the proximity of the spacious grounds which enable all 
types of automobile on exhibition in the building itself 
to be shown to intending customers and interested 
parties in motion under actual working conditions, 
bestow a unique character on the display which only 
a show of the kind held at the Crystal Palace 
can possess. Admirably representative as was the 
Crystal Palace Exhibition last year, it will be surpassed 
by the Exhibition of 1904. The space already allotted 
'to exhibitors exceeds that allotted last year by 20 per 
cent., and upwards of 220 firms, representative of Europe 
and the United States, will be exhibitors. While all the 
leading manufacturers who were represented at last 
year's Show will be found displaying their latest products 
this year, there will be a considerable number of novel- 
ties representing the more recent developments of the 
automobile industry. Principal amongst these, attention 
will unquestionably be attracted by the recently per- 
fected agricultural motors, a development which was not in 
evidence at all at the Exhibition last year, while the grow- 
ing popularity and reliability of the self-propelled omnibus 
for public service will be well illustrated by a number of 
important exhibits. The extent to which the British 
industry is now catering for that rather mythical per- 
sonage, " the man of moderate means," will be obvious 
to all visitors to the Crystal Palace, for never before will 
have been on exhibition so large a number of such well 
finished and reliable examples of really cheap motor 
vehicles, capable of carrying two persons over all ordinary 
roads, and up practically all the ordinary hills to be 
encountered, though of course purchasers of such 
machines must not expect that they will be able to keep 
pace on steep hills and long up-stretches with high- 
powered vehicles costing eight and ten times as much. 

The extent to which the fair sex is becoming more 
and more interested in the automobile movement will 
be well illustrated at the forthcoming Exhibition, as a 
special day has been set apart for the visit of the Ladies' 
Automobile Club, who, it is anticipated, will motor to 
Sydenham from their head-quarters in the West-End, to 
the number of some 200, on the Tuesday after the Show 
opens, and will hold a reception in the King's Room. 
On the other side of the Channel the automobile Salon 
has been visited every year since its inception by the 
head of the State. It would, unquestionably, benefit the 
British industry, and would be signal evidence of the 
liberality and progressive spirit of which he has on so 
many occasions shown himself the conspicuous exponent, 
if King Edward could see his way to following the 
example of President Loubet, and honouring the coming 
Exhibition by a State visit. 

The importance of the Exhibition can best be realised 
by a study of the plan of the stands, and the list of 
exhibitors which has been specially compiled by us, and 
which we publish in the current issue. 



A Curfew for Dogs. 
The Earl of Onslow is always original in his sugges- 
tions. To him we owe the association, or perhaps we 
ought to say dissociation, of the Surrey police from 
cabbages and market gardens, and the emphasising of 
the fact that while they are laying traps for motorists, 
burglars and garden thieves escape undetected. Lord 
Onslow is both a motorist and an ardent sportsman, and 
in both capacities has suffered from the annoyance 
occasioned by the nocturnally wandering dog. In fiekfr 
and cover these nuisances worry sheep and disturb 
game, and on the high roads after dark they are probably 
the second worst enemy of the automobilist. So Lord 
Onslow suggests that the curfew should be re-introduced 
for the benefit of the vagrant canine population. All 
dogs wandering after dark who are not embellished with 
the name and address of their proprietors should, accord- 
ing to Lord Onslow, be promptly apprehended and dealt 
with according to law. We are inclined to support his 
proposal in the interests of the dogs themselves not less 
than in the interests of sportsmen and automobilists. 
The lot of the wandering dog is seldom a happy one, 
and his end is likely to be miserable in the extreme if he 
has a leg broken at night by a passing automobile, the 
driver of which may be unaware of the occurrence. If 
Lord Onslow's proposal is ever carried through, we 
would suggest, at any rate, one proviso — it must be 
understood that dogs apprehended under the Canine 
Curfew Law must not be handed over to the tender 
mercies of schools for physiological research. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 
What is in a Name? 
Some of the daily papers have been making merry 
over the curious coincidence that only the difference of 
a letter distinguishes Charles Jarrott, one of our ablest 
high-speed drivers, from Sergeant Jarrett, one of our 
most notorious motor catchers, and a prominent organiser 
x)f police traps on the Ripley Road and thereabouts. 
Interviews have accordingly been published with both 
of them with a view of ascertaining their opinions of one 
another. Mr. Charles Jarrott has often enough driven 
through Ripley, and observed Sergeant Jarrett on the 
qui vive, though he has never been apprehended by him, 
and it would seem from the interviews published that the 
sergeant would be by no means averse to adding his 
(almost) namesake to his list of captures. Sergeant Jarrett 
is a popular figure with the farmers and other local rate- 
payers in the district in which he resides and exercises 
his functions. In the past year he has added ^230, in 
the shape of fines inflicted on motorists, to the county 
fund for the reduction of the rates. As the rates 
are always going up in that neighbourhood this is a 
cause of popularity, though, as we have often pointed 
out, it is one which we hope to see removed legislatively 
in the near future by an enactment which will prevent 
those who inflict fines from even indirectly benefiting by 
their infliction. Sergeant Jarrett's views of the functions 
and utility of the police, and of police traps, are rather 
amusing. He is firmly convinced, as we know by 
personal experience, that but for the police action 
(including, we presume, police traps), the public would 
have more largely taken the law into its own hands, and 
emulated the action of Mr. Hosking, butcher, of the 
village which Sergeant Jarrett adorns, in a wholesale 
manner. This view — that the public are restrained from 
acts of persecution and violence by finding accomplices 
in the police, who worry the objects of their antipathy 



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[January 23, 1904. 



with the sanction of the law behind them —is distinctly 
refreshing. We hope that we shall not see it more 
widely extended in the near future. It would suggest a 
new method of getting rid of hooliganism. If the 
authorities could organise a series of onslaughts by police 
constables on unoffending passers by, in the neighbour- 
hood, say, of Seven Dials or the Borough Road, perhaps 
the impulses of our hooligans in a similar direction 
would be satisfied, and we should have fewer outrages. 
The suggestion is at least worth developing. If Sergeant 
Jarrett, however, has any real grounds for his views, 
they show how bitter the hostility to automobilism, during 
the bad year that has just ended, has been. We are 
thankful that this hostility is obviously abating. 



The Pedrail— A Revolution in Traction. 
We would specially direct the attention of our readers 
to the articles, the first of which appears in the present 
number of the Journal, on the Pedrail. The Pedrail, as 
most of our readers are aware, forms the realisation in 
practice of a complete revolution in the principles of 
mechanical traction. The extent of this revolution may 
be gauged when we say that the Pedrail is a machine 
that walks, and is even capable of walking upstairs. 
We were the first to draw attention to the Pedrail, 
in our illustrated review of Mr. Diplock's book 
(Vol. VII. p. 776) dealing with his invention, so 
that we are glad to be able to have an opportunity 
of putting before our readers an exhaustive description 
of the recent developments which Mr. Diplock has 
made in his invention. So far as can be seen at present, 
the special province of the Pedrail will be, at any rate in 
the near future, heavy traction, particularly on bad 
roads, or even in new countries where there are no roads 
at all. Its powers of trudging over mere tracks, or even 
fields and open country where there are no tracks, will 
probably render the Pedrail of the greatest possible value 
for military purposes. No one has a keener eye for the 
possibilities of an invention than Mr. H. G.Wells, and it is 
significant, consequently,that in his realistic anticipation of 
the war of the future in " The Land Ironclads," published 
in the last Christmas number of the Strand Magazine, 
and from which we gave some extracts at the time, he 
attributes a role of extreme importance to the applica- 
tion of the Pedrail to military purposes. The Pedrail, 
when commercially developed, ought also to be specially 
suitable for collecting agricultural produce from the very 
fields where it is grown, for it can trudge along lanes 
and across ploughed ground, and convey it direct to the 
markets in our big towns. 



Through Desert and Veldt.— A Record of Endurance. 

Anyone who wishes to form an adequate idea of what 
the motor cycle can do in the hands of a determined and 
capable rider, should betake himself to South Africa, and 
ask some of the people who were witnesses of the feat, 
what they think of Silvers 6,000-mile ride. This extra- 
ordinary exploit, which consisted in traversing large 
stretches of the veldt, the Karoo Desert, and the whole 
of South Africa generally, on a 3-h.p. Quadrant motor 
bicycle, was accomplished in a period of only two 
months — September 21st to November 23rd — in- 
cluding a week's rest at Cape Town. The motor 
car, as we have already chronicled on more than 
one occasion, has found a permanent and satisfactory 
footing in South Africa. At the close of the war 



there was practically not a single motor vehicle in the 
southern part of the continent. Now they are to be 
found in all the principal towns, and even as far north 
as Mafeking and Buluwayo. But the motor cycle had 
yet to demonstrate its reliability and to win its way. So 
the Quadrant Company, with commendable enterprise, 
determined to induce a capable rider to take on a record 
ride in the Colony. They were wise and fortunate 
in their choice of Mr. Silver. He served throughout 
the war in Lord Roberts' bodyguard, and in this country 
he has done a non-stop run from London to Glasgow, 
and from John o' Groat's to Land's End. He knew 
South Africa, particularly the veldt, well, so that one is 
surprised at his taking on the enterprise so readily, 
knowing as he did the truly awful difficulties to be 
encountered. The photographs taken by Silver him- 
self, which illustrate a lengthy description of his 
exploit, appearing in our contemporary, the South 
African Sport and Play y show the obstacles to the ride 
in places to have been almost unbelievable. Wilder- 
nesses of stones, sand and boulders were encountered 
and successfully traversed, and across drifts, sometimes 
filled with loose rocks and sometimes full of water, the 
machine had to be carried by the plucky rider, sometimes 
assisted by the aborigines. Altogether, Silver made 
three rides, in two of which he started from Cape Town 
and went over most of the spots rendered historical in 
the late war, including Kimberley, Ladysmith, Elands- 
laagte, Cole nso, and a number of other points, and amongst 
his numerous interesting photographs is one of the 
monument erected to Lieutenant Roberts at the spot 
where he fell at Colenso, and the bridge over the Tugela 
smashed by the British cannon, and preserved in that 
condition by the Natal Government as a monument. 

There is no doubt from Mr. Silver's experience that 
the motor bicycle presents advantages, in a wild country 
like the greater part of South Africa, over any other form 
of motor vehicle, or, indeed, any other form of locomo- 
tion. Certainly many of the tracks, sometimes dignified 
with the name of roads, that he got through, could not 
have been attempted by any four-wheeled vehicle. Of 
course he had his mishaps. He left three complete sets 
of tyres strewing his path. Once he was run away with 
down hill, and had to take the side of the road to stop 
Worse disaster, escaping with only a bent front wheel, 
and once he was overcome with exhaustion, and rescued 
in the nick of time by one of the South African Police, 
who poured brandy into the traveller and, ultimately, 
petrol into his machine. But in spite of these mishaps, 
rather even on account of them, the performance is a 
wonderful record of endurance both of man and machine. 

It emerges with tolerable clearness from the account 
of Mr. Silver's tour that the condition of affairs from 
the automobile point of view is very far from satisfactory 
in South Africa. Round the towns, such as Cape Town, 
Bloemfontein, Worcester, and a few others, there are 
excellent roads. .But these oases of civilisation are 
separated by stretches of veldt and rock-strewn deserts. 
Before South Africa can become really prosperous its 
rivers will have to be bridged, and its main points con- 
nected by adequate roads. Then it will indeed be a 
market for motor vehicles. Mr. Silver's account of his 
experiences shows but too clearly that the peace which 
has followed the war is of the variety produced by 
making a solitude. The Romans signalised their 
conquests by building systems of roads in the conquered 
territory. The British might follow this classical example 
in South Africa with advantage. 



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THE 1904 CHENARD AND WALCKER PETROL CARS. 



Fig. i.— An 18-h.p. Chenard and Walcker Peirol Car. 



Reference has already been made in our columns to 
the new vehicles which this very progressive and up-to- 
date firm — Messrs. Chenard and Walcker — have put on 
the market this year, and it will be remembered that 
they are now making ^cylinder 18-h.p., and twin- 
cylinder 12-h.p. vehicles, instead of twin-cylinder cars 
of 10 and 14-h.p., respectively. When visiting the 
recent Exhibition in Paris, we not only took the 
opportunity of examining the cars at the Salon, but also 
paid a visit to the manufacturers' well-equipped works, 
and had a short practical trial with one of the large new 
cars. We were, therefore, able to obtain very full 
particulars concerning these vehicles, and to notice the 
very thorough manner in which they are built. We were 
particularly struck in the works with the careful way in 
which each portion of the mechanism has been studied, 
and with the amount of experimental work which has 
been undertaken in the past to arrive at present results. 
The factory has recently been much enlarged, and has 
an excellent equipment of up-to-date machine tools for 
turning out accurate and well-finished work. 

The 18-h.p. car has a somewhat similar form of 
transmission to that employed on the i4-h.p. of last 
year, the rear wheels being driven through gearing from 
a differential countershaft mounted on the back axle, 
but it is arranged in a somewhat different way, and 
enables the car to be built lower. The 4-cylinder 
engine, too, is constructed on the same general lines 
as before, having mechanically-operated inlet-valves 
arranged so that they can be made to close earlier or 
later during the suction stroke, by the governor. The 



combined clutch and brake is also retained, and the 
engine governor differs only in detail from that of last 
year. All these leading characteristics of the Chenard 
and Walcker cars were very fully dealt with in our 
issues of January 31st, February 7th, and April nth 
last, so that we need not again describe them in any 
great detail. The new features which have been intro- 
duced are an automatic carburettor, which maintains a 
constant degree of richness at all times, a special form of 
honeycomb radiator, which obviates the necessity for 
any circulating pump, a high-tension ignition system, 
which dispenses with tremblers on the coils, a mechanical 
lubricator for the engine, improved double-acting and 
compensated side-brakes, a self-aligning connection 
between the clutch and the change-speed-gear, and a 
simplified system for controlling the speed of the engine. 
One of the 18-h.p. vehicles, fitted with a comfortable 
tonneau body for five persons, is seen in Fig. 1, and 
views of portions of the chassis are given in Figs. 2 and 
3. Fig. 2 shows the construction of the frame, the 
gear-box, the fittings on the dash, and the controlling 
levers and pedals ; in Fig. 3 the universally-jointed pro- 
peller-shaft and the back axle, with its differential 
countershaft, are very clearly seen. Fig. 4 is a view of 
the engine in place in the car, taken from the left side, and 
in this illustration a portion of the automatic carburettor 
is shown. An armoured-wood main-frame is used and 
an underframe of angle section is fixed rigidly to it by 
side brackets, and by diagonal stays at the back. The 
underframe carries the engine and the gear-box, 
beneath both of which is fixed a sheet metal apron, 



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[January 23, 1904* 



which is easily detachable. The usual semi-elliptic 
side ^springs are introduced between the frame and 
the axles, and those at the rear lie outside the main 
frame, as in the majority of new cars of large size. 
Both axles are very substantial solid forgings, which 
provide long plain bearings for the road wheels. The 
back-axle, B, is bowed downwards at its centre as 
seen in Fig. 3, and the casing, A, containing the differen- 
tial countershaft, is rigidly fixed to it. This countershaft 
now lies immediately behind the axle instead of above it 
as formerly, but it drives the rear wheels, by pinions 
meshing with internal gear-wheels, in just the same way 
as on the 14-h.p. car of last year. Forked radius rods 
are fitted at each side between the axle and the frame. 
The front axle supports the steering heads both above 
and below the stub axles, and the steering gear is arranged 
in the usual way. The wheel base is 8 ft. 6 in., the 
track 4 ft. 6 in., and the wheels are shod with 36-in. 
pneumatic tyres. 



crank-chamber, and the gear-wheels, by which they are 
driven from the crank-shaft, are enclosed in a separate 
casing on the front end. The inlet-cam-shaft is free to 
slide longitudinally in its bearings, and is fitted with the 
special tapered cams described by us a year ago, by 
which the moment at which the valves are allowed to 
close is varied. The governor is enclosed in the same 
casing as the gear-wheels, and is fixed on the crank- 
shaft. It is connected with the inlet-cam-shaft, and the 
force of >the spring acting against the governor is varied 
in the same way as before. The normal speed of the 
engine is now regulated by a small hand-lever, E(Fig. 2), 
which is mounted above the steering-wheel and moves 
over a notched quadrant, forming a complete circle. 
When this lever is placed furthest away from the driver, 
the speed of the engine is such that the car on the top 
gear runs at about 20 m.p.h. When placed so as to 
point towards the driver, the governor maintains the 
minimum speed at which the engine is capable of running 



Fig. 2. — The Central Portion of the 18-h.p. Chenard and Walcker Chassis. 



The engine, although nominally of only 18-h.p., 
develops about 30-h.p. on the brake. It runs at a 
normal speed of 1,200 revs, per min., but is extremely 
flexible, owing partly to having a heavy flywheel, largely 
to the automatic carburettor, and to a great extent 
through having light reciprocating parts. The cylinders, 
which have a bore of 100 mm. and a stroke of 130 mm., 
are cast in pairs, with the inlet-valves on the right, and 
the exhaust-valves on the left. The valves have flat 
seats, are made of nickel steel, and are all interchange- 
able. The inspection covers above them are held down 
by yokes and nuts, one of each of which serves for 
each pair of covers. The crank-chamber, which is 
made of aluminium, is cast in one piece, and the 
bearings are formed in the cover plates, which are bolted 
to each end of it. The crank-shaft is supported on 
bearings at each end only, and is of special construc- 
tion ; it is made of nickel steel, and is carefully balanced. 
The cam-shafts lie, beneath the valve-spindles, inside the 



with regularity. The normal speed of the car car*, 
therefore, be varied by this lever alone, and in practice 
it is set in whatever position corresponds with the speed 
at which the driver wishes to travel. The pedals, F and G t 
however, are also connected with the governor mechanism, 
so that, when they are depressed, they slow down the 
engine before commencing to withdraw the clutch. The 
pedal, F, also operates the foot-brake, but the pedal, G, 
does not do so. The former, therefore, is alone required 
by the skilled driver, and enables him with one foot tem- 
porarily to slow down, to disengage the clutch, and to 
apply the brake. The smaller pedal, H, is also con- 
nected with the governor and forms the accelerator 
pedal ; it has the effect of suspending the action of the 
governor, and therefore enables the driver to increase 
the speed of the car at any time without changing the 
position of the hand-lever, E. This method of control 
is particularly convenient, for it is only necessary to 
adjust the lever, E, to give the average speed required, 



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and the driver can either slacken down, stop, or shoot 
forward without moving his hands off the steering wheel. 
The high-tension ignition plugs are fitted into the 
heads of the cylinders, and the electrical circuit is made 
to them by chopper switches, mounted upon a heavily 
insulated support lying above the cylinders. Four coils 
are used, but they have no tremblers. The primary 
circuit is completed through each in turn by a simple 
commutator, J, which is fitted in the centre of the dash, 
in front of the driver, and is driven by a chain, J 1 , from 
the exhaust-cam-shaft. The coils are contained in 
a neat box fixed on the right of the dash, and 
the box contains one trembler, which may be introduced 
into the primary circuit when starting the engine, or 
when it is running slowly, for economising current. 



ends ; the ends fit closely together, and are soldered up 
as shown ; the corrugated portions, being smaller in 
diameter, leave ample water space between them. The 
dimensions of the radiator, over all, are 20 in. by 24 in. 
by 4 in. thick, and the effective cooling surface which it 
offers to the air is about 90 square ft. It is found so 
efficient in practice that it seldom requires re-filling, and 
the circulation through it is so ample that no pump is 
required for keeping the water in motion. A fan is 
mounted close behind it, an«1 this is driven by a wide 
flat belt (the tightness of which can be adjusted) from a 
pulley on the crank-shaft. 

The branched induction-pipe on the one side, and the 
exhaust-pipe fitting, L, on the other side of the engine, 
are fixed in place by yokes and nuts. The exhaust-pipe 



Fig. 3. — Rear Portion of i8-h.p. Chenard and Walcker Chassis, showing the Back Axle, with its Differential Countershaft, 



One 2- way switch is fitted for this purpose, and another 
for introducing either of the batteries of accumulators. 
The commutator, J, is mounted so that the time of 
ignition can be varied, but this is only done in practice 
when starting the engine. At this time the ignition is 
retarded, but subsequently the commutator remains in 
its fully-advanced position. The commutator has a 
simple contact-pawl instead of a spring blade. 

The engine is fed with oil from a mechanical lubrica- 
tor on the left of the dash, this lubricator being 
operated by an eccentric from the commutator shaft. In 
the chassis shown at the Paris Salon, from which our photo- 
graphs were taken, the mechanical lubricator was fixed 
to the right on the dash, and another lubricator (for the 
transmission) on the left, but this mechanical lubricator 
is now being fitted on the left side and the coil box is 
placed on the right. 

The construction of the honeycomb radiator is shown 
in Fig. 5, Which represents a few of the special tubes of 
which it is built up. The tubes are made of very thin 
metal, are formed with a square cross-section at either 
end, and are deeply corrugated between the squared 



fitting, which is visible in Fig. 4, forms two independerrT 
passages for the exhaust gases. The one passage connects- 
the two inner cylinders with one exhaust pipe, L 1 , and 1 
the other leads the gases from cylinders Nos. 1 and 4 to 
another pipe, L 1 ; the two pipes join together at the 
exhaust box in the rear. The exhaust box itself is con- 
structed with two concentric chambers, through both of 
which the gases pass from end to end. There are no* 
baffles of any kind in the box, but it effectively silences* 
the noise of the exhaust. 

The automatic carburettor is shown sectionally in Fig. 
6, and a portion of it is visible on the engine in Fig. 4. 
An ordinary float-feed-chamber, M, is used in con- 
junction with it, and the petrol flows to this from the 
tank beneath the front seat by gravity. The upper 
portion of the mixing chamber, N, communicates direct 
with the induction pipe, N 1 , and the lower portion 
receives the petrol, pipe at N 2 . The petrol is led to the 
jet, N s , in the usual way, and the main air supply is* 
conducted from the neighbourhood of the hot exhaust 
pipes, L l , to the large port, N 5 . When the engine is at 
rest the only passage through the carburettor which is ir» 



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open communication with the atmosphere is through 
the annular space around the jet, from the induction pipe, 
N 1 , to the main air inlet, N 5 . At this time, too, the jet, N 3 , 
is closed by a needle, P*, which is fixed to a light piston, 
P, fitting the cylindrical portion of the mixing chamber. 
The end of this piston is perforated at P 1 to allow the 
mixture to pass through it, and the piston is normally 
held down in this position by a spring, P 3 , which presses 
against the cap, N 5 . When the engine is started, how- 
ever, the suction of its pistons causes the small piston, P, 
to rise against the action of the spring, P 3 , and in doing 
so, this small piston partially withdraws the needle, P 2 , 
from the jet, and at the same time allows auxiliary air 
to enter through the ports, N 4 , just above the jet. The 
spring, P 3 , is sufficiently long to exert an approximately 
constant pressure upon the piston, P, and the piston 
therefore tends to maintain a constant degree of vacuum 
in the induction pipe. The velocity of the air passing the 
jet, N 3 , from beneath is consequently rendered constant, 
and»so its "injector" action upon the petrol also re- 



base of the carburettor allows any petrol which may flow 
out from the jet into the mixing chamber to escape. 
This carburettor needs no attention of any kind, and is 
at all times in open communication with the induction 
pipe without any throttle-valve between it and the inlet- 
valves. 

The main clutch is of the cone type, the inner member 
of which has cone faces on both sides, the one to 
engage with the outer clutch member on the flywheel, 
and the other with a fixed brake ring. The clutch is 
normally held in engagement by an easily adjusted 
spring, and after it has been disengaged by the foot- 
pedal, a further movement brings its other face against 
the stationary brake-ring, giving a very powerful brake- 
action. The female cone member is made separate 
from the flywheel, and is self-aligning in it, the shaft 
carrying the male member is connected with the change- 
speed-gear through a flexible jaw-coupling. The fly- 
wheel itself has a very wide heavy rim, and the drive is 
taken from it to the clutch cone by a pair of substantial 



Fig. 4. — View of the Engine in the 18-h.p. Chenard and Walcker Chassis from the left side. 



mains the same. The piston, P, rises at all times 
to an extent which is proportional to the quantity of 
mixture required by the engine, and in so doing it 
increases the size of the jet in the same proportion, 
thus maintaining the same degree of richness of the 
mixture. The point of the needle, P 2 , is tapered 
to the correct angle to give this result, and it will be 
seen that variations of engine speed, or variations of cut 
off by the inlet valves, are ingeniously compensated for 
to a remarkably complete degree, although the car- 
burettor itself is of very simple construction. The auxili- 
ary air supply can be regulated to a certain extent by a 
ring, having corresponding holes in it, which encircles 
these air ports, but this is only a shop adjustment, and 
does not require attention from the driver. It will be 
noticed that a washer, P 8 , is fitted beneath the small 
piston, P, the object of this is to render the carburettor 
silent by preventing the piston from chattering when the 
engine is running slowly. The small hole, N 4 , in the 



pins. The change-speed-gear is of the usual sliding 
spur-wheel type, giving three forward speeds and a 
reverse, with a direct-through drive on the top speed. 
The gear-box is rigidly fixed to the underframe, and is a 
single aluminium casting having end plates (forming the 
bearings) bolted to it. The lay -shaft lies beneath the 
direct-through-shaft, and the gear-wheels, which are 
made of very hard steel, have each alternate tooth cut 
away shorter than the intermediate teeth, this " stagger- 
ing " being done in order to render it easier to slide the 
wheels into mesh with one another. The different 
speeds are introduced by a simple sliding sleeve, which 
is operated direct from the change-speed- lever. The 
lever is fixed somewhat further forward than usual, and 
is drawn towards the driver to introduce the higher 
speeds. It is thus more out of the way, when the car is 
at rest, for getting in and out on the u off" side, and, 
when placed as far forward as it will go, it introduces 
the reverse. 



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The power is transmitted from the gearing to the 
countershaft behind the back axle by a propeller-shaft, 
as seen in Figs. 2 and 3. The universal joints, C, at 
each end of the shaft are of very simple strong con- 
struction, being more like ordinary jaw couplings, with 
an intermediate loose piece, than ordinary ball-and- 
socket joints; the jaws are rounded off to the arc of a 
circle, they give a very positive drive, and the couplings 
have practically no back-lash. 



I rA/ 



Fig. 5. — The Chenard and Walcker Radiator. Drawings showing 
a Group of the Corrugated Tubes of which it is constructed. 

The hand-brake-lever is connected with the brakes on 
the rear-wheels through a compensating beam, D, which 
passes across the car. The brakes themselves are 
extremely powerful, and have forged steel shoes, which 
press against the steel drums that form the internal gear- 
wheels. These brakes are rendered absolutely double- 
acting, and are so effective that no sprag or equivalent 
device is fitted on the car. 

Neither the hand-lever, E, nor its quadrant are moved 
by the steering wheel, these being mounted inside the 
steering pillar, so that they remain stationary. 

The 1 2-h.p. Chenard and Walcker car is of the chain- 
driven type, and is similar to the 10-h.p. model of last 
year. The cylinders have a bore of 100 mm., and the 
stroke is 130 mm., so that considerably more power is 
available than on the earlier model. The car has an 
armoured wood frame, and the underframe carries the 
engine only. The combined clutch and brake is fitted, 
and the governor system is the same as on the other 
cars. The normal speed of the engine is controlled by 
a lever on the dash, and a separate moderator-pedal is 




Fig. 6. — The Chenard and Walcker Automatic Carburettor. 
Vertical Cross- Section through the Mixing Chamber. 

fitted. The cooling water is circulated through a finned 
radiator, forming the front of the bonnet, by a pump. 
The gear provides three forward speeds and a reverse, 
and gives a direct through-drive to the differential 
counter-shaft on the top speed. The engine is fed with 
oil from a lubricator, on the dash, in which a pressure is 
maintained by the exhaust gases. This car has 32 in. 
wheels. 

Samples of the new Chenard and Walcker cars will be 
shown by the Weston Motor Syndicate, of 14, Mortimer 
Street, W., who are the sole agents for them in this 
country and the Colonies, at the Crystal Palace Ex- 
hibition next month, when we have no doubt that many 
of our readers will be glad to avail themselves of the 
opportunity of seeing the special novel features to which 
we have referred above. 



THE ARBEL STEEL WHEEL. 



The "Roue Arbel" is made by the same celebrated 
French firm who were amongst the first to construct 
pressed steel frames, and is constructed entirely of steel. 
It is made in either of the two forms which are shown 
sectionally, to the left and to the right, in our illustration, 
the former having its rim fixed rigidly to it, and the 
latter having a detachable type of rim, as seen on a 
larger scale in the centre of the same drawing. This 
wheel is built up of two pressed steel discs, A and A 1 , 
which are riveted with flanged joints to the hub at the 
centre, and are united at their peripheries by the [\ rim, 
A*. In the detachable form, the disc, A, is continued 
up to form one side of the rim, and the disc, A 1 , is 
reinforced by a ring, A 3 , for obtaining a good fixing of 
the studs, A*. The detachable side, B, of the rim 
is held in place by the nuts, B 1 , which fit the studs, A 4 , 
and the thickened edges, D, of the tyre cover are held 
in place by the curved-over sides of the rim. A kind of 
saddle-shaped ring, C, is provided between the two 
thickened edges, and this rests on the rim, A 2 , to form a 
curved surface for the inner tube to lie in. 




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THE; AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 23, 1904. 



UNIVERSAL TRANSFERABLE STEERING PROPULSOR. 



The rapidly increasing interest in motor boating renders 
all improvements in the application of the light and 
handy explosion motor to boat propulsion of consider- 
able general interest. We have pleasure in chronicling 
the introduction of a very important improvement in 
this respect. We refer to the Universal Transferable 
Steering Propulsor, the invention of a French firm, 
which is being introduced into this country by Messrs. 
Lockie and Co., of Liverpool. The great advantages of 
the steering propulsor are that it can be readily applied 
to any existing boat, and when attached to it converts it 
to all intents and purposes into a petrol launch without 
the necessity of boring a hole through the stern post 
and supplying a permanent propeller shaft and stuffing 
box. The propulsor can, in fact, be attached to a 
boat and removed from it without any modification in 
the boat itself being necessary. Consequently, anyone 
who has a boat on a lake or river and at the seaside may 
enjoy all the advantages of two or more motor boats, 
and will only have to transport the propulsor from place 
to 1 place. The invention comprises a small petrol 
motor, which is bolted to a couple of planks spanning 
the gunwales at the stern of the boat. A prolonged 
engine shaft, which is enclosed in a metallic casing pro- 



jecting over the stern, operates a vertical shaft 
(inside a cylindrical casing) by bevel gearing, which 
descends below the surface of the water and 
carries a three-bladed propeller mounted on the end 
of a short shaft at the bottom of the vertical cylinder, the 
short propeller shaft being similarly actuated by bevel 
gearing from the vertical shaft, which is arranged inside 
the vertical cylinder. The propeller and its shaft can be 
turned about the vertical axis of the vertical cylinder 
by means of a hand wheel and bevel gearing, and the 
boat is steered by varying the angle that the axis of the 
propeller makes with the keel. A rudder is thus 
rendered superfluous, and the -boat is backed by com- 
pletely turning round the propeller by the action of the 
hand wheel after having previously unclutched it from 
the motor, the clutch being re-engaged when the reverse 
position has been assumed. 

We understand a considerable number of transfer- 
able propulsors have been adopted by the navies 
of France, Russia, Japan, and other countries, while 
the 12-h.p. propulsor has been successfully applied 
in canal work, a launch fitted with it having successfully 
towed a 300-ton barge with a load of 150 tons of 
sand. 



Translators Still Active. 

We really think that the many enterprising French 
firms who, as the result of extending business in this 
country find it necessary to publish English editions of 
their catalogues and descriptions of their machines, 
would do a great deal better to have the translations 
prepared on this side of the Channel by persons really 
conversant both with automobile technicalities and the 
English language. There seems a peculiar fatality 
attaching to the attempts of the foreigner, however 
intelligent and conversant with the conversational aspects 
of the English language, when he comes to describe 
the intricacies of automobile construction, and the 
greatest misfortune is that, the nearer the attempts come 
to hitting the mark, the funnier the failures appear. We 
would refer to the "remarks" of an enterprising 
French firm in praise of their machines as an illustration 
of what we have said above. A few quotations will 
suffice to entertain our readers : — 

" Among the chief defects of other motors are : — 

Very trying trepidations, as much so for the machinery as^for the 
passengers. 

A constant series of repairs and upkeep which, in most cases, 
renders the employment of a skilled mechanic a necessity (valves 
circulation etc.). 

Complications. — Our motor of 6-h.p is a winged cylinder of the 
following dimensions: — o m. 420 long (16 in 38) by o m. 300 
diameter ( 1 1 in 7). 

It has no external organs, no reglator — nothing. 

Water Circulation. — As this motor does not heat f it does not 
require cooling by means of a stream of water ; owing to the way it 
is built it does not heat. When the compression takes place, the 
whole exploding mixture is forced by the pistons into an explosion 
chamber separated from the cylinder by asbastos joints ; when the 
detonnating mixture deflagrates, the pistons having reached the end 
of their course no flame penetrates the cylinder. 

Repairs. — Every organ being of a remarkable simplicity, and, 
besides being internally situated is, by this very fact, out of reach of 
dust, thus preventing clogging, and securing a longei life to all the 
moving organs ; the oil not being scorched does not deposit the well- 
known special soot on the valves, a soot which constantly packed by 
the action of the valves, occupies their bearings and thus causes 
them to loose the requisite staunchness." 



Mr. E. S. Bruce has been giving two lectures to 
juveniles on Aerial Navigation at the Society of Arts — 
the final lecture being on the 1 3th inst. The lectures 
were well attended and enthusiastically received by an 
intensely interested audience — for what is there that 
interests children of all ages more deeply than the 
eternal problem of flight ? Mr. Bruce covered the whole 
ground of aeronautics from the point of view of actual 
achievement very thoroughly, from GifTard, Krebs, and 
Zeppelin to Lebaudyand the Brothers Wright. A warm 
tribute was paid to the exploits of Santos Dumont, who, 
it was pointed out, was the first aerial navigator who ever 
brought an airship back to the starting point against a 
wind up to time. The lectures were rendered specially 
attractive by the use of the new aerial graphoscope, 
which shows pictures in the air without the need of a 
screen, and by the exhibition of several working models 
of flying machines which flew about the building, to the 
huge delight of the audience. 



Alderman Sir H. E. Knight, in evidence before the 
Royal Commission on London Traffic, has been making 
some suggestions really worth considering for diminish- 
ing the preposterous congestion in the Metropolis. He 
recognises very naturally that the greater portion of this 
congestion is due to the delivery of goods arriving, 
originally in most cases by rail. His proposition is that 
special systems of underground electric tubes should be 
built connecting the railway depots with the principal 
points of the Metropolis, and that goods arriving by rail 
should be forwarded to these points through the tubes. 
From there they should be delivered to the addressees 
by expeditious motor delivery vans. This would certainly 
tend to largely diminish the extent to which the thorough- 
fares of the centre of the town are taken up by heavy 
vans, which, next to the 'buses, are the principal cause 
of congestion. By the time Alderman Sir H. E. Knight's- 
proposition is realised (if ever) the 'buses will be all 
motor-driven, and will not be one quarter such nuisances- 
as they are at present. 



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87 



MOTOR COACHES FOR RAILWAYS. 



One railway after another is recognising the advantages 
attached to the employment of motor coaches actuated 
by light engines of moderate power for coping with 
the light traffic on their less important lines. The 
North-Eastern Railway Company has been experimenting 
for some time in this direction, and now the Wolseley 
Company have recently supplied them with a 90-h.p. 
horizontal engine, coupled to a dynamo for use on a 
motor-coach. The illustration which we reproduce 
shows the engine in the Wolseley Company's work- 
shop when being tested, which accounts for the 
irregular piping and cables shown. The engine 
consists of four horizontal cylinders overhung 
on a stoutly built horizontal crank chamber, 
with inspection covers above and an oil trough 
underneath it. The 
valves of the engine 
are operated from 
two cam-shafts, one 
on each side of the 
engine, driven by 
special gear from 
the crank-shaft, and 
the inlet-valves are 
mechanically oper- 
ated. Forced lubrica- 
tion is used through- 
out, and the engine 
is provided with a 
very efficient silencer. 
It is governed on the 
throttle, and gear is 
provided which en- 
ables the driver of 
the coach to throttle 
it from either end. 
The ignition is on 
the high tension 
principle, with ac- 
cumulators, and a 
specially- designed 

type of commutator. The total weight of the engine is 
35 cwt, and when developing its full horse- power it is 
said to consume 78 pints per horse-power hour. 

At the normal speed of 400 revs., the engine can 
develop 92-b.h.p., and when accelerated to 480 revs, 
gave well over 100-h.p. The dimensions of the 
cylinders are 8£ inches diameter, and have a 10-inch 
stroke. 

As will be seen from the illustration, the engine, which 
is provided with a 3 -foot flywheel, is direct-coupled to a 



multipolar Westinghouse dynamo, which has a small 
dynamo mounted on top belt-driven from the fly- 
wheel. The function of this small machine is to 
charge a battery of accumulators for lighting the coach, 
start the petrol engine, and provide the exciting current 
for the main dynamo, which is controlled by rheostats 
at either end of the coach in charge of the driver. The 
current from the dynamo is \e* tl controllers to 

motors coupled direct to the two/uv.cr *XaCS of the bogeys 
on which the car runs. A second similar engine is 
being built by the Wolseley Company for the North- 
Eastern Railway Company, and will, we understand, be 
supplied shortly. 

The TafT Vale Railway Company have also adopted a 
handsome steam-driven motor coach for a section of their 

line running from 
Cardiff through Pen- 
arth to Cadogan. 
The coach has a 
genera] resemblance 
to a similar vehicle 
in use on the South- 
western Rail way, but 
the boiler of the 
engine is horizontal, 
and the engine is 
mounted underneath 
the frame between 
the axles of a bogey. 
The boiler is of 
multitubular type, 
and contains 3 1 2 
tubes of if inches 
diameter. The en- 
gine cylinders are 
9 inches in diameter 
with a 14-inch stroke, 
and are controlled by 
ordinary eccentrics 
fitted on the driv- 
ing axle inside the 
frame, the link motion being of the Stevenson type, 
and the engine is reversed by screw reversing gear. 
Both steam and hand brakes are provided, and the 
coach, which accommodates forty 3rd-class and twelve 
ist-class passengers, is steam heated from the engine 
on the system introduced by G. D. Peters and Co., of 
Moorfields. The ordinary steam pressure employed on 
the engine is 160 lbs. per square inch. The motor 
coach has been designed throughout by Mr. T. H. 
Riches, the locomotive engineer to the Company. 



On February 3rd Mr. T. Clarkson will read a Paper 
at the Society of Arts on " Steam Cars for Public 
Service," when Lieut-Col. H. C. L. Holden, R.A., 
will preside. Professor S. Vernon Boys, F.R.S., on 
February 10th, will deal with "Thermit," and on 
February 17th "Garden Cities in their Relation to 
Industries and Agriculture" will be the subject of a 
Paper by Mr. A. R. Sennett. During the Session, Mr. 
Mervyn O'Gorman, M.I.E.E., will read a Paper on 
" Motor Cars for Popular Use." 



The President of the Local Government Board has 
appointed the following gentlemen to form the Com- 
mittee (to which we alluded last week) to advise and 
report in reference to the increase of the tare limit for 
heavy vehicles: — 1 he Right Hon. Henry Hobh«iuse, 
M.P. (chairman), Sir William Arrol, M.P., Mr. H. C. 
Monro, C.B., Mr. H. H. Law, M.Inst.C.E., Mr. 
George Deacon, M.ln>t.C.E., and Mr. H. Graham 
Harris, M.Inst.C.E., with Mr. R. J. Simpson, of the 
Local Government Board, as secretary. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 23, 1904. 



PLAN OF EXHIBITS AT THE SOCIETY OF MOTOR 

/The Heavy Vehicle and Marine Sections and\ ^"DVCHT AT DAT A^Th "CRDl 

V Corridor Extension are in the Lower Hall. ) V^Iv X O 1 I\l^ ri\Lul\\^H f "CD 



THE CRYSTAL 



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PMOTOQNAPMIO 






Art ** 



I onu too* l =4 

— I a— 




THE Gfl 



Acme Lathe Co. , 34. 

Albany Manufacturing Co., 152. 

Albion Motor Car Co., 134. 

Alldays & Onions, 107. 

All weather & Co., 267. 

A. Anderson, 74. 

Anglian Motor Co., 207, 20S. 

Anglo- American Motor Co., 223. 

" Aquascutum," 259, 

Ariel Motor Co., 118, 119, 120. 

Armstrong, Stevens & Son, 251. 

Artillery Wheel Works, 229. 

Automobilia, 242. 

Automobile Engine Co. (Corridor 

Extension). 
AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL, 91. 
Baedeker, Eugene, 20. 
Baker & Co., 225. 
Base, C. R., 268. 

Bat Motor Manufacturing Co. , 56A. 
Bates, W. & A., 212 
Beaufort Motor Co., 99, 100, 101. 
Begbie Manufacturing Co., 181, 182. 
Bentley, 2o8a. 

Birmingham Castings Co. , 244. 
Bleriot, 225. 
Block, Mme., 196. 
Brampton Brothers, 145. 
Bransom, Kent & Co., 16. 



Bristol Wagon Co., 34 (Heavy 

Vehicle Hall). 
British Simplex Gear Co., 211. 
Brush Elec. Eng. Co., 169, 170, 171. 
Burkin, W. E., 78. 
Cannstatt Automobile, 53. 
Car, The, 186. 
Caravan Restaurant, 3. 4 (Heavy 

Vehicle Hall). 
Caswell's, 245. 
Century Eng. Co., 183, 184. 
Chase, 143. 
Clement, 205, 206. 
Clipper Pneumatic Tyre Co., 37. 
Cole, 142. 

Collier Tyre Co., 42, 43, 44. 
Continental Automobile Co., 224. 
Cordingley & Co., 63. 
County Gentleman, 246 A. 
Coulthard & Co., 7, 8, 13, 14 

(Heavy Vehicle Hall). 
Coventry Chain Co., 50. 
Cremorne Motor Co., 76. 
Cycle Trade Publishing Co., 246. 
T)aimler Motor Co., 160, 161, 162. 
Darracq & Co., 9, 10, n, 12. 
Deasy, Capt. H. H. P., 139. 
De Dion Bouton, 163, 164, 165. 
Dennis Bros., 121, 122, 123. 
Dinni Accumulator, 220. 



Donne, Morgan, 2. 

Dunhill, A., 256, 257, 258. 

Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co., 39. 

DuryeaCo., 190, 191. 

Eagle Eng. Co. , 225. 

East London Rubber Co., 233. 

Edge, S. F., 128, 129, 130. 

Edge, S. F. (office), 41. 

Electric Battery Co., 56. 

Electromobile Co. , 236. 

Elephant Chemical Works, 73. 

Elliott Bros., 67. 

Ellis, J., & Co., 5, 6, 15, 16 (Heavy 

Vehicle Hall). 
Els wick Motor Co., 230, 231, 232. 
Elsworth Automobile Co., 1. 
Evart-Hall, 226, 227. 
Farman Auto. Co., 131, 132, 133. 
F.I.A.T.,204. 
Firefly Motor Co., 135. 
Gamage, 261, 262. 
General Accident Corporation. 
General Assurance Co., 40. 
General Motor Car Co. , 59, 60. 
Germain, 3. 

Gladiator Co., 115, 116, 117. 
Gobron Motor Co., 194. 
Godin, A. A., 187. 
Green & Son, 62. 
Grose, J., 64, 65. 



Grosvenor Engineering Works, 24 
(Marine Section Hall). ' 

Hall & Co., 140. 

Hayes & Son, 26. 

Herbert, Alfred, 35, 36. 

Hewitt, Martin, 209A. 

Hewetsons, 102, 103. 

Hoare & Sons, 265. 

Hobson, H., 145. 

Holding, T. H., 263. 

ilolmes & Co., 13. 

Hope Iron Works, 68, 6 ). 

Hozier Engineering Co., 85, 86. 

Humber, 238. 

Hutton, J. E., 151 (and 26, Marine 
Section Hall). 

Hyde Rubber Co., 70, 71. 

Iliffe & Sons, 124, 125, 126, 127. 

Isometric Lens Co., 176. 

Ivel Agricultural Motors, 32, 33 
(Heavy Vehicle Hall). 

Jarrott, Chas., & Letts, 87, 88, 89. 

lames & Browne, 172, 173. 

Jehu Motor Co. (Corridor Exten- 
sion). 

Kaye & Sons, 219. 

Keen's Automobile Co. , 5. 

Kent & Co., 17. 

King & Co., 91. 

Lanchester Eng. Co., 104, 105, 106. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



89 



MANUFACTURERS' AND TRADERS' SHOW AT THE 



lUARY 12th . to 24th, 1904* 



(The numbers after the names are those \ 
allotted to the stands on the plan. / 



kLACE PARADE. 



UNDS. 



Langdon Davies Motor Co., 235. 
Laurie & Marner, 138. | 

Law Accident Insurance, 213. 
Lea & Francis, 136. 
Leonard, J. (Corridor Extension). j 
Liversidge & Son, 249. ' 

Locomobile Co., 154, 155, 156. 
London Elect romobile Co., 61. j 

London Motor Garage, 157, 158, 

159. I 

Longstreths, 197. , 

Lovegrove & Co. , 270. ' 

Lowe, Bevan, & Co., 46. 1 

Lucas, Joseph, 55. I 

Mann & Overton, 7. 
Marples, 141. j 

Marshall and Co., 137. 1 

Marston, John, 147. | 

Masui, Theo., 3. 1 

Martin Pneumatic Tyre Co., 215. 
Marx and Co., 108. 
Maudslay Motor Co., 81, 82 (and 

29, Heavy Vehicle Hall). 
McTaggart, 24. 
Meier, A., 4. 
Melhuish & Sons, 214. 
Mills, William, and Co., 23. 
Milnes-Daimler Co., 166, 167, 168. 
Mobile Co., 52. 
Mo-Car Syndicate, 199, 200. 



Moebus & Son, 72. 
Motor Car Co., 222. 
" Motoring Illustrated," 29. 
Motor Manufacturing Co. , 174, 175. 
New Automobile Co., 54. 
Newnes, George, 185. 
New Orleans Motor Co., 252, 253. 
Nicoll&Co., 266. 
North British Rubber Co., 38. 
Paffard, C. I., 201. 
Palmer Tyre Co., 47, 48. 
Panhard and Levassor, 93, 94, 95. 
Peto & Ratford, 146. 
Philipp&Co., 198. 
Phoenix Motor Co., 216. 
Pick and Co., 113, 114. 
Price's Patent Candle Co., 218. 
Pritchetts and Gold, 228. 
Rex Motor Manufacturing Co., 6. 
Rice & Co., 49. 
Richards & Co., 19. 
Riches & Co., 254. 
Roadway Autocar Co., 30, 31. 
Rose Brothers, 202. 
Ross, Courtenay & Co. ,15. 
Rotherham & Son, 90. 
Rover & Co. , 203. 
Rubery & Co., 18. 
Ryde Motors. 98 (and 25, Marine 
Section Hall). 



Ryknield Engine Co., 221. 
Salsbury & Son, 263, 264. 
Samuel & Son, 260. 
Savage Bros. (Heavy Vehicle Hall). 
Self-Sealing Air Chamber Co., 27, 

28. 
Selbach, O. C, 178, 179, 180. 
Shrewsbury & Challiner Tyre Co. , 

14. 
Siddeley Autocar Co., 57, 58. 
Simms Manufacturing Co., 149, 

150 (and 27, 28 Marine Section 

Hall). 
Simpson Strickland, 23 Marine Sec- 
tion Hall. 
Sirdar Rubber Co., 96. 
Smith & Son, 80. 
Speedwell Motor Co. , in, 112. 
Standard Motor Co., 77 (and 30 

Heavy Vehicle Hall). 
Star Motor Co., 240, 241. 
Statter & Co., 195. 
Stern Bros., 25. 
Straker Steam Vehicle Co., 9-12 

(Heavy Vehicle Hall). 
Straus & Co., 247. 
Swift Motor Co., 148. 
Tasker & Son, 1, 2 (Heavy Vehicle 

Hall). 
Taylor & Co., 66. 



Temple Press, 97. 

Thorn, W. T. & Co., 209, 210. 

Thornycroft Steam Wagon Co. , 237 
(and 19, 20, 21, 22 Heavy Vehi- 
cle Hall.) 

Thrupp & Maberley, 234. 

Toni Tyre Co., 79. 

Twentieth Century Co., 75. 

United Motor Industries, 92. 

Vauxhall Ironworks, 32, 33. 

Velox Motor Co., 192, 193. 

Vulcan Motor Co. (Corridor Exten- 
sion). 

Wallis, Stevens & Co., 17, 18 
(Heavy Vehicle Hall). 

Waterson, H., 217. 

Weldless Steel Tube Co., 248. 

Weller Bros., 153. 

Wellington, V. F.. 250. 

Western Motor Syndicate, 109, no. 

White, C. 51. 

White Steam Car Co., 83, 84. 

Wilkinson Sword Co., 35 (Heavy 
Vehicle Hall). 

Willcox & Co., 21, 22. 

Wilson & Pilcher, 188, 189. 

Wilson Bros., 8. 

Wolseley Tool & Motor Car Co., 
239. 



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THE AUT0M0T0R JOURNAL. 



[January 23, 1904. 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PEDRAIL. 



Most of our regular readers will remember our illus- 
trated review of Mr. Diplock's book on the Pedrail, for 
this review attracted a considerable amount of attention 
to his wonderful invention, and has elicited, Mr. Diplock 
tells us, many enquiries from various parts of the 
civilised world. The Pedrail System is one which it is 
a real pleasure to describe, although the actual arrange- 
ment of the mechanism is so compact that the task is 
not an easy one, even with the assistance of the very 
complete drawings and photographs which Mr. Diplock 
has been good enough to put at our disposal, and of the 
photographs which we have ourselves taken. It must not, 
however, be thought that it is complicated, because this 
is far from being the case. As we shall hope to show, it 
comprises the same essential elements which are made use 
of in other traction systems, although they are arranged 
in a very different manner in relationship to one 
another. 

The Pedrail has undergone a considerable amount 
of development during the past year, and, in its 
latest form, most of the early minor weaknesses — 
inseparable from any new invention — have been elimi- 
nated. Two pairs of wheels, which will be referred to 
as No. 1 and No. 2, have already been built, and tested 
in actual practice, and the third pair is now being made. 
The first pair were substituted for the front wheels of a 
traction engine, and the second pair, which were designed 
with such improvements as suggested themselves from 
the performance of the first pair, were subsequently 
fitted instead of the rear wheels on the same engine ; 
this engine, with these four Pedrails is seen in Fig. 1. 
The engine itself was originally constructed for Mr. 
Diplock on unusual lines, for it is built in such a way 
that all four wheels are driven, and that the steering gear 
also acts upon them all. Differential gears are intro- 
duced into each axle, and there is also another differential 
between the two axles. When turning a sharp corner 
the two wheels on the inner side nearly meet one 
another, and the two wheels on the other side move a 
considerable distance away from one another. This 
arrangement of parts has nothing to do with the Pedrail 
invention itself, although it can be used in conjunction 
with Pedrail vehicles, but it is another important feature of 
Mr. Diplock's traction system and adds materially to the 
capabilities of any vehicles fitted with it. The third pair 
of Pedrails is being constructed on the same lines as the 
working model from which our photographs (Fig. 
10) were taken, and are being used instead of the rear 
wheels on a 5-ton engine which is now nearing com- 
pletion. The development of the system as shown by 
these three designs, and the results of the practical 
tests which have already been made, are not only ex- 
tremely interesting but are even highly important to 
those studying the automobile problem. We are there- 
fore glad to be able to show stage by stage what has been 
done, and to record the reason for each step having 
been taken. For this purpose we have gone into the 
matter very carefully with Mr. Diplock, and have to 
thank him for the courtesy which he has extended to us. 
For the benefit of those who do not know the Pedrail 
system, we propose in the first place to enumerate the 
chief reasons why it is likely to come into general use, 
and to explain the principles on which its construction 
is based. It is well known that the power required to 
draw a vehicle on rails is enormously less than that 



which is necessary for propelling one of the same weight 
along the road, and that the chief reason for this is that 
in the one case smooth wheels run upon a hard smooth 
surface, whereas, in the other case the wheels have to 
roll over an irregular and often soft surface. 'To con- 
sider the question of irregular surfaces first, it is obvious 
that a wheel is bound either to crush or to ride bodily 
over any obstacles which may come in its way, and that 
a considerable amount of power is therefore absorbed in 
lifting it more or less each time that it does so. The 
question of hardness of surface may perhaps best be 
explained by pointing out that the periphery of a 
wheel theoretically rests upon a hard flat surface along a 
mathematical line crossing the periphery, but that if the 
surfaces are insufficiently hard to stand the weight which 
presses upon the wheel, the wheel has to sink into the 
surface beneath it until a sufficiently large area on the 
periphery of the wheel is in contact with the road surface. 
The wheel, in sinking in to obtain the necessary support, 
however, must continually plough its way through the 
ground in front of it as the vehicle is dragged along, and 
thus the tractive effort required is increased to an 
enormous extent. For these two reasons, the energy 
required for hauling a certain weight along a railway is 
far less than that which is necessary when dragging an 
equivalent load on ordinary wheels along even the best of 
roads. Road traction, however, is even more in demand 
in undeveloped countries where neither railways nor good 
roads exist to any considerable extent, and it is 
particularly under such circumstances as these that some 
new system is required for haulage vehicles of all kinds. 
Previous attempts to construct suitable vehicles for 
traversing rough country, and soft ground, have been in 
the direction of using very large wide wheels — large, to 
render the relative size of the obstacles slight, and wide, 
to reduce their tendency to sink in — or of building 
them in such a way that they lay down rails in front of 
themselves and lift them up again behind so soon as they 
have travelled over them. The employment of large wheels 
can hardly be regarded as a radical cure for the difficulty, 
because at best it can only result in slight improve- 
ment. The other device — that of making a vehicle lay 
its own track — has met with but little success, and, 
unless the track which it lays is in itself a large wheel — 
and therefore open to the same criticism as ordinary 
wheels, it leads to a prohibitive degree of complication 
and clumsiness. Mr. Diplock's Pedrail differs entirely 
from either of these methods, although it does in effect 
lay a track for itself to travel over. The peculiarity of 
the system, however, is that a portion of the forward 
movement of the vehicle results from the rolling of hard 
wheels over a hard, smooth surface, and that the other 
portion of the forward movement is a true u walking " 
action. Every yard that the Pedrail vehicle travels over, 
the wheels run 27 inches along a rail, and the other 
nine inches is u walking." This is not an easy idea to 
absorb at first, but will become clear as we proceed 
with the details of construction presently. 

Neglecting for the moment this "walking" action, 
it may be said that the Pedrail system is precisely 
analogous to a railway except that short rails on the 
vehicle travel along over an endless series of wheels 
instead of wheels on it rolling over an endless 
rail. The drawing shown in Fig. 2 — although purely 
diagrammatical, and assuming, as it does, that the 



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wheels are fixed to the ground — will enable us to point 
out how the '* railway " action of the Pedrail t.akes place, 
and how the rail is mounted in relationship to the 
vehicle. The vehicle jtself is rigid with a framework, A 1 , 
which has a slot, A 2 , cut in it. The steel rail, I), is 
pivoted at D 1 , to a square block which rides in the slot, 
A 2 , the slot forming a kind of horn -plate for the 
block. This rail is shown in Fig. 2 as though it 
had a flat face, though its actual shape in practice is 
that indicated by the dotted line. This portion of the rail 
is of sufficient length to rest upon either two or upon 
three of wheels, M, which are supposed to be 

mounted in bearings ipon upright supports fixed into the 
ground. The rail, D, is connected by compression springs, 
E, with a rocking beam, E 1 , which is pivoted to the 
bracket, A 1 , and cushion springs, E 3 , are also introduced 
between the beam and the bracket, A 1 , to tend to keep it 
and the rail in a horizontal position. It will thus be 
seen that the rail, D, is fixed to the vehicle in much the 



soon as the rail has run over them. For this purpose 
they are mounted upon radial spokes, which are free to 
slide in and out, and have large flat supports (or feet) 
attached by universal joints to their extreme outer ends. 
The spokes slide in guides formed in discs which are 
mounted on bearings rigid with the vehicle, and it is these 
discs which are driven by the engine if the vehicle is 
self-propelled. The discs then serve the same purpose 
as the arms, F, in Fig. 2, besides supporting the wheels 
and their spokes, and rendering them endless. The 
feet on the ends of the spokes are not only attached to 
them by universal joints forming ankles, but the sockets 
for these joints are attached to the feet themselves in 
such a way that they are free to move in a horizontal 
plane inside them. 

The " walking " action, to which we have referred, 
arises from the arrangement of the spokes in the manner 
which we have just described. The under surface of the 
rail, D, is so shaped that three feet can rest on the road 



Fig 1. — The Diplock Experimental Traction Engine, on which all four wheels are driven, and are used for steering, fitted with a 

pair of No. 1 Pedrails in front, and a pair of No. 2 Pedrails behind. 



same way that the axle-boxes are fitted to an ordinary 
railway truck, but that it can rock about the pivot, D 1 , 
so that it can always rest on at least two of the wheels, 
M, however irregularly they may be laid. If now the 
vehicle were being hauled along, it would run in exactly 
the same way that a truck runs along the line, and it 
would be equally efficiently suspended upon springs. 

Assuming, however, that the vehicle were fitted with 
self-propelling mechanism, and that the axle, B, wen; 
driven by the engine, tnen the necessary propulsion can 
be obtained by fining the axle, B, with radial arms, F, 
as shown, and providing these arms with pins, F 4 , which 
would press against the wheels, M, and so force the rail, 
1), along over the wheels, M. It will be noticed that 
the pins, F 4 , can slide up and down as they have to 
do owing to their circular path, or when the springs, 
E and E 3 , come into action. 

In actual practice, however, the wheels, M, instead of 
being fixed to the ground, are laid down in front of the 
rail, D, by the vehicle itself, and are lifted up again as 



at the same time, and, therefore, each foot comes 
into contact with the ground in advance of the centre of 
the Pedrail. Whilst the rail is sliding over its roller, the 
foot to which it is attached remains in the same position 
on the road, and, as the vehicle passes along, the spoke 
turns on the universal joint forming the ankle in much 
the same way that an animal walks. 

Reference to the accompanying illustrations will show 
the arrangement of parts in all three of Mr. Diplock's 
Pedrail designs. The No. 1 type is shown complete in 
Fig. 3 only, and the No. 2 design in Figs. 4 and 5. The 
front view of No. 2, however, is to all intents and pur- 
poses applicable to No. 1, and these three figures have, 
therefore, been arranged together. No. 3 Pedrail is 
illustrated in Figs. 6, 7, and 8, and a detail drawing, 
showing the spokes with their guides, in Fig. 9. Fig. 10 
shows a working model of the No. 3 design, which has 
been built for Mr. Diplock by Mr. Henry Gore, of 
Wenlock Street, New North Road, N., and is seen in 
six different positions demonstrating the extraordinary 



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JU Ji w 



Fig. 2. — Diagrammatic Drawing illustrating the chief principle or 
the Pedrail. 

manner in which this mechanism can surmount obstacles 
in its path. In the three designs, the different forms of 
construction which the feet have undergone are par- 
ticularly interesting, and these are shown for all three 
models in Figs. 11 to 15 inclusive, after which we have 
arranged the drawings of the dust-proof casings above 
the feet on No. 2 and No. 3 in Figs. 16 and 17. Fig. 18 
shows an important improvement on the No. 3 design, 
and Fig. 19 represents the engine which is now in course 
of construction. 

The essential characteristics of the Pedrail in all cases 
are that the bracket, A 1 (Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8) is 
rigidly fixed to the vehicle ; that the peculiarly shaped 



rail, D, is pivoted at D 1 to a square block which rides in 
# slot, A 2 , in this bracket; that this rail is steadied by 
compression-springs, E, to a beam, E l , which is pivoted 
at E 2 to the bracket, A 1 ; that sliding spokes, G, arranged 
radially are mounted so as to be free to slfde in guides 
formed in discs, F, which can turn about the axle ; that 
these spokes are normally, drawn inward in their guides 
by springs, J, and that they carry small wheels or rollers, 
M, which engage with the rail, D, and form supports for 
it to rest upon ; that these spokes have flat feet, K, 
mounted on universal joints (or ankles) at their extreme 
ends, so that the feet rest flat upon the ground when 
they come in contact with it ; and that the spokes can 
continue to move round without straining the feet or 
tending to move them. while the feet still rest upon the 
ground. 

In No. 1 and No. 2 Pedrails, a live axle, B, is 
arranged, and the engine drives a differential sleeve, B 1 , 
which is keyed at B 2 to the driving disc, F. In No. 3 
design, however, the axle, C, is stationary, and this is 
fixed to the sleeve, A, which is secured to the bracket, 
A 1 , by the set-screws, C 1 . This bracket, A 1 , is in Figs. 
3, 4 and 5 fixed rigidly to the stationary sleeve which 
encloses the axle, B, and the sleeve, B 1 . In Figs. 6, 7 
and 8, two discs, F, are used instead of one, and these 
revolve on bushes, F 1 , outside the stationary sleeve, A. 

In all cases the bracket, A 1 , has a large slot, A a , cut 
in it to act as a horn-plate for a square block carrying 
the pin, D 1 , to which the rail, D, is fulcrumed, and, at its 
upper end, the bracket receives the pivoted (at E 2 ) 
beam, E 1 , between which and the rail, D, the compres- 
sion springs, E, are fitted. The rail, D, and the beam, 
E 1 , are thus free to rock about their pivots, with a 
parallel motion between them, and, as arranged in Fig 4, 
the springs, E, remain equally compressed when they do 
so. These springs, therefore, take the weight of the 
vehicle on the rail, D, and allow for the necessary up 
and down motion between these two parts. In Fig. 4, 
cushion-springs, E 3 , are introduced between the bracket, 





Fig. 3. — Vertical Transverse 
Section of No. 1 Pedrail. 



Fig. 4. — Elevation of No. 2 Pedrail, showing arrangement of 
Rail, Rollers, and Feet. 



Fig. 5. — Vertical Transverse 
Section of No. 2 Pedrail. 



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5 l= z^*^:£^. 



Figs. 6, 7, and 8. — The No. 3 Pedrail, showing the central arrangement of the rail with its compound leverage-springs, and the 

latest improvements which have been made by Mr. Diplock. 



A 1 , and the beam, E 1 , these springs tending to keep the 
beam and the rail horizontal, and preventing them from 
tipping suddenly over from one inclination to the other. 
In Figs. 6 and 8, however, it will be noticed that these 
cushion-springs are arranged in an entirely different 
manner, although they serve the same purpose. This 
new design, to which we shall only refer briefly for the 
moment; is particularly ingenious, and has the effect of 
changing the fulcrum of the rail, D, from the pivot, D 1 , to 
the lower end of one of thelinks about which the springs, E 4 , 
are fitted. The links are pivoted to the rail, D, and have 
slotted upper ends which ride upon pins fixed to the pro- 
jections, A 3 , of the bracket, A 1 . A peculiar compound- 
lever-action is obtained when the rail is rocked over, as 
seen in Fig. 8, for it will be noticed that one of the 
springs, E\ then takes part of the load, and that the 
springs, E, divide the remainder between them. The 
original object of arranging the springs in this way was 
to enable the inventor to fit the rail, D, centrally inside 
the Pedrail, with the guides, H, on both sides of it, and 
with springs, J, on both sides also. 

The rail, D, is curved on its underside in such a way 
that three of the rollers. M, will remain in contact with 
it at the same time, if their feet are resting upon a level 
road. It is carried up at each end, in the shape shown, to 
act as sloping guide-surfaces, D 2 , which, with a cam action, 
allow the rollers, M, to come gently and gradually into 
contact with it before these surfaces force them outward 
against the action of the springs, J, to bring their feet into 
contact with the road at the required time — in advance of 
the axle. It will of course be clearly understood that the 
rail, D, is pivoted so as to render it self-aligning on the 
rollers, M, by enabling it to assume a position parallel 
with those portions of the surface of the road on which 
the feet actually rest, thus compelling it to bear equally 
on at least two of the rollers at all times. 

The spokes, G, are mounted in radial guides, formed 
in the discs, F, and these spokes carry the rollers, M, 
upon bearings formed by the pins. G 1 , and bushes, M 1 , 
The spokes are normally held in towards the centre 
of the Pedrail by the springs, J, which are attached 
to the spokes by brackets, G 2 . In the No. 1 and 
No. 2 designs a single disc was used for the spokes, 
the springs, J, being mounted on one side, and the 
rollers, M, on the other, which, although a convenient 



arrangement because it enabled the rail, D, to be fitted 
outside the revolving portion of the mechanism, yet 
resulted in bad strains being imposed on the spokes and 
their guides, owing to the strains being put on overhung 
portions. In the No. 3 design, therefore, two discs, F, 
are used, and the rail, D, with its stationary bracket, A 1 , 
lies in between them. Each of the discs is mounted on 
the sleeve, A, and the two are connected together at 
intervals around the periphery by blocks, F 2 , as seen in 
Fig. 9, which shows the arrangement of the spokes, G, and 
their guides, H, sectionally. The rail is, in this case, a 
double one, and the roller is also grooved out centrally so 
that it practically forms two rollers at a short distance 
apart. In this case the springs, J, are also arranged on 
each side of the spoke, so that no side strain is imposed 
either by them or by the rail. The springs are en- 
closed by light casings, as indicated in Fig. 7, although 




Fig. 9. — Sectional drawing showing the arrangement of the spokes 
and the guides in the driving discs on No. 3 Pedrail. 



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[January 23, 1904. 



they have been removed on the model (Fig. 10) 
to expose the springs to view. The heavy friction 
on the sliding spokes in No. 1 led to the substitution 
of reciprocating ball bearings before construction, but 
the overhang rendered these unsatisfactory. In the 
No. 2 design, the bearings were considerably improved, 
but the objectionable overhanging still remained. In the 
new design very large bearing surfaces are obtained, as 
seen in Fig. 9, and these are rendered adjustable to take 
up wear. Four semi-circular grooves are cut on the sides 
of the spokes, and these slide on circular "bolsters," 
which are fixed to the V-shaped blocks, H, the blocks 
being bolted to the discs, F, on either side. The V 
blocks can move radially, when not locked by the bolts, 
for the bolts pass through slots in the discs, and the 
blocks can be forced inward or outward by the feed- 
screws, F 3 , which are fitted through the blocks, F 2 , 
between the discs, F. The "bolsters" have grooves, 
H 2 , cut in them, so that any dust which may find its 
way on to them is ejected. It will be understood 
that the spokes serve the purpose of laying an endless 
series of rollers beneath the rail, D, whether the Pedrail 
is fitted to a self-propelled vehicle or merely to a trailer, 
but that in ' the former case they also act as levers 
which obtain a grip of the ground at their extreme 
ends, and are pressed up against, by the discs, F, in 
such a way as to propel the vehicle forward. It should, 
perhaps, be mentioned here, that the Pedrail shown 
sectionally in Fig. 7 is intended to be driven by a gear- 
wheel fixed to the inner face of the inner disc, F, as seen 
in that drawing. 

{To be continued,) 



^^^^^^^^^^^#^wv^w^» 



There has been a curious reticence on the part of the 
Brothers Wright in regard to the full details of their 
sensational exploits with their aeroplane equipped with a 
petrol motor. The general public is inclined in conse- 
quence either to jump to the conclusion that there has 
been considerable exaggeration, or that the Brothers 
Wright are lying low with a view to astonishing the world 
at the St. Louis Exhibition or on some other occasion 
in the future. If we may credit a communication which 
is said by our contemporary, LAuto, to have been 
received by Capt Ferber. a French aeronaut of repute, 
from Mr. Chanute, the former explanation appears to be 
the more correct. According to our contemporary's 
account of Mr. Chanute's communication, the Brothers 
Wright did accomplish free independent flight, but for 
nothing like the distance of 3 miles at one stretch. The 
maximum distance covered in one single free flight was 
266 metres against a considerable wind, the aeroplane 
remaining 59 seconds in the air. Its total weight was 
338*61 kilogs., with a surface of 47*3 metres, the length 
of the wings from tip to tip being 12*19 metres. The 
power of the motor driving the propeller was i2-h.p. 
The aeroplane was first mounted on a wheel carriage 
and run down a bluff with a small incline to get up 
speed. What is of importance, however, and almost 
consoles us for finding that the distance actually traversed 
was less than we supposed, is that similar results were 
obtained on four consecutive occasions, four independent 
flights of approximately the same length having been 
successfully executed. To be able to do this shows 
most convincingly that the Wright Brothers are on the 
way to attain as complete a mastery of the motor-driven 
aeroplane as they have already attained of the simple 
gliding machine with which they have accomplished 
such unequalled results. 



CLUB DOINGS. 

Derby and District Automobile Club.— The second annual 
meeting of this club took place last week, when Mr. Maurice 
Hunter, in the absence of Mr. G. A. Strutt, occupied the chair, and 
amongst a large gathering of members present were Mr. A. Ottewell, 
J. P., Drs. Vaudrey, Arundel, Copestake, Howarth, Messrs. Mell 
and Reading, Clark, Fletcher, Sayer, porter, C. T. Leech (Hon. 
Treasurer), and C. J. Allin (Hon. Secretary). The club, which 
started with 15 car owners only, now has the substantial roll of 
over 70 members. In regard to the present season it was announced 
that a fixture card is being arranged, the club having already 
received a number of important invitations. 

A challenge cup is being instituted by the club which will be 
allotted annually to the member who obtains most marks in a 
series of competitions to be held. These competitions will consist 
of hill-chmbs, skill in driving and avoiding obstacles, non-stop runs, 
&c— contests which are calculated to bring out the best points of a 
car irrespective of its size. Medals will be given for each separate 
contest, and in addition Mr. Strutt has also offered an extra personal 
prize to be won right out. 

The balance sheet, presented by the Hon. Treasurer, showed a 
very satisfactory surplus on the right side, and the following officers 
for the present year were elected :— President, Mr. G. A. Strutt ; 
Vice-Presidents, Messrs Maurice Hunter (Belper), Frank Lawson 
(Foremark), C. L. Schwind (Broomfield), Dr. E. Vaudrey, J. A. 
Arnold, J. P., A. J. Clay (Burton), T. Henderson Pounds, G. F. 
Smith, H. H. Raphael (Allestree), J. Gretton (Stapleford Park), 
F. A. Bolton, J.P. (Oakamoor), and Charles R. Crompton 
(Stanton). The Committee consists of Messrs. Arundel, Collumbell, 
Copestake, Guest, Mell, Sale, St. John, and F. Smith. Mr. C. T. 
Leech continues to act as Treasurer, and Mr. C. J. Allin as 
Secretary. 

It was decided that a club room should be obtained as soon as 
possible, so that members might leave their cars while in town, and 
the club would have a permanent home for meetings, &c. 

It is satisfactory to note that the recommendations of the Derby- 
shire c ounty Council, in which it is recommended that no 10-mile 
limit should be applied for in the district, have been adopted at the 
County Council meeting held last week, although slight opposition 
was offered on the part of one or two members who would have 
been glad to have seen a limit imposed on automobilists. Mr. B. 
Waddington even objected to the suggestion that it would be 
necessary that warning signs should be erected at the expense of 
the county, as he affirmed that " the law presumed that everybody 
knew the law." 



Hartlepools Automobile Club.— It has been determined 10 
form a club for the Hartlepool District, with headquarters at the 
Grand Hotel, West Hartlepool. About 30 members have already 
decided to join, and Mr. G. Jones has been elected President, whilst 
Dr. F. H. Morrison and Mr. J. R. Fothergill have been appointed 
Vice-Presidents. Mr. C. C. Brown is acting as Honorary Sec- 
retary. 



Nottingham and District Automobile Club.— This club 
may claim to have been the first to inaugurate an "Automobile 
Ball" in Great Britain, as, under their auspices, an extremely 
successful dance took place, on the 15th instant, at the Victoria 
Station Hotel, Nottingham. No doubt this new departure 
will be followed in other districts, and in time the county 
" Automobile Ball " will be as familiar an institution as the " Hunt 
Ball." An enormous amount of hard work was done by those who 
undertook the organisation, and the Hon. Secretaries, Mesrs. W. D. 
Wells and R. Harbidge, who acted as M.C.s, were ably assisted by 
a number of stewards, including: —Messrs. H. Belcher, R. Sutton 
Clifford, jun., B. Winter, H. Bowden, A. Ward, P. Huskinson, J. 
D. Morrish, and R. Cripps. 

Sheffield Automobile Club.— The last meeting of this Club was 
signalised by the reading of an interesting and instructive Paper on 
44 Ignition and Electrical Matters Appertaining to the Motor Vehicle," 
by Mr. S. E. Fedden, the General Manager of the Sheffield Corpora- 
tion Electric Light Department. Mr. E. F. Coupe, was in the 
chair, and a large and repreentative assemblage of members and 
their friends attended to hear the paper read. 



Mr. Fedden's Paper, which was admittedly elementary in charac- 
ter, was designed primarily to make the principles involved in 
electric ignition of motor vehicles comprehensible to such automo- 
bilists as do not happen to have previously had any acquaintance 
with electricity. Mr. Fedden accordingly commenced his paper 



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with an outline of the elementary notions which are indispensable 
to the comprehension of electric phenomena, which he put before his 
hearers witn singular lucidity and wealth of illustration. Mr. Fedden 
then proceeded to explain the elementary principles of the induction 
coil, and described the Benz high-tension ignition and method of 
connecting the induction coil up to the cylinder of a petrol engine. 
Mr. Fedden also described in the course of his paper the principles 
on which accumulators are constructed, how they are used for 
operating induction coils, and the best methods of charging them, 
and incidentally gave a general outline of the principles involved in 
the construction of a simple form of dynamo. A very valuable 
feature of Mr. Fedden's paper, was a sort of appendix with which 
it concluded, dealing with the "faults" of ignition apparatus 
on cars, which was desighed and will doubtless have the effect 
of putting his hearers in the position to remedy any defects that 
may arise in this part of their car equipment with the greatest 
possible expedition. Mr. Fedden has been struck by the amount of 
annoyance occasionally arising to car owners by persons meddling 
with their vehicles while left unattended, and he has designed a 
simple invention to reduce this cause of annoyance to a minimum. 
He mounts a small induction coil on the car, connecting one of its 
secondary terminals to the metal framework of the vehicle, earthing 
the other by means of a few yards of wire terminating in an ordinary 
meat skewer stuck into the earth. As the body of the car is 
ordinarily insulated by the pneumatic tyres, a meddlesome small boy 
who begins to fiddle has a period put to his further investigations by 
experiencing a well-merited electric shock. 

After the reading of his paper, Mr. Fedden was tendered a vote 
of thanks, and a presentation was made to Mr. J. R. Wade, the 
Secretary of the club, of a watch in recognition of his services. The 
proceedings concluded by the distribution of certificates for the 
club's 40 Miles Non-stop Motor Cycle Run. 



The Scottish Automobile Club (Western Section).— A meet- 
ing of the club was held in the Windsor Hotel, Glasgow, on the 
evening of Monday last, the 18th inst., Mr. John Adam, of Larch- 
grove, presiding, supported by the Marquis of Ailsa, Mr. 
Edward Brook, Younger of Hoddam, Mr. Jas. Weir, Mr. A. R. 
Brown, Mr. Hugh Reid, Mr. H. M. Napier, and other prominent 
automobilists. There was a large attendance, over ioo gentlemen 
being present. 

Mr. Charles Jarrott read an extremely amusing and entertaining 
Paper upon his reminiscences of the road. From his great 
store of experiences Mr. Jarrott selected some of the more 
striking incidents with telling effect, and remarked that in the 
pleasure which always lies in remembrance of the past, the toil of 
motoring in the early days, when it was toil indeed compared with 
the luxuriousness of the present day, we were apt to forget past hard- 
ships, and in recalling the events remember only the experiences which 
gave us pleasure, and if perchance an unpleasant memory forced it- 
self upon us, we passed it over as being part of the game. The main 
features of the paper have already been given by Mr. Jarrott in Lon- 
don, at the Automobile Club, but several new points were brought out 
during his present discourse. Passing over quite the earliest days, 
he recalled his great envy of Henri Fournier when he witnessed 
him riding through the Bois de Boulogne on a huge motor bicycle 
propelled by a little air-cooled De Dion motor. He so coveted 
this machine that, after lengthy negotiations, he eventually became 
its possessor ; and, by way of his first trip on it, he selected the 
Strand, in London, for an experiment. Even now he marvelled how 
he avoided killing himself during his run through London. Some 
idea of the weight of the machine might be obtained from the fact 
that it required two persons to hold it while it was started. This 
identical machine he used on a run to Brighton, and when in an 
exhausted condition from pushing it uphill, the machine fell on him, 
he was unable to raise the weight off his body, and had to wait 
until he was rescued by some passers-by. He recalled winning the 
first motor bicycle race which was held in England at Sheen House, 
when his time was 2 min. 8 sec. for the mile, it being commented on 
in the papers as a marvellous performance. His next venture was a De 
Dion tricycle, which under no circumstances could do more than 20 
miles an hour — which, as a matter of fact, was a remarkable perform- 
ance considering the smallness of the motor. His first experience of 
driving a real big car was in the shape of a delivery van with a 
4-h.p. Panhard motor, the vehicle being loaded with pig-iron. His 
pace was slow both on the flat and up hill, but after a time the road 
took a sudden and steep downward course, and in the desire to see 
what the vehicle was really capable of he let her have her head, and 
realised only too late that the brakes were apparently constructed 
for an ornamental rather than a useful purpose, and the fearful pace 
which the vehicle ultimately succeeded in attaining, and his efforts 
to steer a straight course, were still vividly depicted in his memory. 
Marvellous to relate he escaped unscathed. Referring to the 



early Bolide machine in the days between 1896 and 1898, he 
sketched an outline of what motoring meant in those days. As a 
rule, if you wished to go out on the following Friday evening the 
procedure necessary was to start getting the car ready on Monday, 
morning. After a week's labour you perhaps then had a fair chance 
of getting somewhere on the car, but how far that somewhere would 
be was a doubtful matter. Vou took with you spare parts sufficient to 
make another car, and as a rule you used them before you returned, 
that is if you were travelling more than ioq miles. In spite of these 
disadvantages, however, in spite of the struggles and troubles, it was 
very thorough sport, and the very uncertainty of one's destination 
day by day was not the least pleasurable of the features. 
Mr. Jarrott then gave some interesting particulars of his exeriences 
in connection with several of the big races, starting with Paris- 
Marseilles. He gave the following amusing description of an 
exciting experience which he had about fifty miles from London : — 

" When I arrived in the town I had asked for some petrol, and 
had received two huge cans, which I emptied into my tank, and 
then tried to start the motor, and found, after reducing myself to a 
complete state of exhaustion, ruining my clothes, and taking the 
skin off my hands, that instead of petrol I had poured in paraffin. 
With the carelessness born of inexperience I emptied the whole of 
the petrol into the stable yard, where it ran downthe drain, at the 
same time requesting the stablemen not to strike any matches. 
After I had finished this operation, and was just getting ready to push 
my car away and fill it up with the right petrol, a young man, 
remarkable for the correctness of his attire and for the absence of 
any appearance of brain, came into the yard with the confident 
intention of going out on a horse, and, striking a match to 
light his cigarette, was the cause of an alarming conflagration. On 
this occasion, however, the whole of the car was surrounded by 
flames as the petrol had ignited on the ground, in the midst of 
which I was going through the most extraordinary acrobatic feats to 
endeavour by my own efforts to move about 28 cwt. of motor car 
out of danger. The stablemen rushed up with bass brooms to beat 
the flames out and found — to their horror— that instead of accom- 
plishing this the brooms themselves caught fire. The covering 
bonnet of my motor was off, and at last a brilliant genius rushed for 
sand, and, imagining that the unoffending motor was the cause of 
all the trouble, emptied the best portion of the same into, around, 
and on top of the motor. It took me about two days to get the 
pebbles out of the mechanism, and I think I received a bill for 
somewhere about £17 damage done to bass brooms, paint, personal 
attire, and the stablemen." 

1899 found him using a 2^-h.p. motor-tricycle for long-distance 
work, with which he took part in the great Paris- Bordeaux road- 
race in France. Mr. Jarrott gave a very vivid description of this 
event, and, continuing, mentioned his visit to America and the 
fearful experiences which he had in consequence of the so-called 
" roads " in the United States. Passing on to Paris- Bordeaux, he 
came to when he had his first chance of taking part in a big 
Continental race, viz., Paris- Berlin. In spite of the fearful 
experiences and mishaps which he went through in this run, 
he managed to finish eighth at Berlin. In 1902 he drove from 
Paris, on a light racing Panhard, to Nice for the Nice-Abazzia 
Race, which, at the last moment, it will be remembered, was 
abandoned, owing to the Government's permission being refused, 
after having originally been accorded ; but Mr. Jarrott, never- 
theless, enjoyed his experiences during this run, particularly on 
the return journey, through the mountainous district, with its 
lofty peaks and yawning precipices, to Grenoble and then on to 
Paris. A few weeks later he was more fortunate in being able to 
take part in the alcohol-driven vehicle contest instituted by the 
Government and known as the " Circuit du Nord." In this, after a 
fearful struggle, he finished second, the weather during this event 
being the worst he had ever experienced up to that time. Later in 
the same year he took part in the great Paris- Vienna Race, being 
accompanied by Mr. George Du Cros on a 70-h.p. Panhard. The 
remarkable mishaps which he experienced during this run, and his 
relation of one specially quick repair which they were able to effect, 
are now history, and he still regarded as one of his most extra- 
ordinary experiences the traversing of the Arlberg mountain pass. 
At one particularly bad corner they saw a leather coat and a few 
tools on the edge of a precipice, all that was left of a car which 
had gone clean over, but, marvellous to relate, although the car was 
smashed to pieces, neither the driver, Max, nor the mechanician 
were at all seriously injured. He recalled his splendid win of 
the Circuit des Ardennes in Belgium, when he covered the distance 
of 320 miles in 353 minutes, one of the most remarkable features of 
the race being that the time for each turn of the 53-mile circuit 
hardly varied a minute each time — a splendid example of how 
regularly and evenly the present day motor carriage was capable of 
running. In May last year, in the start of the Paris-Madrid Race,, 
which ended so disastrously by the time Bordeaux was reached, he 



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[January 23, 1904, 



drove a De Dietrich car, drawing starting place No. i f This 
racing car, which was specialiy built for the occasion, was got to 
the Paris Club only after a great struggle in time for it to be 
weighed in, the day before the actual race, when it was again taken 
to the Paris works for some finishing touches, Mr. Jarrott 
ultimately driving the car straight to Versailles on the night prior 
to the start of the race, he thus having only a trial run of about 
12 kilometres before he started on this historical run. That 
under these circumstances he was able to reach Bordeaux second, 
and was first of the big cars in the race, is, indeed, a marvellous 
testimonial to both driver and car. His average speed upon this 
occasion worked out at 60 miles an hour, which included six 
stoppages from petrol troubles and little causes on the road. It was 
only after the first arrivals had put their cars in the garage and 
had returned to the finishing point to witness the arrivals of some 
of the other competitors, that the terrible rumours of death and 
accidents, subsequently confirmed, began to leak out, and the 
interdiction, by the French Government, of the continuance of the 
race followed as a matter of course. From that day racing both in 
France and elsewhere lay under a deep cloud as a consequence, 
until the Gordon Bennett Race, held in Ireland last year, proved 
that with proper organisation automobile racing could be carried on 
with safety both to the competitors and the spectators. Mr. Jarrott 
closed his paper by a few references to the Gordon Bennett Race, 
concluding by stating that it was a grand race — the finest race that 
had ever been run — with a magnificent finish, and whilst condoling 
with the Chevalier de KnyfT, who drove on behalf of France, on his 
bad luck in not winning, he could but admire the dash and brilliant 
driving of Jenatzy, who fought the battle out so grimly. 

In reply to a vote of thanks, proposed by the Chairman, Mr. 
Jarrott expressed his pleasure in having this opportunity of address- 
ing the members of the Scottish Club, and, following up some 
remarks of the Chairman, he emphasised his view that the future 
acknowledgment of the rights of automobilists lay for the next three 
years with themselves, and counselled caution in all towns and 
villages, and consideration in meeting otner users of the highway, 
who, he said, it must be remembered, had equal rights with the 
owners of motor cars, to its use. 



The paper on " The Cost, Upkeep and Care of an Autocar," 
announced to be read before the Scottish Automobile Club, Western 
Section, by Messrs. J. Hunter Steen and John Adam, on February 
15th, is postponed until February 29th, hi order that the event may 
not clash with the Crystal Palace Show. 



Wolverhampton Automobile Club.— Upon the occasion of 
the third annual dinner of this club, held at the Victoria Hotel, 
Wolverhampton, last week, Mr. E. Lisle presided over a numerous 
company which included, amongst others, Mr. J. H. Cooksey (Town 
Clerk of Bridgnorth), Capt. Burnett (Chief Constable of Wolver- 
hampton), Messrs. A. E. Jenks, H. W. Jenkins, , H. M. Grove, 
H. H. Capes, A. Scott, C. F. Boyes, A. R. Norman, J. Shelter, 
J. O. Evans, C. D. Saunders, T. Edwards, W. H. Lennon, W. H. 
Evans, E. Lisle, jun., G. H. Onions, Trevor T. Young, W. G. 
Owen, T. Mills, H. E. Price, W. A. Rochelle, F. Piatt, H. Van 
Tromp, F. J. Lisle, E. Bayliss, C. Perry, F. R. Byrne Quinn, 
E. Charleswood, T. H. Tomes, E. J. Hall, H. Joyce, and 6. R. 
Rhodes (Hon. Sec). A very welcome visitor was Capt. Burnett, 
in whose hands was placed the toast of " Success to Automobilism." 
He not only expressed himself favourably towards the industry, but 
confessed that he had enjoyed several runs, for which he declined to 
give the time occupied, and looked forward to further experiences 
in the future. He expressed surprise at the extraordinary variety of 
localities from which he had received applications for the registra- 
tion of cars, owners having applied to him from Leicestershire, 
Devonshire, Yorkshire, &c. 

Mr. S. R. Rhodes, in replying to the toast, congratulated the mem- 
bers upon the remarkable progress of the club, and mentioned that 
in 1902 the club numbered 26 members, owning 7 cars, of an ap- 
proximate value of ;£ 1,300. At the present time they had 76 
members, owning 46 cars, of an approximate cost value of ,£14,420. 
He was gratified to state that in the past year no member of the 
club had contributed, in the shape of fines, to the borough fund, a 
fact which spoke for itself in regard to the consideration of the 
members for other users of the road. 

Mr. J. H. Cooksey remarked, as a visitor, that the only reason- 
able means of communication between Wolverhampton and Bridg- 
north was a service of motor cars. 

During the evening the prizes and certificates won in the Hermit- 
age Hill-Climbing Competition were presented to the principal 
winners by Mr. J. H. Cooksey, and an excellent programme of 
music was provided for the entertainment of the visitors. 



Yorkshire Automobile Club. — The fourth annual general 
meeting was held on the 14th inst. at the headquarters of the club 
in Leeds, Mr. T. E. King occupying the chair, the chief business 
of the meeting being the election of officers for the ensuing year. 
A number of nominations had been sent in and the ultimate result 
of the voting was as follows : — President : Earl Fitzwilliam. Vice- 
Presidents : A. W. M. Bosville, Esq., Bridlington; T. E. King, 
Esq., Harrogate; H. R. Kirk, Esq., Leeds j Harry Briggs, Esq., 
Bradford ; W. Penrose Green, Esq. , Leeds. Committee ; Messrs. 
E. Faiers, Herbert A. Jones, R. Winn, Walter Jackson, Thomas 
Whi taker, Edward Hepper. Hon. Solicitor : Mr. Alf. Masser, 
Leeds. Hon. Secretary: Mr. Alf. W. Dougill, Leeds. Hon. 
Treasurer : Mr L. Hey, Leeds. 

A number of formal matters were dealt with, and a brief resume 
of the year's working was given by the Hon. Secretary. Mr. 
Faiers then gave a display of lantern slides, which proved of 
exceptional interest, the range of subjects being extremely wide, 
commencing with the early types of automobiles, followed, by way 
of comparison, with the latest types of cars. The series of slides, 
which recalled delijghtful memories of many club events, included 
snap-shots of prominent members of the club on tour in the Lake 
District, pictures of the Gordon -Bennett race, competitors, controls, 
and of the Yorkshire Club camp at Ardscull. 

On January 20th Mr. W. Fitzwater Wray will give a descriptive 
lantern lecture, entitled " Old English Inns and their Story." The 
majority of the pictures will be from original photographs taken by 
Mr. Wray during a series of extensive cycle runs. 



Auto Cycle Club. — Mr. O'Gorman's paper on " Improvements 
Desirable in the Motor Cycle," which was postponed on the occa- 
sion of the recent annual dinner, is to be read at the Automobile 
Club on the 29th inst., commencing at 8 p.m. 



• +*^^*^s*^*%*+*%*%*+*^^^^*** 



On Friday of last week the Leeds Motor and Cycle 
Show was opened in the Engineers' Drill Hall at Leeds. 
This annual Exhibition is under the auspices of the 
Leeds Cycle Traders' Association, of which Mr. H. W. 
Elworthy is president. A goodly number of exhibits 
have been on view during the week, Messrs. Rice and 
Co. making a good show with their " Korte "cars, which 
are built in the district at Low Hall Mills. There are 
25 stands in all, and the great centre of interest, so far as 
the automobile side of the Exhibition is concerned, is the 
60-h.p. Mercedes belonging to Mr. R. H. Kirk, which is 
staged on Mr. Rowland Winn's stand. Mr. Winn has 
the finest show of cars of various makes, which include 
specimens of Lanchester, Humber, De Dion, Renault, 
Gladiator, De Dietrich, Ariel, etc Amongst the motor 
cycles, in addition to the Ariel machines shown on Mr. 
Winn's stand, are machines by Clemen t-Garrard, Centaur, 
Rover, Quadrant, etc. No specimen, however, of either 
steam or electric car is shown by any exhibitor. An 
excellent selection of music has been contributed by 
the Second West Yorks R.E. Volunteer Band to the 
considerable enjoyment of the visitors during the week. 
The Show closes to-day (Saturday). 



We learn from Messrs. Clarkson, Limited, that in 
addition to the gold and silver medals awarded to them 
in the recent Reliability Trials the judges have awarded 
a special gold medal to the " Chelmsford " car 
(No. 95) for "general excellence, high efficiency, and 
for the very economical and highly successful burning of 
ordinary paraffin or kerosene oil." In addition to the 
Chelmsford cars, which are at present successfully 
running at Torquay and elsewhere, the firm have recently 
received a contract from the North-Eastern Railway 
Company for the supply of motor 'buses. 



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97 



RACES, RECORDS, AND TRIALS. 



GORDON BENNETT ITEMS. 

Mr. Roger W. Wallace, and Mr. Julian W. Orde, 
the Secretary of the Automobile Club, travelled to 
Homburg at the end of last week for the purpose of 
inspecting the Taunus course, and making arrangements 
in the interests of the Automobile Club. The portion 
visited by them appears to give promise of a fair race, 
although some awkward points no doubt will have to be 
negotiated. In regard to the scenery the road traversed 
will afford a glorious treat for visitors able to witness 
this event. 



Mathis, Bugatti, and Butler are named as drivers for the 
three De Dietrich cars, Barbaroux and Ricordi for two of 
the Benz-Parsifal cars, Lewis for a Durkopp, and Fuchs 
for the Protor Fabrik car. 

In France, Chev. R. de Knyff, Henri Farman, and 
Teste will probably drive for the Panhard firm, and 
Baron de Forest will join Jarrott and Gabriel in the 
De Dietrich team. 

Georges Prade in company with Rigolly and others 
has been surveying the Argonnes route, which is the 
suggested eliminating circuit for the French cars. They 



Mr, John Hargreaves, of Templecombe, will be one of the new drivers who will compete la the English Eliminating 

Trials for the Gordon^Bennett Race* Mr. Hargreaves, who Is an ardent foxhunter and M.F.H., and who was 

formerly In the 10th Hussars, Is seen seated on a 65-h.p. Napier Racer. He has just received a 100-h.p. Napier, 

which we understand he will drive in the Race, should he prove successful in the Eliminating 1 Trials. 



Although a Special Commission has been appointed 
by the German Automobile Club to go into the question 
of lodgings, &c, during the Race week, it looks as if an 
organised onslaught is to be made upon the pockets of 
the visitors, natives and foreigners alike, by the residents 
and hotel-keepers. Herr Christ, of 20, (Ederweg, Frank- 
fort-am-Main, is one of the chief gentlemen dealing with 
the whole question, and communications should be 
addressed to him upon the subject. But, judging by 
statements already to hand, the plan of campaign of the 
German hotel-keepers, by its very greed, may defeat its 
own object. The famine prices demanded during the 
Gordon-Bennett Race in Ireland are nothing to what is 
foreshadowed in Homburg and the district. No rooms 
under any circumstances will be let for less than 8 days, 
bedrooms ranging in price from jQi to £2 10s. per night. 

For the German Eliminating Trials, which will pro- 
bably be held in the neighbourhood of Liineburg, 



are very enthusiastic over its suitable character, and 
every effort is to be made to obtain Government sanction 
for the racing to take place there. 

An American contemporary has become quite 
infuriated by the practice that has grown up in Europe 
of speaking of the " Gordon- Bennett Race." The 
founder of the contest, it declares, is plain James Gordon 
Bennett, and denounces all attempts to give him a 
double-barrelled name as snobbishness and caddishness 
exemplified. It is particularly annoyed by attempts 
which it alleges have been made to surreptitiously and 
flunkeyistically introduce a hyphen between the Gordon 
and the Bennett. If it annoys our contemporaries across 
the Atlantic, there is no reason why we should not in 
future speak of the " Bennett Race." We certainly 
object to employing both Mr. Bennett's Christian names 
at the same time if for no other reason than that it will 
form a precedent, and there are gentlemen with a dozen 



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[January 23, 1904. 



or more Christian names. There was the celebrated 
"Alphabet" Smith, as O'Conneli called him, of the 
early half of the last century, who rejoiced in as many 
Christian names as a French marquis. A Journal that 
always had to recite them all would have been in sorry 
case. 



A record long distance run on an electromobile is 
announced from Washington, U.S.A. An electric 
Stanhope equipped with a Porter battery, weighing, it is 
stated, 570 lbs., is declared to have run up and down the 
streets of Washington a distance of 121*2 miles in 
10 hours and 32 minutes on a single charge. This was 
in spite of an accident due to collision with a wagon, 
which caused the spilling of some of the acid out of the 
batteries, broke some spokes, and necessitated the 
repairing of a tyre. For what it is worth this distance 
may count as a Transatlantic electromobile record, 
though the actual distance is claimed to have been ex- 
ceeded on previous 
occasi on s even 
there. But it can- 
not compare as an 
exploit with Krie- 
ger's run of 185 
miles from Paris 
to ChatelheVault, 
which was over 
ordinary country 
roads under un- 
favourable condi- 
tions; nor consider- 
ing that the run was 
made on the smooth 
streets of the town 
is it, in our opinion, 
in any way superior 
to the Electromobile 
Company's run on 
a single charge, 
under unfavourable 
conditions, from 
London to Chippen- 
ham. 



medals should be awarded to each of the four competitors. 
These were: — Chamoreau and Martin, Jeantaud, Krieger, 
and the Cie. Generale de Plndustrie Mecanique Elec- 
trique. The competition for the inflation of pneumatic 
tyres, in which the pumps and apparatus of various 
makers were tested in regard to the rapidity with which 
tyres of certain size could be pumped up by their means, 
and the applicability of the apparatus to all classes of 
vehicles, resulted in the following decision : — The Girip 
apparatus was accorded 80*9 marks out of a possible 100, 
the Sclaverand apparatus 74, and the Touzelet 31*1. A 
gold medal was awarded to MM. De Dietrich and Co., 
the exhibitors of the Girip apparatus, a silver medal to 
M. Morin, of the Sclaverand firm, while M. Touzelet 
received honourable mention. 



The Packard " Gray Wolf" racer, which has recently 
been establishing records in America, will be seen at the 

Nice Races, in 



March, and will 
probably be driven 
by M. Griet. 



Interior of 25-h.p. M.M.C. Saloon Car which forms our "frontispiece." 

The seats consist of four revolving armchairs, and the clock, barometer, 

thermometer, and ** engine-room telegraph n are visible in front. 



Last week, in re- 
ferring to the result 
of the 500 Metre 
Competition, held at 
Antwerp, amongst 
the winning cars 
we referred to the 
" Clement " car. 
This, we are ad- 
vised by the British 
Automobile Com- 
mercial Syndicate, 
Limited, should 
have been men- 
tioned as the "Tal- 
bot" car, the new 
name under which 
this make of car is 
now known. 



I n connection 
with the Nantes 

International Exhibition, May 1 8th to September 15th, a 
heavy vehicle competition is to be arranged. 



Last week it was decided by the French Chambre 
Syndicale de 1 'Automobile that for the year 1905 
classification by weight should remain in force. 



Considerable importance will attach to the auto- 
mobile meeting in Algeria for the Coupe Sneyden over a 
flying kilometre, which will be held on February 14th, 
postponed from January 24th. Already entries have 
been received from Baron de Crawhez, with a 70-h.p. 
Panhard ; Werner, with a Mercedes; Jenatzy, J. de 
Crawhez, &c. 



The committee appointed to conduct the Salon com- 
petition for the automatic starting of explosion motors 
has come to the conclusion that as the important object 
is to encourage the first efforts of everybody, bronze 



Particulars of the Fourth Annual Consumption Trial organ- 
ised by I J Auto are published. The Competition will take place on 
March 3rd, 4th, and 5th, and the results will be arrived at under a 
new formula. Economy of fuel will largely enter into this, and will 
operate to discount speed, although a minimum speed will be 
insisted upon. The catalogue cost of the car will, as before, govern 
the method of classing, and an average minimum speed of 
30 kiloms. in the open and 12 kiloms. in town must be maintained. 
Times will be specially taken on the Picardie Hill over 500 metres, 
with a flying start up and a standing start on returning. Any speed 
below 30 kiloms. per hour will entail loss of marks. The marks 
will be allotted according to the following formula :— 

1. For the consumption per ton of total weight ', the marks will be 

the number of litres consumed divided by the total weight in 
tons and multiplied by the co-efficient 10. 

2. For the consumption per ton of useful load, the marks will 

be the number of litres consumed divided by the useful load 
in tons and multiplied by the co-efficient 10. 

3. Regularity of running and mean speed. — No competitor who 

gets over the course in less than four hours (an average speed 
of 25 kilometers) will be penalised, but every car that goes 
at a lower average speed than 25 kilometres will be penalised 
as follows : the difference between the average speed of the 
vehicle and the minimum average speed demanded will be 
expressed in kilometres and multiplied by the co-efficient 
25, and the resulting number deducted from the marks 
obtained. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



99 



A 7^ miles' straight speedway is under construction at 
Los Angeles, California, which has only 15 feet fall in 
the whole distance. On the mile and kilometre stretches, 
which will be utilised for making record performances, it 
is stated there will be a fall of less than one foot in the 
whole mile. The course is to be 100 feet wide, and as 
the track will run parallel to an electric trolley railway, 
there should be opportunities of witnessing, under 
unique circumstances, the attempts which will be made 
to better present records. 



M. Tampier, the well-known official timer of the A.C. 
of France, will have charge of the timing arrangements 
for the Monaco Motor Boat Races in April. 



Eighty-one entries was the final total, at the closing 
of the lists, for this competition. 



We knew it — it was bound to come — " Sunny Jim " 
has acquired a motor car by means of " Force." 



Over 20 automobile and motor cycle clubs have 
accepted the invitation of the A.C.G.B.I. to the Confer- 
ence of Clubs to be held on Feb. 15th, at 1 19, Piccadilly, 
to discuss the present position of the automobile move- 
ment, and to consider in what manner organised bodies 
of automobilists can best combine to advance it. 



Mr. Henry W. Thornton has been gazetted Lieu- 
tenant to the Motor Volunteer Corps. The dress 
uniform of the Motor Volunteers has now been decided 
upon. It is of olive green cloth, white facings, black 
astrachan collars and cuffs, and silver lace trimmings, 
and a busby of astrachan fur. For work in the field the 
uniform which has hitherto been in vogue will probably 
be adhered to. 



Solid progress in Automobilism is being made in Switzerland, and the Orion Roadcar Company of Zurich has 
already established a very satisfactory reputation for its lurries and heavy delivery vans. Mr. w. C. Moss, the 
London agent for this firm, who has recently been staying at Zurich, sends us some photographs (which we re- 
produce above) illustrative of a decidedly venturesome experiment he made with one of the Company's vehicles. 
He thought he would like to try how far he could get up the Uetliberg, and with Mr. ZtLrchner, the designer of 
the lurry, and a mechanic he commenced the climb. The road, on which the gradients are, we understand, 
terrific, was in very bad condition owing to a thin layer of frozen snow, and two of the party had to spend most 
of their time with pickaxe and shovel on the road in front of the vehicle removing the snow, while the third 
drove. Eventually the top (873 metres) was reached, and Mr. Moss telephoned to Zurich for a photographer, who 
came up by the mountain railway and took the views we have reproduced. 



The dates have been now fixed for the Motor Boat 
Race between Calais and Dover in connection with which 
the Coupe Bicoupe* will be competed for. On August 
13th the race will be a scratch race from Calais to Dover, 
the next day a handicap race back to Calais, and 
August 15th a handicap race will be run from Calais 
to Boulogne, and back to Calais. 

Baron de Zuylen has resigned the Presidentship of 
the General Automobile Association of France, owing 
to the enormous calls upon his time. He has been 
unanimously elected as a Founder President, and the 
Marquis De Dion has been elected as the new Presi- 
dent, with, as Vice-Presidents, MM. Rives, Jeantaud, and 
Martin Du Gard. 



Some practical experiments in the use of motor wagons 
for military purposes are in progress at Metz. 



We have had occasion to remark more than once on 
the impartiality and judicial spirit displayed by Judge 
Emden in his utterances in regard to motor cases that 
come before him. A case was recently tried in the 
Bromley County Court in which damages were claimed 
for an accident in which a horse-drawn vehicle was con- 
cerned. There was a good deal of difficulty attached to 
proving the ownership of the horse-drawn conveyance, 
and Judge Emden very properly observed that these 
vehicles really needed numbering a great deal more than 
motor cars. Every automobilist naturally feels that what 
is sauce for the goose ought to be sauce for the gander, 
and that the numbering of motor vehicles is an invidious 
distinction. We certainly hope to see the day when all 
vehicles will be similarly treated in this respect 

Motoring in France is the title of a new illustrated 
monthly periodical devoted to automobilism in France. 
It will be published in Paris in the English language. 






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[January 23, 1904. 



Sir George Newnes has taken considerable interest 
in the class for chauffeurs which has been held for some 
time in connection with the Battersea Polytechnic, and, 
as a result of a generous offer on his part, the Polytechnic 
has been able to acquire a 24-h.p. Darracq car for the 
purpose of giving driving lessons. 



Arrangements are already well in hand for organising 
on an extensive scale automobile and cycling sports at 
the 1905 Liege Exhibition. 

Arising out of the trouble between the Vienna cab- 
men and the public, the Vienna Town Council are 
seriously considering a proposition to inaugurate a sys- 
tem of public service automobiles on a very large scale, 
3,000 motor cars being mentioned ! 



For some time it has been rumoured that the 
celebrated firm of Cocker ill of Seraing, which is so well- 
known for marine engines, intends taking up extensively 
the manufacture of automobiles. This is now confirmed, 
and special attention will we understand be devoted to 
lurries and heavy vehicles. 



By a decree issued last year, vehicles in Rheims are 
limited to a speed, on the outskirts of the city, of 12 
kilometres per hour, and in the frequented streets to 
8 kilometres. Every type of vehicle comes under this 
regulation, and already the absurdity of the regulation is 
being voiced by every member of the community. 



An American contemporary suggests, apropos of 
the fact that cars in the British Islands can, according 
to the new Act, be registered with any local authority, that 
English hotel keepers might attract custom by bestowing 
free registration on their guests, in the same way that 
Milwaukee hotel keepers provide those desirous of com- 
mitting matrimony with free marriage licences. 



Some time back we chronicled the fact that a State 
motor car and a number of motor vehicles for the use 
of the suite had been supplied to the Chinese Court. 
It is interesting to learn that one of the consequences 
has been that the Dowager Empress has become wildly 
enthusiastic on the subject of motoring, and the dozen 
cars which had previously been supplied to the Chinese 
Court are to be supplemented by a further order to the 
same makers for fifty more. Hitherto the Dowager 
Empress of China has been a rather reactionary ruler. 
We trust that the charms of motoring will liberalise her 
ideas and make her more generally accessible to Western 
notions. 



Motorists in the small island of Guernsey, as regards 
the numbering regulations, are not so badly off as in the 
United Kingdom. Motor-cars and motor-cycles are only 
made to display a number at the back. But the number- 
plate is quite unobtrusive ; it measures 2\ ins. in width. 
The lighting of numbers after sunset is not required, an 
ordinary tail-lamp on cars being deemed sufficient for all 
practical purposes. It is worthy of notice, too, as showing 
the very friendly attitude of the island authorities towards 
automobilism, that there is no record of any prosecution 
having yet taken place. Compared with some of the coun- 
tries in the United Kingdom, Guernsey, although only 
thirty miles in circumference and geographically isolated, 



compares favourably in point of automobilism, the most 
recent return showing that there are twenty-four motor- 
cars and motor-cycle owners in the island, some among 
whom, besides, a number of motor-launches. The idea 
of forming a club is under consideration. 



, Some of the aftermath of the Paris-Madrid fiasco has 
taken the form of a police court action, brought at 
Chateaudun against Mr. Porter, whose chauffeur, William 
Nixon, of Belfast, met his death in the accident which 
happened to Mr. Porter's car. It is satisfactory that 
Mr. Porter's advocate before the tribunal was able to 
state that the Nixon family had no feeling in the matter, 
and recognised the death of Nixon simply as a fatality. 
It was further pointed out that the statement made by 
the prosecution, that Mr. Porter was driving at the speed 
of 80 kiloms. per hour, was inconsistent with the facts, 
as, had he been doing so, he would have arrived at the 
level crossing a quarter of an hour before the time at 
which he actually passed it. The final result of the 
proceedings was that Mr. Porter was fined 200 francs. 
As he might have been imprisoned for a period of two 
years in addition, this decision is regarded as practically 
equivalent to an acquittal. 

The United Motor Industries, Limited, have declared 
a 10 per cent, dividend for the year 1903. 



The Achilles car, which was seen for the first time in 
the 1,000 Miles Reliability Trials, will in future for 
London and the Home Counties be entirely in the 
hands of GoodalFs Automobile Agency, of 172, Penton- 
ville Road. A very useful little book has recently been 
issued by Messrs. Thompson & Co., the makers of this 
car, giving a number of " Golden Rules " for auto- 
mobilists which are well worth careful study and 
remembering when any trouble arises on the road. 



Detachable water-cooled heads fitted with mechani- 
cally-operated inlet valves, as well as with exhaust valves 
of the same type, are being made by the Motor Castings 
Company, of 101, Gray's Inn Road, for attachment to 
existing air-cooled engines of either the De Dion or 
M.M.C. types up to those of 3£-h.p. The Company 
inform us they are prepared to convert these engines at 
a comparatively low cost, and can make the valves of 
any reasonable diameter to suit their customers' require- 
ments. 



The business of the Century Engineering and Motor Company, 
Limited, Cumberland Park, Willesden Junction, we are notified, has 
been acquired by the Century Engineering Company. This company 
has been building the Century cars and tandems for the past four 
years, and Mr. ,R. W. Leader, who will control the policy of the 
company, we understand is introducing several new models at the 
forthcoming Crystal Palace Show which are likely to prove of con- 
siderable interest. 



City and Suburban Electric Carriage Company (1903), 
Limited. — Following a resolution of the company in extraordinary 
general meeting on December 10th cor firmed on December 30th, to 
wind up the company voluntarily, notice is now given that claims 
against the company should be sent in on or before February 17th 
next to Mr. W. Barclay Peat, 3, Lothbury, E.C. 



International Automobile Manufacturing Company (Limi- 
ted). — Resolutions to wind up voluntarily were passed by the share- 
holders of this company on December nth and confirmed on the 
29th, Mr. N. Ogle, Worcester House, Walbrook, and M. E. 
Gerondal, of Brussels, being appointed liquidators. 



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The AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL 



A RECORD AND REVIEW OF APPLIED AUTOMATIC LOCOMOTION. 

Circulates amongst Makers and Users of Motor Cars, Cycles, etc., in the United Kingdom, the 

Colonies, and the Continent. 



Offices: 44, St Martin's Lane, London, W.C. 



No. 160. (No. 6. Vol. IX.)] JANUARY 30TH, 1904. l Re «S££ P - a ] rpSftfiaif 1, 



On the Seine the motor boat has been adapted by the French River Police to the new and rather sporting 
occupation of chasing and securing river poachers. Most of these poachers go out in rowboats, and are a con- 
siderable nuisance and trouble to the authorities, as the amount of fish they extract from the river is at times 
very considerable. Our frontispiece shows the little steamboat, "Mouette," capturing a poacher's boat. The 
"Mouette" works in concert with police officers mounted on bicycles, who patrol the banks and collect infor* 
mation as to when and where the poachers have embarked. The chase then commences, and usually ends in 
the manner our illustration depicts, for the rowboats of course have no chance of escaping from the fast little 
steamer. It is characteristic of the common^sense of the French authorities that the fish captured from the poachers 

is distributed among the Paris hospitals. 



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[January 30, 1904. 



THE AUT0M0T0R JOURNAL. 



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Bank ; otherwise no responsibility will be accepted. 



Special Notice. 

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W. H. Smith and Son's, and Willing and Co., Ltd.'s book- 
stalls and usual newsagents. 

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When any difficulty is experienced in procuring the Journal from 
local newsvendors, intending subscribers can obtain each issue direct 
from the Publishing Office, by forwarding remittance as above. 



DIARY OF FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 



1904 

Feb. 1 
Feb. 1 



British Events. 



Feb. 2-6 
Feb. 3 
Feb. 10 
Feb. 11 



•Feb. n 

Feb. 12-24 

•Feb. 12 
Feb. 15 
Feb. 23-27 
Mar. 4 



Mar. 
Mar. 



7-12 
19-26 



Final Entry Day for British International Cup 
" Evolution of Road-making in Scotland," by 

Mr. R. Drummond, C.E. (Scottish A.C.). 
Liverpool Cycle and Motor Show (St. George's 

Hall). * 

" Steam Cars for Public Service," by T. Clarkson 

(Society of Arts). 
"Motor Traction in War," by Major W. H. 

Balfour (Royal United Service Institution). 
" Recent Developments in Internal Combustion 

Engines," by Mr. L. Rottenburg (Glasgow 

University Engineering Society). 
" The British Automobile Industry," by Mr. T. C. 

Aveling (A. C. Paper). 
2nd Annual Exhibition of the Society of Motor 

Manufacturers and Traders at the Crystal Palace. 
Quarterly 100 Miles Trial. 
A. C. G.B.I, and Provincial Clubs' Conference. 
Hull Cycle and Motor Show (Assembly Rooms). 
" Some Practical Notes on Electric Storage Bat- 
teries," by G. C. Allingham (Junior Institute 

of Engineers). 
Manchester Motor Show (St. James's Hall). 
Cordingley and Co.'s Motor Car Exhibition at the 

Agricultural Hail. 
* Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland Event*. 



Mar. 25-30 ... *Side-Slip Trials. 

April or May . British Gordon- Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 

May 19-20 ... Glasgow- London Non-Stop Run. 

June 1-7 ... Motor Bicycle Endurance Trial. 

August ... British International Cup for Motor Boats. 

Sept *Reliability Trials. 

Oct. -Nov. ... * Light Van Trials (about 2,000 miles). 

Foreign Events (Trials, Races, &c). 

(All French road racing fixtures are subject to confirmation by 
the French authorities. ) 



1904. 
Jan. 23- Feb. 4 
Feb. 3-6 
Feb. 6-13 .. 
Feb. 6-21 
Feb. 14 
Feb. 15-20 ... 
Feb. 23-27 ... 
Feb. 29- Mar. 5 

Mar 

Mar. 3, 4, 5 .. 
Mar. 6-12 ... 
Mar. 13-20 ... 
Mar. 14-19 ... 
Mar. 15-16 ... 
Mar. 19-27 ... 
Mar. 20-29 ••• 
MafT 21-26 ... 
Mar. 23-27 ... 
Apl. 5-15 ... 
Apl. 16- May 31 
Apl. 17 

Apl. 18-23 — 
May ... 

May 

May ... 
May 1-12 
May H-15 ... 
May 12 
May 12-15 ••• 
May 14-15 ... 
May 16-23 ••• 
May 23-31 ... 
June 7 
June 7 
June 17 
July 10 

July 

July 16-17 ••• 
July 171 
July 18-23 ••• 
July 23-25 ... 
Aug. 5-1 1 .. 
Aug. 12 
Aug. 13-14 ... 
Aug. 15 
Aug. 28 

Sept 

Sept. 2 

Oct. 5 

Oct. 9 

Oct. 14-22 ... 

Nov. 20 

Dec 



Brussels Automobile Salon. 
Paris-Turin Tourist Run {France Automobile). 
Chicago Show. 
Turin Exhibition. 

Coupe Sneyden 1 kilom. on flat (A.C. Algeria). 
Detroit Show. 

Anti-Skid Trials at Versailles. 
Cleveland Show. 

Paris- Rome {La France Automobile). 
Fuel Consumption Trials (VAuto). 
Buffalo Show. 
Cannes Automobile Week. 
Boston Show. 

A.C. America Commercial Vehicle Trials. 
Frankfort Exhibition. 
Nice Week (details, Oct. 31, p. 1168). 
Washington (U.S.A.) Auto Show. 
Electric Vehicle Trials {Monde Sportif). 
Monaco Motor Boat Week (details, Ian. 2. d 2O 
Vienna Auto Show. l ' * } ' 

Coupe Meyan ( Motor Boats). 
Nice- Rome. 

Circuit des Ardennes (A.C. Belgium). 
French Gordon-Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 
Guadarrama Hill Climb (A.C. Spain). ** 
A.C. Bordelais Automobile Fortnight.' 
Milan Exhibition and Tourist Trial. 
Perigueux Hill Climb (A.C. Dordogne). 
Tours Tourist Trial. 

Nantes-Croisic (Motor Boats), Monde Sport it. 
Circuit National Beige. 
Aix-les-Bains Week. 
Namur Week. 
Spa Week. 

Gordon-Bennett Race. 
Mont-Cenis Hill Climb (A.C. Italy) 
Speed Trials {VAuto). 
Ostende Motor Boat Races. 
Antwerp-Ostende Motor Boat Run. 
Ostende Week. 
Lucerne Motor Boat Races. 
Paris-Deauville Motor Boat Race. 
Motor Boat Race for Gaston Menier Cup. 
Calais- Dover-Calais (motor boats). 
Calais- Boulogne- Calais (motor boats). 
Ventoux Hill Climb (Avignon). 
Deauville Automobile Meeting {VAuto^ 
Chateau Thierry Hill Climb {L'Awo). '* 
Dourdan Kilometre Trials {Monde Sportif \ 
Gaillon Hill Climb {VAuto). 
Leipzig Cycle and Motor Show. 
100 Kiloms. Trial (A.C. Algeria). 
Paris Salon. 



LEADING CONTENTS. 



Page. 



Diary of Forthcoming Events 

Passing Events ** ~- 

The Cros*ley Petrol Car '.. ,0 3 

A Steam Motor Bicycle * * Io6 

The Recent Development of the Pe rail .. 1I2 

The Brussels Automobile Salon ll % 

Bluff and the Selden Patent ,l8 

Correspondence .. .. " I2t 

A Visit to the Crossley Works I2r 

The Legal Aspects of the Motor C r Act I22 

Reviews of Books " " I22 

Club Doings .. .. .. .. \ " ** " •• I2 4 

Races, Records, and Trials . . .. " " " I2 J 

Doings of Public Companies .. I2 g 

New Inventions .. .. ** I2 ^ 

. . 128 



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PASSING EVENTS. 

Look Here Upon this Picture— And on This! 
April 29th, 1902 : — 



" Under these circumstances the Executive Committee 
withdraw their name and their patronage from the proposed 
Exhibition at the Crystal Palace in January next, and refuse 
to give their name or patronage to any outside Exhibition 
until the trade have ceased to pursue the policy now adopted 

by the Automobile Mutual Protection Association 

The Committee of the Club ... feel that they cannot 
with dignity continue to negotiate with a trade which is 
divided against itself." 



January 18th, 1904 : — 



" The position regarding the Exhibition question was dis- 
cussed, and it was resolved : 'That the Club do give its 
patronage to the Ninth Automobile Exhibition, to be held at 
the Royal Agricultural Hall, Islington, from Saturday, March 
19th, 1904, until Saturday, March 26th, inclusive, for the 
year 1904.'" 



These two quotations bring into forcible relief the 
change from the dignified attitude which the club 
assumed with regard to the Automobile Exhibition 
question in May, 1902, and the mistaken position it has 
thought fit to take up in regard to the same question in 
January, 1904. It would be impossible to find a more 
forcible commentary on what we have advanced con- 
cerning the change in the policy and attitude of the 
Automobile Club in regard to the industry generally. 

The first of the passages we have quoted above was 
contained in the pronouncement made by the club 
committee on the Exhibition question a year and nine 
months ago. 

After much preliminary discussion on the Exhibition 
question and fully considering its various aspects, the 
club committee came to a decision which was com- 
municated to the Automobile Manufacturers and 
Traders' Association in an official statement on the 29th 
of April. This statement, culminating in the pronounce- 
ment of the club's decision which we have placed at the 
head of this article, after dealing generally with the 
subject, contained the following weighty observations : — 

" In a leading article in Notes and Notices of the 20th March 

last the policy of the club as regards Exhibitions 

was clearly set out. 

In that article it was stated that, if the trade would settle on one 
Exhibition, and would agree to abide loyally by this decision, the 

club would give its patronage to the Exhibition On 

the other hand, if one portion of the trade decided to support one 
Exhibition, another portion another Exhibition, the committee of 
the club would refuse to give its patronage to any Exhibition 
whatever, so long as this course was pursued 

It appears that the Automobile Mutual Protection Association, 
Limited, have decided to adopt this fatal policy. 

In agreeing to give their name to the Crystal Palace Exhibition 
in January next, they did so in the belief that the trade, as a whole, 
would loyally abide by the decisions come to by its appointed 
representatives. It now, however, appears that a section of the 
trade intends to be disloyal to the decision come to, and to adopt 
the disastrous policy of two Exhibitions." 

The club committee in April, 1902, were, therefore, 
after looking at the subject from every possible point of 
view, fully persuaded of the great disadvantages to the 
trade generally of divided control in the organisation of 
the trade exhibitions. 



The committee of the club, after lengthy consideration 
and discussion, determined to refuse their support to 
any automobile exhibition until the trade were united 
and had agreed upon the policy to be pursued. The 
split continued, and since then three separate exhibitions 
have taken place in the Metropolis, and the club has 
refrained from according its support to any of them. 
Now suddenly the committee announce that they have 
decided to bestow the patronage of the club on the 
Exhibition to be held at the Agricultural Hall. Part 
consideration for this patronage of the u Society of 
Encouragement " is ^500 — of which fact Mr. Cordingley 
makes no secret. It is obvious that if the policy of the club 
was right a year and a half ago, if the committee were 
right, as we believe they were, in recognising the extreme 
disadvantage of divided control in the organisation of 
exhibitions, and if they were justified in taking the 
drastic measures that they did take to ensure as far as 
they could that the policy they had adopted should be 
carried out, that their determination to depart from this 
position at present and identify the influence of the club 
with one particular exhibition while the trade continues 
to be divided on the subject requires, to say the least of 
it, elaborate explanation. No such explanation has been 
vouchsafed. 



The question is not in any way which Exhibition 
ought to be supported. The Exhibition at the Agricul- 
tural Hall promises to be this year, as in the past, fully 
successful, whilst the organisers of the Exhibition at the 
Crystal Palace find it impossible to provide all the space 
which has been applied for. Mr. Cordingley, as a man 
of business, was fully justified in agreeing to make the 
payment demanded if he considered the patronage 
of value. The point is that, in selecting one of 
the shows for its special patronage, the club is taking 
a side, and descending into the arena on behalf 
of one of the contestants, after having deliberately 
declared that this was a course which, in the interests of 
the movement, it would never adopt. We completely 
fail to see that there has been any change in the position, 
and that the committee of the club now takes a different 
view is simply a further illustration of its growing in- 
capacity to understand the true requirements of the 
movement and the industry. 

The moment which the committee has selected for 
abandoning what has hitherto been its policy in this 
matter is a particulary unfortunate one. Everyone 
really interested in the automobile movement was aware, 
or ought to have been aware, that a rapprochetnent 
between the organisers of the rival shows at the Crystal 
Palace and the Agricultural Hall was taking place. It 
was anticipated that, recognising the disadvantages 
attaching to competitive exhibitions, the opposing forces 
were willing to amalgamate and organise to that end in 
future. That such a consummation would have been 
greatly to the benefit of the trade and the industry, the 
slightest doubt cannot be entertained. At the very 
instant when the rival interests were preparing to 
abandon their attitude of hostility to one another, the 
Automobile Club makes an ill-omened entry upon the 
scene and throws an apple of discord in between 
them. 

Rather as a "Society of Encouragement," the Club 
should have done its utmost to remove what discord 
still remained, instead of taking steps calculated to 
estrange still further the largest section of the trade. 



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[January 30, 1904. 



It is a danger inherent in the situation, as we have 
repeatedly pointed out. Once a " Society of Encourage- 
ment " commences to trade it is sure to be sooner or 
later betrayed into undignified situations. It has been 
betrayed into another such situation very soon. For a club, 
whose influence and power for good is bound up with 
its independence of all trade interests, to ally itself 
financially with one of two trade exhibitions in opposi- 
tion to the other is deliberately to abandon its inde- 
pendent position. Having done this, it can no longer 
lay claim to be an unprejudiced promoter and encourager 
of the movement, seated high above the level of pecuniary 
considerations, and uninfluenced by the exigencies of 
trade or commercial rivalries. 

We have received a large number of letters from 
manufacturers expressing astonishment at the change 
of front on behalf of the club after their solemn 
pronouncements on the subject formerly. That an 
intention has been proclaimed of employing a share 
in the pecuniary profits arising from the Agricul- 
tural Hall Exhibition, which will fall to the lot of tl?e 
club for bestowing its patronage upon it, for the purpose 
of experiments in dust laying, side-slip trials, or other 
benevolent objects, does not appear to produce much 
effect upon the views held by our correspondents. 
Probably it would not even do so if a time limit within 
which the money was to be so allocated had been 
announced. Failing this, it naturally produces no 
mitigating impression whatever. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 
A Valuable Accession to the Industry. 

There is no more encouraging symptom of the in- 
creasing prosperity of the British motor car industry than 
the manner in which engineering firms of great and 
extended experience are gradually turning their attention 
to automobile manufacture. Hitherto in this country, 
in contradistinction to the state of affairs which has pre- 
vailed on the Continent, leading engineering firms have 
had such an extended market for their staple manufac- 
tures, their business has been so prosperous, and their works 
so fully engaged, that they have had no reason to look 
round for new fields to conquer, new branches to adopt, 
and have, consequently, felt little inclination to take up 
the manufacture of self-propelled vehicles until circum- 
stances have proved the value of the profits to be reaped, 
and the extent and permanence of the public demand. 
When engineering firms of high standing and world- 
wide reputation proceed to organise automobile manu- 
facturing departments on an extended scale, it is the 
best possible testimonial to the prosperity and import- 
ance of the new industry. These remarks are suggested 
by the formal entry of the great firm of gas and oil 
engine manufacturers, Messrs. Crossley and Co., into 
the ranks of automobile builders. The function held to 
commemorate this auspicious event is referred to in 
another column, and we also describe their new standard 
car this week. When firms of such standing adopt a 
new manufacture they bring a wealth of experience, 
perfect organisation and management to its develop- 
ment which new firms or companies can scarcely expect 
to gain at once in as full a degree ; while the care and 
reputation for trustworthiness and durability which is 
characteristic of their productions in other lines are a 
guarantee that their new manufactures will possess the 
qualities which have made their reputation in other 
lines. The greater the extent to which the automobile 
public recognises these elements as the distinguishing 



features of British-built cars the better it is for the British 
automobile industry, and it is on this account, therefore, 
that the entry of the Crossley firm into the automobile 
industry is to be regarded as an occurrence of the 

greatest importance and promise. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

An Aeronautic Symposium. 

We give illustrations in another column of the latest 
Wright aeroplanes with which some of the more recent 
experiments of the Brothers Wright were conducted, and 
which enable the arrangements of their actual motor- 
driven machine to be readily understood. It is ap- 
propriate that at the present date, when the interest in • 
aeronautics is daily increasing, that a banquet to do 
honour to Professor Langley should have been arranged 
at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel. Though the Wright 
Brothers hold the record for actual perfotmances up to 
the present, it must never be forgotten that it was Pro- 
fessor Langley's steam-propelled machine that holds the 
record for long distance free flight (on the Potomac 
River, in the year 1896), though no aeronaut was carried 
on the machine at the time. The dinner to Professor 
Langley was given by Mr. Brisben Walker, who is very 
optimistic on the future of the flying machine, and thinks 
that the day will come — he has probably been reading 
Mr. H. G. Wells — when it will form not only the 
cheapest but the safest means of transportation. Among 
the guests at the banquet was M. Santos Dumont, but 
the gathering was to some extent illustrative of the fate 
which is usual to a prophet (or experimenter) in his own 
country, for there was no reported reference to the 
exploits of the Brothers Wright, or their brilliant teacher 
Mr. Chanute. This is the more to be regretted since 
the more thoroughly the problem of aeronautics is 
studied, the more apparent does it become that the 
results obtained by these latter investigators leave all 
previous results an almost immeasurable distance behind 
from the practical point of view. It is never wise to 
prophesy, but one of the safest prophesies in which one 
could indulge is that when the problem of aerial naviga- 
tion on the heavier than air principle is solved, it will be 
found that one of the main elements in the solution is 
the preservation of the centre of gravity constant, and 
it is the recognition of this principle which has largely 
enabled the Wrights to obtain the results they have 

accomplished. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

To be Stopped for the Sake of Automobilism. 
We trust that the shocking accident to Frl. Mina Alix 
in " looping the loop " in a so-called motor car at the 
Circo de Price in Madrid will have the effect of putting 
a stop to these senseless and risky performances, the 
only attraction in which is the danger they occasion to 
the executant. The term " motor car," as of course 
the vehicle employed is not self-propelled, has been 
dragged into these senseless exhibitions, to the dis- 
credit of the new locomotion. The thing is so silly. 
It is more difficult to " loop the loop " on a bicycle 
than on a dummy motor car, and if Fraulein Alix 
had been on a bicycle she would have escaped a 
great deal of the injury which the fall of the machine 
occasioned, while quite probably the accident would not 
have occurred at all. In any case we trust the accident 
may be made, as we have suggested, the occasion for 
stopping exhibitions of the kind. Sufficient fuss was 
made about the misadventures attending the Paris- 
Madrid Race in which a tangible object was to be 
gained. There is nothing to be gained in merely 



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dangerous performances except gate-money for those 
who give them, and that does not provide an adequate 
reason for their continuance, 

♦ ♦ ♦ 
From the Unseen. 

We did not at first suppose that there was any con- 
nection between the humorous ghost of Coedkernew, in 
Monmouthshire, and the automobile movement. The 
Coedkernew ghost is a spook with a very pretty wit. He 
throws all sorts of things about, and is apparently 
determined to make the greatest possible amount of 
unpleasantness for the housewives in the premises he 
honours by his visitations. He has pulled the beds 
downstairs (if the local accounts can be credited), mixed 
soda with the housekeeper's lard, and emptied a jar of 
pickled cabbage into a basin of cream. So a local 
Society for Psychical Research was formed, consisting of 
ten persons and the village policeman, and this " Society 
of Encouragement " sat up to wait for the ghost. The 
ghost did not put in an appearance, but soon after the 
hour of midnight had passed and the psychical re- 
searchers were beginning to feel the hair slowly rising on 
their heads, half a pound of butter, projected with uner- 
ring aim, hit the village policeman straight in the eye. It 
has since been suggested that this proves unquestionably 
that the frolicsome spirit is that of a recently deceased 
automobiiist who had frequently been held up by the police 
and fined for driving above the legal limit. Hence the 
connection of this particular psychical manifestation with 
the new locomotion. But we are pleased to be able to 
assert that so far the malevolent suggestion lacks even 
the most spectral confirmation. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

The Chairman of the Automobile Club. 

Every automobiiist in the country, and, above all, 
every member of the Automobile Club, will learn with 
feelings of regret that Mr. Roger W. Wallace, K.C., has 
determined for the second time, and we understand 
irrevocably, to retire from the chairmanship of the 
Automobile Club. This position has been held by Mr. 
Wallace since the club was founded. In the days of 
storm and stress, when it was a new institution represent- 
ing all that was best and most progressive in the move- 
ment, he helped to guide its course and control its policy 
with singular skill, with unfailing tact, and with a good 
nature and courtesy which have made him popular with 
everyone with whom he has come in contact. 

Mr. Wallace has on a previous occasion proposed 
to resign the chairmanship. Only after considerable 
persuasion was he prevailed upon to continue in office, 
so that it may be assumed that his decision is now 
final and that the club will find itself compelled 
to elect another chairman. The members will be well 
advised to consider their selection carefully. The 
position and prestige of the club are not what they were 
when Mr. Wallace, upwards of eighteen months ago, 
consented to continue for the time being in office. 
Much depends on the capabilities, tact, and position of 
the chairman of such a body as the A.C.G.B.I., and it 
may be permitted us to hope that the successor 
ultimately chosen to fill the office Mr. Wallace has so 
long and % capably discharged, will, in the interests 
both of the automobile movement and the club 
itself, have no personal connection with the trade. 
It is of the greatest importance that the chairman 
of the club should have no interest whatever 
in any automobile manufacturing concern, so that no 
member of the trade can have the slightest ground for 
supposing that the head of so important a body should 



ever find his duty to the club or the movement in any sort 
of conflict with his own individual interests. If, too, the 
chairman should happen to be unconnected with financial 
undertakings of the more elaborate sort, we cannot avoid 
the conviction that it would be a still further advantage 
both for the movement and the bodv he represents. 
♦ ♦ ♦ 

Coincidence or Worse? 

Our readers will remember that Mr. Smith, the genial 
landlord of the King's Head, Cobham, figured some 
time ago in a curious police case. One of the usual 
traps had been set not far from Cobham, and Mr. Smith 
went out and warned approaching motorists that the trap 
was set and baited. The consequence was dismal failure 
for the ambushed policemen, as they only witnessed 
a funereal procession of motor cars, whose drivers 
chaffed them unmercifully. So the same evening they 
discovered a man at the King's Head whom they said 
was being provided with drink while in a drunken condi- 
tion, and summoned Mr. Smith for so providing him. 
The case was dismissed, and we venture to think the 
man would not have been discovered had Mr. Smith not 
observed and " sprung" the police trap. Is it a co- 
incidence that one of the first police traps of which we 
have heard tidings under the new Act was organised on 
Sunday, the 17th, just outside Cobham? As usual the 
motorists got wind of the arrangements, but the police 
were not to be baulked, for though the cars filed past 
them at the same sedate pace as before, several 
summonses have been issued, followed in one already 
by a conviction. Let hotel owners beware ! If they 
cater for automobilists, and warn automobilists of 
police traps, it is evident that their business is to be 
systematically attacked by the arrangement of motor 
traps on the roads round them. But what contemptible 
tactics ! What prolonged and petty spite ! Surely the 
sensible heads of the police force should have this sort 
of thing stopped, as they must recognise that this kind of 
thing is calculated to forfeit the respect and consideration 
of every fair-minded member of the public. 
♦ ♦ ♦ 
A True View of the Matter. 

We have not been troubled with dust lately. It 
requires almost the faith which would remove mountains 
to believe that we shall ever be troubled with dust again. 
So that a discussion on the dust problem is not very 
seasonable, resembling rather, as Emerson used to say, the 
sound of a scythe in December when there is nothing to 
mow. We would not enter upon the discussion ourselves, 
but that a writer in the Referee — a paper which is ingeneral 
remarkable for all-round fairness — has been promulgating 
a very sensible view of the dust problem. He denies, 
like all observant people, that motor cars produce dust. 
The most they can do, he says, is to raise dust when it 
is already there. When the alternations of frost and 
thaw that have constituted the present winter subside, if 
they ever do, and once again the roads become dry and 
dusty, his advice may possibly be worth following. He 
says, " why should not motorists combine together and 
lodge protests" (ultimately followed possibly by legal 
action) against the District Councils and other local 
authorities whose roads are abnormally dusty ? Con- 
sidering that the dust nuisance brings more hostility 
upon the motorist than any other cause, except possibly 
running over dogs, the suggestion is worth consideration, 
and one would certainly like to observe the expressions 
on the faces of a District Council on being arraigned at 
the instance of a body of motorists for permitting their 
roads to be unduly dusty. 



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106 THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. [January 30, 1904- 

THE CROSSLEY PETROL CAR. 

It has been an open secret for 
some little time that the celebrated 
firm of Crossley Bros., whose gas 
engines have a world-wide reputa- 
tion, were about to take up the 
manufacture of automobiles, and 
that these cars would first be intro- 
duced to the public at the forth- 
coming Exhibition at the Crystal 
Palace by Messrs. Jarrott and 
Letts, with whose assistance, and 
that of Mr. J. S. Critchley, they 
have been produced. The mere 
~ fact that an engineering firm of 
~ such high standing should have 
f taken up this work is not only 
a highly satisfactory to those who 
£ have the interests of the British 
industry at heart, but will also be 

1 cordially welcomed by motorists 
1 generally throughout the country, 
o* for it was a foregone conclusion 

5 that any vehicle turned out by 
these manufacturers would be 

.« second to none in the world— so far, 
at least, as excellence of material 

v and workmanship are concerned. 

2, It is, of course, in these works 

'g that the famous Otto gas-engines 

JS have been built, and that the 

6 enormous business which is now 
1 transacted by the firm has been 
•| steadily developed and continuously 
j? increased. It might, perhaps, have 
^ been expected that the prosperity 
•5 of the business would have reached 

its height before the expiration of 
the patent which practically gave 

> them a monopoly in the gas-engine 

tj business, and it may even have 

^ been thought by some that Messrs. 

5 Crossley Bros, were one of our 

^ old-fashioned engineering firms 

2 who are popularly believed to 
£ remain satisfied with antiquated 
jj» methods, and to complacently 

1 allow foreign rivals to oust them 
£ from the market of the world. No 

<y more mistaken notions than these, 

Fj* however, could well be entertained, 

jt for they have always taken advan- 

- tage of the ever increasing demand 

£ for engines of this kind, and of 

the enormous experience which 
they have systematically gained, 
and have never failed to avail 
themselves of everything in the way 
ot mechanical progress which has 
been made, and have lost no oppor- 
tunities of keeping their works rather 
in advance of the times than in any 
sense out of date. At the present 
time they probably have the finest 
equipment of milling and auto- 
matic tools that can be found, 



£ 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



107 



and their tool room department also 
has a specially fine plant. Many of 
the machine tools have been specially 
constructed for them to their own 
designs, and the entire plant is laid 
down with a view to securing accu- 
racy of workmanship, combined 
with cheapness of production. The 
firm have no less than three foundries 
on the premises, and all the forgings 
which are used for the engines are 
made in the works. Some idea of 
the extent of the works can be gained 
from the fact that they cover an area 
of ten or twelve acres, and give em- 
ployment to between 1,200 and 
1,400 men. To some of the special 
machinery we shall have occasion to 
refer when describing the construc- 
tion of the new car, but as an in- 
stance of its up-to-date nature we 
may mention that the large flywheels 
have their rims turned on both sides, 
and on the periphery, at the same 
moment that the boss is being bored 
out to fit the crank-shaft. The 
power required in the works amounts 
to about 1,000-h.p., and is developed 
by a large number of separate gas 
engines, each of which drives its 
own section, using producer gas 
made on the premises at a cost of 
about *o8 pence per h.p. hour. It 
is a particularly happy augury, 
too, for the success of the Cross- 
ley car that the gentlemen who have 
worked together on its design should 
have, between them, been able to 
bring such a wide and varied ex- 
perience of automobile requirements 
to bear upon it, for, apart from the 
question of accurate construction, 
Mr. Jarrott's knowledge as a driver, 
Mr. Critchley's close acquaintance 
with mechanical detail, and Mr. 
Letts' recognition of the needs of 
the buying public are all invalu- 
able in such an undertaking as 
this. 

The first standard chassis has just 
been completed, and this was made 
the occasion for a very pleasant and 
instructive function at Manchester — 
to which we refer in another column 
— when we were given every oppor- 
tunity of making a thorough ex- 
amination of it, and were shown 
over the entire works. As may 
be gathered from what we have 
already said, the Crossley car is 
certainly one of the best made ve- 
hicles which we have ever seen, for 
the firm have brought their full ener- 
gies to bear upon the work, and 
have spared neither time nor expense 
in laying themselves out for its 
manufacture. The object aimed 
at has been to take advantage of 




-*t 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 30, 1904. 



the best English and Continental automobile experi- 
ence, to produce a car of the highest grade to 
suit English roads and English requirements, and 
to build a vehicle which, although possibly not the lowest 
in price, should yet be one of the very cheapest in actual 
value. All parts are made on the " limit gauge " system, 
and jigs are used to ensure interchangeability throughout. 
Special provision is made for analysing and conducting 
physical tests on the materials used, so that they are able 
to guarantee it and detect any deviation which might 
otherwise occur. For these reasons the most striking 
impression which is left upon the mind after such a visit 
has been paid to their works is that it would be im- 
possible to find a factory which is better organised and 
better equipped for the construction of any such 
machinery as that required for an automobile, where 
high-grade materials, absolute accuracy of workmanship, 
and true interchangeability of parts are of the highest 
importance. 

The new vehicle does not differ radically in general 
design from others constructed in accordance with the 



revs, per min. Its cylinders have a bore of 4^ inches, 
and its stroke is 5^ inches. The cylinders are cast in 
pairs, and have unusually large water-jackets around 
them. The cast-iron used for them is of a harder 
quality than that generally employed, and the pistons, 
too, are made of the same metal. A very special feature 
is made of the piston rings, which are not turned 
eccentric, but have an equal thickness all the way round, 
and are turned to precisely fit the cylinder. They are 
then split, and are placed in a special machine, the 
patent rights in which are held by Messrs. Crossley 
Brothers, in which they are subjected to a hammering 
action which gives them the necessary springiness. 
When in the machine, they rest in a shallow cylinder, 
which fits them closely, and is precisely the same 
diameter as the engine cylinders. A hammer, having a 
V-shaped head, strikes their inner face with its edge 
at intervals all round. The force with which it 
strikes them automatically increases and diminishes, 
so that the strongest blows are dealt opposite the 
split, and the blows are gradually decreased in force 



Fig. 3— The rear portion of the Crossley Petrol Car. 



best European practice, and it is of that type in which 
the rear wheels are driven by side chains. A side view 
of the chassis is given in Fig. 1, and a plan drawing in 
Fig. 2, whilst the rear portion is seen in Fig. 3. A 
pressed-steel main-frame, stiffened by angle plates at the 
corners, is employed, and the engine and the gear-box 
are fixed rigidly and directly to it. It is mounted in the 
usual way on long, flat, semi-eliptic side-springs, which 
at the rear lie just outside the frame instead of 
immediately beneath its longitudinal members. Both 
axles are very substantial forgings, having an I cross- 
section, and the wheels, which are of the artillery type 
and very strong, run on plain bearings. The rear wheels 
are shod with 920 by 120 mm. pneumatic tyres, and 
those on the front wheels are 910 by 90. The wheel 
base is 8 ft. 2 in., and the track is 4 ft. 8 in. 

The engine, which has four cylinders, is seen from the 
two sides in Figs. 4 and 5. It is nominally of 22-h.p., 
but develops about 28-b.h.p. at a normal speed of 900 



to nothing at the split. In this way the metal opposite 
the split is rendered most springy, whilst that close 
up to it remains in its original condition, the result 
being that the ring fits its working cylinder exactly. 

The engine has mechanically-operated inlet-valves 
arranged on the opposite side to the exhausts, and has 
low-tension make-and-break igniters to form the inspec- 
tion covers above them. In the particular engine 
shown, high-tension ignition plugs are also provided, 
these being screwed into the inspection plugs above the 
exhaust valve ; it is not, however, intended to equip the 
standard engines with this auxiliary ignition system 
unless specially ordered. Each cvlinder casting is first 
faced externally, and is then bored in such a way as to 
ensure the parallelism of the two cylinders. It is then 
placed inside a box-jig, where it remains during the 
subsequent operations which have to be performed upon 
it, the jig ensuring interchangeability of cylinder castings 
on any engine, and of all fittings on each casting. 



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January 30,1904.] THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. icg 



Fig. 4.— The Urossley Petrol Engine from the right (inlet and ignition) side, showing the commutator, the low-tension igniters, the variable- 
cut-off valve, and the magneto. 



Y\g. 5. — The Crossley Petrol Engine from the left (exhaust side), showing the circulating pump, the automatic carburettor, the high-tension 

igniters, and part of the expanding main clutch. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 30, 1904. 



Nickel steel is used for the crank-shaft, the cam-shafts, 
the cams, the rollers, the gudgeon pins, and the inlet- 
valves, whilst the exhaust-valves are made of a very 
special bronze, which is harder than ordinary crucible 
steel, will stand a very high temperature, and always re- 
mains clean because carbon will not adhere to it ; this 
bronze is an alloy which is made by the firm themselves, 
and its composition is kept secret. The crank-shaft is 
mounted in very long bearings, and these, too, are made 
of a special bronze alloy, which is, in fact, used for the 
bearings throughout. These main bearings are ring 
lubricated, and the crank-chamber is constructed with 
ducts which lead the splashed oil back again to the 
bearings after it has found its way into the crank-shaft. 

Liners which act as register rings, and also " break " 
the joint, are introduced between the cylinder and the 
crank-chamber, and also in the joints between the in- 
duction and the exhaust pipes and the cylinder castings ; 
those in the mouth of the cylinders also form baffle 
plates for preventing too much oil from being splashed 
up on to the pistons. The main bearing at the one end 
is made in such a way that any oil finding its way 
out along the crank-shaft, through it, is caught before it 
can travel to the fly-wheel. 

Another interesting detail in design, which is adopted 
throughout, is that all studs and nuts have a special 
thread, which is stronger than usual and is less likely to 
striu. The studs, too, are square between the threads, 
and the holes in the flanges which fit over them are also 
square. By this construction, it is impossible for a stud 
to be screwed out of the casting when an attempt is 
made to remove a very tight nut, and all risk of break- 
ing a stud off in the casting is practically eliminated. 
Castle nuts also are used, so that there is no fear of a 
nut shaking loose. It will be seen in Figs. 4 and 5 that 
the inspection plugs above the valves are fixed in this 
way, with square shanked studs and pinned castle nuts, 
and it is interesting to notice, too, that the flange por- 
tions of these plugs do not actually come into contact 
with the cylinder casting ; they have valve-shaped seatings 
beneath which make a metal-to-metal joint. 

The gear-wheels which drive the cam-shafts, as also 
the cams, are all enclosed, and the governor is contained 
inside the wheel on the front end of the inlet cam-shaft. 
The magneto, B, is mounted on the upper crank- 
chamber casting, as seen, and is driven by a gear-wheel 
in the same casing. The current generated by it is led 
to an insulated rod, B 1 , which is fixed to the water pipe, 
M 3 , and this rod has chopper switches, B 2 , for making 
connection with the low-tension igniters. The igniters 
are operated by disc cams on the inlet cam-shaft, 
through vertical rocking rods, B 3 , which can be raised or 
lowered simultaneously for varying the time of ignition. 
The commutator, C, for the high-tension system is, 
when piovided, mounted on a vertical spindle and 
driven by bevel gearing off the rear end of the same cam- 
shaft. 

One of the most novel features of the Crossley engine 
is the valve, F, seen in Fig. 4, which varies the volume of 
the charge drawn into the working cylinders. This 
valve has precisely the same effect as the tapered sliding 
cams on the Chenard and Walcker engine, for although 
it always allows the explosive mixture to flow to each 
cylinder at the beginning of its suction-stroke, yet it 
cuts off the communication earlier or later during that 
stroke, and therefore varies the volume of the charge, 
irrespective of the speed at which the engine is actually 
running. The cylindrical casting, F, contains a piston 



valve mounted on a vertical spindle and driven at 
the same speed as the crank-shaft by gear wheels 
from the centre of the inlet cam-shaft. This valve, and 
the casing, have wedge-shaped ports formed in them, 
and the piston-valve, with its spindle, can be raised or 
lowered by the governor. The ports are so shaped that 
this upward or downward movement causes them to cut 
off the free passage of the gases through the valve, earlier 
or later, during the suction strokes for each cylinder. 
The mixture is led to the base of the casting, F, by the 
pipe, F 1 (Fig. 5), from the carburettor, and is conducted 
from the cut-off valve to the four cylinders by the pipes, 
F 2 and F 3 , the former of which feeds the two inner 
cylinders and the latter the outer cylinders. The weight 
of the revolving valve and its spindle is counterb danced 
by the adjustable counterweight, G 2 , seen in Fig. 4. 

The carburettor, t^o, is a very special feature on the 
Crossley car, and ensures a constant degree of richness 
of mixture whatever may be the speed of the engine, and 
in spite of widely varying loads. In a general way, the 
principle adopted may be said to be similar to that 
employed on the Krebs carburettor, because the quantity 
of auxiliary air which is admitted to the mixing-chamber, 
on the engine side of the spray-jet, is automatically 
controlled by the degree of vacuum formed in the 
mixing-chamber. This broad principle, however, is 
made use of in an entirely different manner, and 
although the device employed is very simple, yet 
a wonderfully accurate and positive compensating 
action is secured. The carburettor may be said to consist 
of four parts : — The float-feed chamber, H, which main- 
tains a constant level of the petrol in the jet in the usual 
way ; the spray-chamber, J, through which the main air 
supply (entering at J 1 ) is directed past the jet; the 
ch imbers, K and K 1 , in which the automatically controlled 
auxiliary air-valve is situated ; and the throttle-valve, 
which controls the passage of the carburetted air, and of 
the auxiliary air, to the induction-pipe, F 1 . The spray- 
chamber, J, is water-jacketed, and an adjustable needle- 
valve is arranged immediately above the jet. A small 
pipe enters the side of the orifice, close to the jet, so that 
any suction or injection effect which may act upon the jet 
also produces a similar effect in this pipe. The pipe is 
connected externally with the chamber, K 1 , in the lower 
portion of which a wooden float rests upon the 
surface of mercury contained in that chamber. The 
chamber is partitioned off around the float by a tube, 
which nearly reaches the bottom of it, and the mercury 
is covered with a film of glycerine to prevent it from 
oxidising or creeping. The wooden float is fixed to the 
bottom of a spindle, which, at its upper end, carries a 
piston-valve. The piston-valve is so set in relationship 
to the float and to the mercury that the auxiliary 
air-holes, K 1 , are closed by the valve when the 
engine is at rest. The central chamber above the float 
is, however, connected with the pipe passing to the 
spray chamber as already explained, and the outer com- 
partment of the chamber, K. 1 , is at all times in open 
communication with the atmosphere ; when, therefore, 
any partial vacuum is formed in the spray-chamber and 
therefore in the float-chamber, the mercury rises in the 
float-chamber, and in so doing opens the auxiliary air- 
holes, K 1 . By arranging a float on a column of mercury 
in this way, friction of moving parts forming the auto- 
matic device for operating the auxiliary air-valve is 
reduced to a minimum and a very positive action is 
obtained, besides which, no springs of any kind are 
employed. The mercury is prevented from splashing 



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January 30, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



in 



about by arranging steel balls to float upon its surface in 
the outer compartment of the chamber, K 1 , and by con- 
structing the air-vent to this compartment so that the 
mercury cannot very well find its way through it. 

A very large centrifugal pump, M, is fixed to the 
crank-chamber on the left side of the engine, and this 
is driven by gearing from the large wheel on the front 
end of the exhaust cam-shaft. The pump runs some- 
what faster than the crank-shaft, and its stuffing-box can 
easily be got at when necessary for repacking. The 
front end of the pump-spindle carries a pulley, M s , from 
which a belt passes to the fan, M*, placed behind the 
honeycomb radiator, M l . The fan- spindle is mounted 
in ball- bearings, and the fan itself is fixed to the engine 
in such a way that 
the tightness of the 
belt can be adjusted. 
The pump delivers 
the water through the 
branchedpipe, M a ,to 
the bottom of each 
jacket, and it is led 
back by the pipe, 
M 3 , to the top of the 
radiator. 

A very neat ex- 
haust-pipe fitting, L, 
receives the exhaust 
gases from all four 
cylinders, and is held 
in place by four long 
studs which pass 
right through it. The 
gases are led by a 
single pipe from this 
fitting to the exhaust- 
box, L 1 , at the back 
of the chassis. 

A special form of 
expanding clutch is 
arranged inside the 
fly-wheel, N ; it has 
metal- to-metal fric- 
tion surfaces (cast- 
iron on cast-iron) 
and is partly closed 
in to retain a certain F 

amount of oil, and 
to prevent dust and 
dirt from getting 
into it It is normally held in 
adjustable spring, and provision 
any wear can also be taken up when required. A ball 
thrust bearing is fitted, although this only comes into 
operation when the clutch is being disengaged, and even 
then there is but little end-strain imposed. The shoes are 
drawn together by a wedge-action acting against the 
spring, and the collar which slides the wedge is engaged 
by a fork in much the usual way. The clutch-pedal, 
P, which is mounted upon the transverse-shaft. P 1 , is so 
shaped that it is pressed forward instead of downward 
by the driver. The clutch-fork is fitted on another 
transverse-shaft, P 2 , and the connection between it and 
the clutch-pedal is such that very little pressure is 
required on the latter to hold the clutch out of engage- 
ment when it' has been withdrawn. 

The change-speed-gear gives four speeds and a reverse, 
and is of the well-known type first introduced by the Mors 



Company, bevel gears being introduced to give a direct- 
through-drive to the countershaft as well as to connect 
the second - motion - shaft with the countershaft. A 
portion of the gear is seen in Fig. 6, which is reproduced 
from a photograph taken looking down upon it after 
its large inspection cover had been removed. Long, 
ring-lubricated bearings are employed, and ball thrusts 
are introduced to take the end-strains imposed by the 
bevel - wheels. A special grade of steel is used 
for the shafts and for the gear - wheels, and the 
wheels are ground true after being hardened. A flexible, 
jaw-type, coupling is introduced between the clutch and 
the first-motion-shaft, R, and similar couplings, T 4 , are 
fitted in each half of the differential countershaft. As 

we have already 
said, the gear-box is 
rigidly fixed to the 
main-frame so that 
these flexible coup- 
lings avoid any strain- 
ing of theshafts. The 
ends of the counter- 
shaft are carried in 
ball bearings in the 
brackets, close up to 
the sprocket-wheels 
from which the 
chains pass to the 
rear wheels. The 
engine and the gear- 
box are lubricated 
from a special nine- 
feed lubricator on 
the dash ; three of 
the feeds pass to the 
engine, one through 
ball valves to all four 
cylinders, and one 
into the oil trough 
of each of the end 
bearings of the crank- 
shaft. The other 
six feeds lead to the 
bearings in the gear- 
box. The oil is fed 
under pressure which 
is derived from the 
exhaust gases in the 
well-known manner, 
and the lubricator 
itself is fitted with a water jacket through which part of 
the circulating water is led so as to prevent the oil from 
becoming too viscous in cold weather. 

A double-acting metal-to-metal band-brake is mounted 
on the countershaft, its band, U l , being connected 
with the foot-pedal, U, and the pedal being so arranged 
that the clutch is withdrawn when the brake is applied. 
The side-brakes, too, have metal-to-metal friction surfaces, 
but they are of the internal expanding type, and are 
entirely enclosed. They are operated by the side lever, 
V, and are compensatingly applied by a steel cable, V 2 , 
which passes through the transverse rocking tube, V 1 ; 
the brakes are of somewhat similar general construction 
to the main clutch, and lie inside the drums, V* ; the 
torsional strain on the brake-shoes is taken by the 
adjustable radius rods, V 4 , which at their other 
ends are pivoted to the main frame at the rear. 
The steering gear is of exceptionally strong construc- 



A view of the Change-Speed-Gear, with inspection cover removed, 
on the Crossley Car, showing some of the gear-wheels. 



engagement by an 
is made by which 



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THE AUTO MOTOR JOURNAL 



[January 30, 1904 



tion throughout, and is adjustable for taking up wear at 
all the joints. Both the rods which connect it with the 
steering heads have ball-and-socket joints and small, stiff 
compression springs, which effectually prevent back- 
lash. The steering gear is of the worm-ind-sector 
irreversible type, and has ball-thrust collars arranged on 
either side of the worm. The steering pillar itself is 
hollow, so that a central rod, and a tube surrounding it, 



can pass down the centre. These are at their upper 
ends attached to two small hand-levers, which can move 
over a circular notched ring above the wheel, by which 
the speed of the engine is controlled. The rod and the 
tube at their lower ends have screw threads cut upon 
them, and the correspondingly threaded sleeves, which 
ride upon these threads, are neatly connected by levers 
with the parts which they control. 



A STEAM MOTOR BICYCLE. 



Hitherto the small petrol motor has held the field for 
motor bicycle propulsion, so that in the mere successful 
application of steam for this purpose, M. Espujols has pro- 
duced a novelty. The Espujols steam bicycle is shown 
from either side in the two views of it we reproduce 
from U Automobile y and, as can be seen at a glance, the 
single-cylinder motor is attached to the rear fork on one 
side of the driving-wheel, which it propels by the simplest 
possible form of spur-gearing. The boiler and burner 
are accommodated in a closed case filling the frame, and 
arrangements are also made for pedalling the bicycle by 
the ordinary chain and sprocket transmission. 

The steam pisses from the top of the boiler to the 
motor through two throttle valves near the saddle. One 
is a complete stop valve, and is operated like a brake by 
a hand lever, being merely employed as an extra pre- 
caution, while the other is the throttle by which the 
speed of the machine is regulated. The motor is of the 
single cylinder type, with mushroom valves. The dimen- 
sions are as follows : — 34 mm. bore, 59 mm. stroke, and 
its speed can be varied from 850 revs, per minute to 
1,300 revs, per minute giving at 40 kilo^s. pressure, and 
the lower speed, approximately 2-h.p. From the motor, 
the steam passes to a surface condenser of multitubular 
construction, the tubes being coiled as seen behind the 
seat pillar. After leaving the surface condenser the con- 
densed water passes into a cylindrical vessel immediately 
behind the bottom bracket, from which it is pumped back 
into the boiler. On the way to the pump the water 
passes through a filter for removing any cylinder oil it 
may contain. The level of the water is kept constant, 
as far as possible, in this vessel by means of a float feed, 
which controls the flow to it from the supply tank. The 



water is drawn from this Vessel by a pump, and is 
delivered by it to the boiler. A hand controlled by-pass 
is introduced into the delivery pipe, by which the quantity 
of water fed to the boiler can be varied by the driver, 
to control the steam pressure. The water tank and 
the petrol tank are mounted immediately beneath the 
top tube of the frame, the required pressure in the 
petrol tank being kept up by a hand pump. The pump 
for supplying the air pressure to the petrol tank is 
mounted in front of the steering handles, just above the 
top of the front forks. 

The boiler, which is of very special construction, is 
arranged inside the casing immediately under the 
petrol and water tanks. The boiler is of a type suit- 
able for use with any kind of steam engine, though, 
owing to its lightness, it is particularly suitable for 
bicycle propulsion. It can be very easily taken to 
pieces, is very light, and gives great heating area. 
It is of the flash type, but consists of a number of 
double steel tubes — that is to say, each tube consists 
of two concentric cylinders, down the centre of which 
the water is led in, while the steam is generated 
in the space between the inner tube and the outer 
one, this space containing a number of baffles. We are 
not at present in possession of any particulars of the 
burner, but understand that it is adapted for using either 
heavy or light oil. The total weight of the vehicle ready 
for the road is 48 kilogs , the wheels are 650 mm. in 
diameter, 2*3 litres of water are carried, and 53 litres of 
fuel. The total consumption of fuel per 100 kiloms. 
is said to be 2 5 approximately. The bicycle is usually 
started by pedalling, in order to remove any water from 
the cylinder. 



The Kon. C. S. Rolls has been asked to stand for 
the Fulham constituency of the London County Council 
in the coming election. 



Mr. W. H. Hamshaw, of Wimbledon, has been 
elected president for the ensuing )ear of the Institute of 
British Carriage Manufacturers* 



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THE AUTO MOTOR JOURNAL. 



'13 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PEDRAIL. 

{Concluded from p. 94,) 



Fig. 10. — Six different views of the No. 3 Pedrail Model, showing the peculiar contortions of which the feet are capable. 



In the latest design, the spoke itself has a U cross- 
section, and the rollers, M, as also the rail, D, lie inside 
it. The pins, G 1 , upon which the rollers are mounted, 
are supported at each end close up to the rollers, and 
the front projecting portion of the spoke is enclosed by a 
lightsheet metal casing, G 3 A by no means unimportant 
feature of the design is that any spoke, complete with its 
ankle and foot, can be entirely withdrawn at any time, 
even when the machine is on the road. It is only 
necessary to remove the brackets, G 2 , which connect the 
springs, J, with the spoke, and it can then be withdrawn, 
and a new one substituted. This operation can, we are 
told, be performed in about a minute and a half ; the 
risk of any serious breakdown can be, in consequence, 
reduced to a minimum by carrying a spare spoke fitted 
with its roller and foot, because no other portion of the 
mechanism can be regarded as at all complex, or is 
liable to give trouble in actual practice. The actual 
strength of the springs, J, is such that a man can easily 
streich them to the required extent when replacing 
them. 

The feet, K, are in all cases attached centrally to the 
ends of the spokes with a universal joint, so that they 
can lie flat on the road whatever the nature of its 



surface may be. The peculiar contortions of which they 
are capable in actual practice is well shown in Fig. 10. 
In the first of the six views, three of the feet are resting 
flat upon the road, and the foremost of them will be lifted 
clear of it just before another foot comes down. In 
the next view, the central foot at the bottom is 
hanging in mid-air, because those on either side of 
it are engaged in stepping over from the block, 
T, to the other block, T, this being equivalent 
in practice to stepping across a ditch. In the third view 
the model is in the same position as in the first, but it is 
seen obliquely, and shows various portions which are 
not visible in the other views. In the fourth photograph 
the Pedrail is negotiating an abnormally rocky road, the 
obstacles, T l , in which are causing the three feet to tilt 
over at totally different angles to one another, and yet 
each of them is obtaining a firm support for its spoke 
and its roller. The obstacles, T 2 , in the next view show 
the way in which the model can walk up or down stairs, 
and heie it will be noticed that it is quite immaterial 
whether the pitch of the steps happens to conform with 
the stride of the feet or not, for one of them is 
partly resting on the lower step and partly on the ground. 
The last view of this series shows the model on a road 



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[January 30, 1904 



having a very steeply sloping cross-section, but it will be 
noticed that the Pedrail itself is standing vertical, and 
the feet slope over to lie flat on the ground. In these 
models the framework, A*, represents a portion of the 
vehicle body, and is arranged above the. model to enable 
heavy weights to be placed upon it ; this framework is 
of course rigid with the sleeve marked A in Fig. 7. 

The construction of the feet in the various designs is 
shown sectionally in Pigs. 11 to 15, Fig. 11 being the 
original foot on No. 1, and Fig. 12 the foot and the 
spoke which were afterwards substituted. Figs. 13 and 
14 represent the foot with its spoke on the No. 2 Pedrail 
— the latter being reproduced from a photograph — and 
Fig. 15 is the latest design. In all of these the ankle is 
formed by a ball, L, which fits down in a socket 
formed in an internal casting, L 2 , and is surrounded on 
its upperside by a free intermediate ring, L 1 , which in 
turn fits inside an upper socket, LA The casting, L 2 , 
has a large flat face on its underside, and is normally 
self-centred inside the foot, K, by three, equidistant, 
radial springs, L 6 , which are fitted about the pins, L 5 , 
between it and the foot. The upper portion of the socket, 
L 3 , is formed with a flange lying inside the foot, providing 
another flat bearing surface for the universal joint in it. 
The universal joint, therefore, lies normally in the centre 
of the foot, but its socket can slide to a certain extent in 
any direction inside the foot. In Figs. 13 and 15 it will 
be noticed that a plate, L 4 , is fitted outside, between 
the socket, L 3 , and the foot, to render it dust- 
proof, and to receive the lower part of the dust- 
proof casing surrounding the ankle. In the first design 
the plate, K 1 , which was bolted to the foot, formed 
a metal sole for the Pedrail to walk on, but in the 
remodelled foot (Fig. 12) and in the subsequent designs, 
either wood or rubber, or a combination of both, were 
fitted beneath it. 

The first foot made (Fig. 11), which was 9 inches in 
diameter, and gave a distance of 3 J inches from the base 
to the centre of the ankle joint, was afterwards re- 
designed in shape, and had a rubber sole added as seen 
in Fig. 1 2. The diameter of the new foot was 8^ inches, and 
the height of the centre of the ankle-ball from the ground 
was 5^ inches, the rubber being even thicker than shown 
in the illustration. With this foot, sixteen of which were 
fitted on Pedrail No. 1, the horizontal pull of the engine, 
which practically comes on the centre of the ball, caused 
it to tip over when the engine was pulling a load of 60 
tons, thus limiting the utility of the engine to this load. 
To avoid this trouble, the feet on No. 2 Pedrail (Fig. 13), 
were made larger in diameter and not so high, these 
being n inches across the tread, and having the centre 
of the ball 4 inches from the ground. Fourteen of these 
feet were fitted, and they have never shown any sign of 
tipping under very severe conditions, but, being used on 
the engine having No. 1 Pedrails in front, they could not, 
consequently, be tested much beyond the point at which 
the other feet ceased to lie flat on the road. The 
feet on No. 2, which were originally soled with a 
combination of wood (K 7) and rubber (K 5), were 
afterwards altered to rubber only. The latest feet (Fig. 15) 
are the same diameter as those on the No. 2 
design ( 1 1 inches), but the ankle is even nearer to the 
ground, the height of the centre of the ball being 3^ inches 
instead of 4 inches; the result of the tests, which 
have already been made on the existing engine, appear 
to confirm Mr. Diplock's belief that no difficulty will be 
experienced with them from any tendency to " tip " in 
practice. It was found, in the early experiments, that the 



rubber pads were apt to roll out of their sockets, and, 
therefore, the rubber, K 5 (Fig. 15), is now made in six 
segments, divided by radial wood strips, K c , which are 
wedge-shaped in cross-section, and are, together with 
the rubber, held in place, centrally, by the cone, 
K*, and around the periphery by the steel ring, 
K 2 . Iron liners are fitted on each side of the 
wooden strips, and a similar (split cone) liner, K 4 
(Fig. 18), is introduced between the rubber and the cone, 
to prevent distortion of the rubber when tightening up. 
This latest arrangement has been very severely tested 
with satisfactory results, and has many advantages. The 
rubber eases the concussion of the foot on the ground, 
and after it is compressed to a certain extent, the steel 
and the wood also help in taking the strain of the pull. 
It is important to notice that the conditions under 
which the rubber is called upon to act renders it pos- 
sible to employ quite a cheap grade of material in com- 
parison with that which is necessary for an ordinary 
rubber tyre. Another interesting fact which has been 
brought to light by the experiments already conducted, 
is that the rubber pads always remain comparatively 
clear, however muddy the road may be, and are 
in this respect quite different from a wood sole, which 
picks up the dirt very readily. 

The construction of these more recent feet (Figs. 
13, 14, and 15) deserve further passing reference, 
because the various parts forming them are held together 
and are locked in place in a very simple manner. The 
two portions of the socket for the ankle are held in 
position between the casting, K 1 , and the main portion, 
K, of the foot by screwing the former into the latter, 
and pinning it after it is adjusted. The steel ring, 
K 2 , is also clamped between these two portions, so that 
it too is held firmly in place by the same operation. 
The rubber sole is afterwards inserted, and any section 
of it can be replaced separately by merely detaching the 
steel cone, K 3 . 

Obviously one of the greatest difficulties which had to 
be contended with was to prevent dust and mud from 
finding its way into the ankle joint. This was originally 
guarded against by fitting a leather casing, R, around it, 
and fixing this in place, as seen in Figs. 11 and 12. 
The leather, however, soon became broken, owing to 
the acute angle at which it was doubled up, and to the 
constant disintegrating action to which it was thus sub- 
jected. A special metallic cover, R 1 , which is appropri- 
ately termed a " crustacean r> joint, was therefore adopted 
on the second Pedrail, and this is seen in Fig. 13 and, on a 
larger scale, in Fig. 16. It consisted of six spun rings 
which had their edges slit and bent over outwardly at 
R 2 , and inwardly at R 3 , alternately, so that they engaged 
with one another, and the rings were able to slide over 
each other without ever coming apart. This design was 
very satisfactory in practice, but extremely expensive to 
make, owing to the amount of skilled labour required. 
A new form of crustacean joint, which is quite cheap 
to construct, has now, however, been devised, and this 
has but four rings, arranged as seen in Fig. 17. The 
two upper rings, R 5 , are both moved over, one after the 
other, by the neck above the ball, L, as it comes into 
contact with them, but the third ring, R 6 , is not pushed 
over by the neck of the ball, because if it were there 
would be a risk of its being jammed on the nearly 
vertical surface of the fourth ring, R 7 , which is fixed to the 
socket, L 3 . The ring, R 6 , is instead picked up on the 
other side by the ring, R s , immediately above it, the 
upper edge of the ring, R 6 , being bent outwardly to 



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"5 



Fig. 11. 



Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 



Fig. 15. 



Sectional drawings of the feet on the various Pedrail designs. — Fig. 11, the original No. 1 foot. Fig. 12, the altered foot on No. 1. 
Fig. 13, the foot arranged in conjunction with the friction clutch on No. 2. Fig. 15, the No. 3 foot shown in plan and in section. 

engage with the inwardly projecting edge of the other 

ring for this purpose. The first crustacean joint was 

attached at the top by the rubber washer, R*, and was 

fixed at its lower edge to the dust cap, L 4 . The latest 

crustacean joint is similarly held by a rubber ring, R 8 , 

above, and its lower member, R 7 , fits round and is 
- secured to the upper socket casting, L 3 . These crustacean 

joints appear to serve their purpose extremely well, and, 
1 together with the sliding cap, L 4 , effectually keep the ankle 

clean. In the first design (Fig. 13), gravity was relied 

upon to rock the feet over about their ankles as they were 

approaching the ground, and so cause them to come 

down flat instead of on their edges. It was partly for 
i this reason that the ankle joint was arranged so high 

above the ground. It was found, however, in practice 

that the centrifugal force more than counterbalanced 

their weight, and that they did not meet the ground 

properly. It was, therefore, necessary to introduce some 
Fig. 14. —One of the mechanism by which the feet would be turned over as 




Fig. 18. — Sectional drawing showing one 



actual feet with its spoke, tnev approached the ground, and held at the required <>( ^ fe , et arranged in conjunction with its 

roller, friction clutch, and ', ,A\.u:„ ^^ m ^««. Tk^ f a ^ n ~A *u<* «~~u^ ? m *~~ friction clutch on the latest form of Pedrail. 

crustacean joint, used on angle at this moment. The feet and the spokes were 

the No. 2 Pedrail. consequently altered, as seen in Fig. 12, the ankle-ball, 




Drawings showing the development of the crustacean joint for the ankles of the Pedrail.— Fig. i6,'the 6-pait joint fitted to the No. 2 

design. Fig. 17, two views of the improved 4-part joint for No. 3 design. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



IJanuary 30, 1904 



L, being bored out for the mechanism to pass through it. 
It will be noticed that the rollers, M, are caused to 
revolve as soon as they are brought in contact with the 
guide surfaces, D 2 , of the rail, and that the direction in 
which they revolve depends upon the direction in which 
the Pedrail is travelling. This movement of the rollers 
is ingeniously made use of for giving the required tilt to 
the feet, and for this purpose a slipping friction clutch 
is arranged in conjunction with them, and is con- 
nected wiih the feet. This was done in the No. 1 and 
No 2 Pedrails in a somewhat complicated manner, 
which will be readily understood by referring to Figs. 12, 
13, and 14. The pin, G 1 , upon which the rollers, M, 
were mounted, was bored out to receive a spindle, N 1 , 
which passed through it and the spoke, and carried a 
small pinion inside the spoke. The outer end of this 
spindle had a small brake-drum formed on it, around 
which a pair of brake shoes, N, were mounted ; these 
shoes were held together by springs so as to press upon 
the drum, and they engaged with the roller, M, so that 
they were compelled to rotate with it. The shoes, N. in 
turn tended 10 rotate a spindle, N 1 , and its pinion 



closely fitted, and since this was put right no trouble has 
been experienced with them. 

The clutch mechanism on the No. 3 Pedrail is of very 
simple construction, and is undoubtedly a very great 
improvement on that which we have just described. 
This is clearly shown in Pig. 18, where it will be noticed 
that the friction shoes, P, are mounted centrally between 
the two wheels forming the roller, M, and that they are 
normally held together by adjustable springs, P 3 . The 
lower shoe, P, has projecting arms on either side, and 
rods, P 1 , are hinged to them. These rods at their lower 
ends have cup-shaped sockets screwed upon them, and 
the sockets rest upon small balls, P 2 , which are fixed to 
the dust-cap, L 4 . Precisely the same effect is obtained 
in this design as before, but there are no delicate or 
inaccessible parts to get out of order, and the friction- 
clutch is connected with the foot in a very direct manner. 
The small balls, P, are arranged so that their centres are 
in line with the centre of the ankle ball, L, and thus the 
foot can tilt over sideways without straining the clutch 
mechanism, and without moving the clutch. The angle 
to which the feet are rocked over by the clutches is such 



Fig. 19. — The first commercial Pedrail vehicle, which is now in course of construction. This particular traction engine has ordinary 

wheels in front. 



engaged with a pair of toothed racks, N 2 , which at their 
lower ends, inside the ball, L, engaged on either side of 
another pinion, N 3 . This lower pinion, N 3 , carried 
a pivoted finger, N 4 , which projected through a hole 
in the centre of the socket casting, L 2 , and there- 
fore engaged with it. By this device the foot, K, was 
rocked over by the pivoted finger, N 4 , as soon as the 
roller, M, was caused to rotate by coming in contact 
with the rail guide, D 3 . The pivoted fingers, N 4 , gave a 
considerable amount of trouble at first, and kept on 
breaking during successive trials, until the cause was 
ascertained — they worked all right when the friction 
clutches were turning the feet, but they jammed when 
the foot was turning the friction clutches, i.e., when the 
foot was on the ground. Ultimately this was found to 
be due to the racks and pinions having been a little too 



that the " toe " comes down first, thus tending to^make 
the vehicle walk more quietly. This Is particularly 
important on Pedrails used as drivers, and is ensured by 
screwing down the friction-clutches more tightly, so that 
the action of the clutch is to press the toe into the 
ground. The result of this on soft ground is to make 
the drive of the engine press the soles of the foot back- 
wards against the ground like paddles. The extra 
tension on the clutches causes a little more friction to be 
introduced, but this is more than compensated for by 
the improved grip obtained, and would be immaterial on 
a hard road because the power required would then be 
below the full hauling power of the engine. When the 
Pedrails are used as trailers, however, the clutches are 
only tightened up sufficiently to ensure the feet coming 
down flat on the ground, at any speed. 



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117 



Except in the first design, the feet are prevented from 
tipping over as they pass over the top ofVthe Pedrail by 
four small pins, Q, between which and the discs, F, 
small springs, Q 1 , are introduced. When the spokes are 
allowed to slide inward, they come into contact with 
these pins, and are held square with the spokes by them, 
as they are carried over from the front to the back. 

The question of lubrication is, of course, one of very 
vital importance, and has received careful attention from 
the inventor. All the moving parts, except the joints 
in the feet, are fed with oil from a central annular 
chamber, S, on the outer side of the hub. This chamber 
needs filling occasionally, and the oil is led from it by 
cross-tubes to another oil ring, S l , which lies between 
the outer disc, F, and the bracket, A 1 . The cross-tubes 
have left- and right-hand threads at their ends, and are 
fitted in place by a square key which can be inserted 
through openings in the outer annular chamber, S ; the 
caps which screw into these openings afterwards serve 
as filler-caps. The oil is led from the inner ring. S\ into 
fourteen radial tubes, S 2 , which are fixed to it, and fit in- 
side corresponding tubes, S 3 , which at their outer ends are 
secured to the pins, G l , on which the rollers, M, revolve. 
The telescopic joints thus formed have small stuffing-boxes 
between the tubes to prevent leakage, and the pipes act 
as pumps, which keep the oil on the move (pulsating) as 
the spokes slide in and out. The oil is thus conducted 
to each of the pins, G l , and these pins are hollow to 
allow it to pass through them to the rollers, M, and to 
the guides for the spokes. The oil-ways through the 
pins, G\ are filled with loose cotton wicks to prevent 
the oil from flowing too freely to the rollers, the friction 
clutches, and the guides, and the outlets are plugged with 
special plaited wire and cotton. The feet are filled up 
inside with a mixture of tallow and black-lead, which 
appears to answer admirably, and to last for a very long 
period without requiring any attention. 

The new traction engine (Fig. 19) was designed and 
is now being built by Messrs. Wra. Foster and Co., of 
Lincoln, who also made the No. 2 pair of Pedrails for 
Mr. Diplock. This is the first standard model to be 
put up on the market for commercial use, and has but one 
pair of Pedrails instead of two pairs. It is expected to 
be capable of hauling very heavy loads — 2 5 tons gross 
under average conditions. It will weigh about 5 tons, 
of which 1 ton will be taken by the front wheels, and the 
remainder by the Pedrails. The front wheels will have 
9-inch tyres with 5-inch bands shrunk on them, so that 
the wheel will run on the bands on good roads, and will 
have the extra width available for soft ground, where each 
9-inch tyre will easily support a weight of only half a ton. 

One of the most important characteristics of the 
Pedrail is that the actual rolling action, which must 
necessarily take place somewhere between the vehicle 
and the road, does not take place on the surface 
of the road, and that the rolling parts do not need 
to have sufficient adhesion for the propelling power 
to be transmitted between them. In all ordinary traction 
systems the friction between the wheels and the stationary 
surface over which they run requires to be as slight as 
possible so fai as efficiency in carrying the load is con- 
cerned, but on the other hand, there has to be sufficient 
friction between them on a self-propelled vehicle to 
enable the wheels to obtain the necessary grip. With 
the Pedrail, however, the rolling motion is between the 
rollers, M, and the rail, D, and there is no tendency for 
slip to occur between these parts, nor would the engine 
race if there were slip. The rollers and the rail, there- 



fore, carry a self-propelled vehicle as though it were 
merely a trailer, and the weight of the vehicle need only 
be sufficient to prevent the large flat feet from scraping 
away the road surface, and failing to secure a hold on 
the ground. A heavy vehicle fitted with Pedrails 
is not only less likely to damage the road by sink- 
ing into it or by wearing away its surface, but it can, 
therefore, also haul a greater proporton of its load on 
trailers than can an ordinary vehicle. For the transport 
of goods this is a very important matter, because the 
commercial value of a tractor is considerably reduced if 
it has to remain idle during the process of loading and 
unloading. On the score of road damage the Pedrail 
has considerably more in its favour than that suggested 
above, for the tendency of the feet when they press upon 
the road is to stamp down the high places and not to 
deepen the depressions, thus trampling it down to a flat 
surface. The suspension of the vehicle fitted with Pedrails 
is even more satisfactory than at first sight appears, parti- 
cularly with the arrangement of the springs adopted in 
the No. 3 design. In this arrangement the two inner 
springs, E 4 , carry a quarter of the total weight between 
them, and the two outer springs, E, take the remaining 
three-quarters.. The remarkable result obtained by the 
compound-lever action, which we referred to earlier in 
this article, is that the axle, C, remains at the same dis- 
tance from the ground, when the rail, D, is deflected 
from the position shown in Fig. 6 to that shown in 
Fig. 8, which means that the obstacle on the road is 
being mounted, although the vehicle itself has not been 
raised. In Fig. 8 it will be noticed that one of the 
springs, E 4 , is compressed roughly to the same amount 
as the height of the obstacle, but that the outer springs, 
E, are only compressed to half this extent. The springs 
can therefore work without undue fatigue, any impact 
with an obstacle is entirely taken up by them, the vehicle 
slowly ris *s on its springs as the rollers travel along the 
rail, and as the Pedrail steps off an object, the vehicle 
slowly sinks upon the springs after they have taken the 
initial shock. 

The drawbar pull required for hauling a vehicle fitted 
with steel tyres along the very best of roads is 
about 50 lbs. per ton, and is more ordinarily about 
100 lbs.; it increases enormously if the road 
is wet, or otherwise in bad condition. A vehicle 
fitted with Pedrails, however, requires, Mr. Diplock tells 
us, a drawbar pull of about 35 lbs. per ton on a good 
road, and the power required does not increase so 
enormously when the road is in bad condition, or when 
the vehicle is travelling over soft ground. This is only 
what might be expected, for the feet remain stationary 
during the time that they are in actual operation, 
and they merely serve as temporarily fixed anchors 
for the spokes to act upon. The frictional losses in 
the Pedrail are chiefly those occasioned by the sliding 
of the spokes in their guides, and by their having 
to slide when at a somewhat awkward angle and when 
the power is being transmitted to them from the guides. 
The usual "railway" losses also occur between the 
rollers and the rail, and between the rollers and their 
pins. This is undoubtedly exaggerated to a certain 
extent — though relatively insignificant — by the friction 
clutches which are at all times operative and are retarding 
about half of the rollers. A certain amount of friction 
also takes place in the ankle joints and in the sockets in 
the feet. It should, however, be pointed out that the 
weight of the vehicle is not imposed upon the bearings 
between the discs (G) and their stationary sleeve (A). 



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118 THE AUTO MOTOR JOURNAL. [January 30 1904. 



THE BRUSSELS AUTOMOBILE SALON. 



Brussels Salon. Fig. i, — The Lorence Petrol Car, showing the two independent motors mounted in front. 



Brussels Salon. Fig. 2. — Front view of the Dasse Chassis, showing the pivoted transverse spring, and the guides on the frame. 



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119 



Brussels Salon. Fig. 3. — Central portion of the Dasse Chassis, showing part of the flexible propeller shaft which transmits the 

power to the live- rear-axle. 



On Saturday last the inauguration of the Third Brussels 
Salon took place at the Grand Hall of the Pare de 
Cinquantenaire, the Minister of Industry and Works 
periorming the formal ceremony, assisted by M. De Mot, 
Burgomaster ot Brussels, who has earned considerable 
notoriety in connection with his famous edict confining 
the speed of automobiles in Brussels to 5 k.p.h. Every 
Continental make of automobile of note is represented 
in the present exhibition, prominent amongst the Belgian 
cars being the Pipe and the Germain exhibits. The 
attendance during the week has been phenomenally 
great, over 10,000 entering on the first day, while during 
the afternoon of Sunday over 12,000 passed the turn- 



stiles. On Monday, Prince Albert and Prince Victor 
Bonaparte visited the Salon officially, and King Leopold 
announced his intention of attending on Friday. 
Coming so quickly after the Paris Salon, very few 
novelties which were not seen in Paris were to be 
observed, but a few were noticeable, and from these we 
have made the following selection : — 

The peculiarity of the Lorence Car (Fig. 1) is that a 
pair of single-cylinder De Dion engines are mounted in 
line with one another in front, and have their crank- 
shafts placed transversely across the car. One motor 
drives each of the front wheels, and thus there is no need 
Tor any differential gear. 



Brussels Salon. Fig. 4. — View of the engine on the Baudouin Chassis, from the right side, showing the arrangement of the valves 

and the cam-shaft above the cylinders. 



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January 30, 1904. 



Brussels Salon. Fig. 5. — Portion of the Chassis built by the Soc. Anon, de Mecanique et Moteurs de Liege, showing the method ot 
fixing the gear-box to the pressed steel frame, the positions of the foot pedals, and the exhaust pipe. 



The novel features of the Dasse chassis are the 
arrangements adopted for the suspension in front, and 
the employment of a flexible propeller shaft. A front 
view is shown in Fig. 2, and the central portion of the 
chassis from the rear in Fig. 3. A transverse inverted 
spring is attached, by shackles at either end, to the front 
axle, and is pivoted centrally to the pressed steel main- 
frame in front. The brackets to which the shackles are 
fixed are also fitted with small grooved rollers, which 
engage with curved guide-plates on either side of the 
frame, as shown. The front portion of the car is, there- 
fore, free to move about the central pivot without 
depressing the transverse spring, the spring merely 
serving to absorb the shocks sustained by the front axle 
itself. 

The propeller-shaft (Fig. 3) transmits the power from 
the change-speed-gear to a live axle in much the usual 
way, but, instead of being a solid shaft, is built up of a 
bundle of rods, so that a considerable amount of 
flexibility is introduced by it. The gearing provides 
three speeds and a reverse, with a direct through-drive 
on the top speed, and the box is fixed to the main-frame. 
A single tubular radius-rod is fitted between the 
differential-casing and the central cross-tube of the main- 
frame. The engine on this vehicle has four cylinders, 
the bore of which is 110 mm., and the stroke 120 mm. 
Mechanically operated inlet-valves are arranged on the 
opposite sides to the exhaust- valves, magneto ignition is 
employed, and high-tension ignition-plugs are fitted above 
the inlet-valves ; tne gear-wheels on the engine have 



helical teeth, and the magneto is driven through a helical 
shaft. The hrakes are of the metal-to-metal type, those 
on the rear wheels being dust-proof; the foot-pedals are 
fixed to the dash, and the foot-brake is arranged close 
up to the differential-casing. 

The four-cylinder engine, Fig. 4, on the Baudouin 
chassis has its valves and cam-shaft arranged in some- 
what the same way that they are in the Maudslay engine. 
They are all mechanically operated, and are fitted verti- 
cally into the heads of the cylinders, which are cast in 
pairs. The cam-shaft lies across above them, and is 
driven by bevel gearing ; it also carries the commutator 
just in front of the dash-board. 

The Soctete Anonyme de Mecanique et Moteurs de 
Liege exhibit a new chassis, the rear portion of which is 
seen in Fig. 5. It has a pressed steel frame, and an 
under-frame for the engine only, the gear-box being 
supported on two transverse drop-brackets, which bridge 
across between the two side members. The engine has 
four cylinders, which are formed by separate castings, 
and have their mechanically operated inlet valves 
opposite to the exhaust-valves. The lift of the inlet- 
valves can be varied by a rack and pinion device in 
much the same way as on the Mercedes cars. High- 
tension igniters are arranged above them, and half- 
compression cocks above the exhaust-valves. The car 
is of the live axle type, and, as will be noticed in the 
illustration, the foot-pedals are mounted on the base of 
the sieering-piliar, and the exhaust pipe passes back on 
a higher level than usual just below the dashboard. 



The Portuguese Government contemplate experi- 
menting with automobiles for military purposes With a 
view to ascertaining the importance of utilising motor 
tractors for this purpose, the King of Portugal is person- 



ally witnessing at Lisbon experiments showing the 

adaptability of the tractor system of Eugene Brilli£, 

whose machines are being manufactured by Schneider 
and Co., of Havre. 



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BLUFF AND THE SELDEN PATENT. 

The fight in the United States in connection with 
the Selden patent and other minor patents controlled by 
the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers 
is proceeding apace, and there appears to be a prospect 
of some definite legal decision being come to as a result 
of the present tactics. For the sake of the general 
automobile industry it is to be hoped that the attempt to 
corner manufacturers, both in the United States and 
abroad, will signally fail, particularly in view'of the out- 
rageously flimsy patent on which the main claims are 
based. Several foreign importers have come into 
line with the Association and obtained licences for 
the sale ot their vehicles rather than go to the 
expense of fighting against the combination. Amongst 
the latest so admitted are the importers of the 
Darracq cars and of the Fiat, the representatives of 
the former having up till that time supported the inde- 
pendent Automobile Association. Probably these two 
new privileges will end the granting of licences to 
importers, and serious objection has even been raised 
to these being granted by the Importers' branch of the 
A.L.A.M. Attempts by wealthy automobilists in the 
States are being made to get over the blackmailing of 
the Association. For this purpose it is stated that a 
group of about a dozen wealthy men have combined to 
send a representative to Europe to buy automobiles for 
them direct. The licensed importers, however, are 
making a counter move to this, and are already formu- 
lating plans for preventing the entry through the Custom 
House of cars not brought in by a licensed importer. 

By way of having a second barrel to their gun, the 
Association are beginning to move in connection with 
some of their minor patents, and under this policy 
they are suing the American house of Panhard and 
Levassor in connection with the Columbia Steering 
Mechanism, known as the Back Lock Steering Device. 
The actual patent in this case alleged to have been 
infringed is one filed in June, 1896, and granted May 
6th, 1902, to Hiram Percy Maxim (No. 699543), and 
another filed in 1897 and issued in June, 1902, to Pope 
and Maxim (No. 702443). Altogether a pretty kettle of 
fish appears to be coming to the boil. In the mean- 
time the Ford Motor Company and C. A. Duerr 
and Co., the first people attacked by the Association 
under the Selden patent, have filed a very elaborate 
reply in defence, in which dishonest and fraudulent 
intent are charged against the methods employed 
in obtaining the patent, and misrepresentations of a 
fraudulent character are alleged to have been made 
to the public with respect to the result of previous 
litigation in regard to the Selden patent. It is alleged 
further that the Winton Motor Carriage Company, when 
they were originally attacked by the Association through 
the Electric Vehicle Company, were induced by the 
payment of sums of money by the Electric Vehicle 
Company to drop the defence and permit a " Consent 
decree " for infringement to be entered against them, 
and that the evidence of anticipation of the Selden 
patent filed by the Winton Company was handed over 
to the plaintiffs. The defendants in the present suit are 
now endeavouring to compel this evidence of the Winton 
Company to be produced in Court. In conclusion, the 
answer sets forth a list of patents and publications of 
devices in which it is claimed there are anticipations of 
every discovery claimed by Selden. This list comprises 
no less than 140 patents. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



The name and address of the writer (not necessarily for 
publication) MUST in all cases accompany letter intended 
for insertion^ or containing queries. 



THE EXHIBITION QUESTION AND THE CLUB. 
To the Editor of The Automotor Journal. 

Sir, — We shall be glad if you will permit us to state that the 
Annual Show of this Society, which represents practically the entire 
industry in this country, will be held at the Crystal Palace from the 
1 2th to the 24th February next. 

With the object ofensuring a thoroughly representative Exhibition, 
the leading manufacturers and traders, some time back, entered into 
an agreement to exhibit only at the Society's Show. 

As a result the whole of the available space at the Crystal Palace 
has been allotted, and its success assured, notwithstanding the fact 
that the Automobile Club has decided, for a pecuniary considera- 
tion, to give its patronage to another Exhibition to be held at a 
later date, and at which exhibits from those who have signed the 
above-mentioned agreement will not be found. 
. It is not for us to criticise the action of the Automobile Club, 
but we think it right that the above facts should be made known. 

I enclose a list of exhibitors at the Society's Exhibition, showing 
those who have agreed not to exhibit elsewhere. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

T. F. WOODFINE, 

Secretary, Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders. 

To the Editor of Thb Automotor Journal. 

Dear Sir, — I was astonished to read in The Automobile Club 
Journal that at a Committee Meeting of the club held on January 
18th, it was resolved to give the patronage of the club to the Show 
to be held at Islington in March. 

The club rightly decided about two years ago to withhold its 

ritronage from any show until the manufacturers were united, and 
now read that the club has not given its patronage to any show, 
but has sold its patronage to the Agricultural Hall Show, regardless 
of whether the leading manufacturers will be there or not. I, 
therefore, as a member of the club, wonder if we can place any 
reliance upon its future decisions or awards, unless the Committee 
immediately acknowledges its mistake and withdraws from its false 
position. The resolution is grossly misleading to the members of 
the club, excepting those whose knowledge of motor cars enables 
them to judge for themselves by reading the list of exhibitors at the 
Crystal Palace Show that the majority of leading manufacturers will 
be there. 

In my opinion the future of the club does not depend upon such 
trading, but on its social position and its honest help to motorists in 
general. It can be of great assistance to the trade and the public 
in an honourable way when asked to award prizes, &c, in trade 
trials, but I do not think the club should, for a sum of money, take 
one side or the other in a trade dispute, and I should like to know 
the views of other members on the trading policy of the club. 

Yours truly, 

J. M. MacLulich. 
January 26th. 

[We publish above a dignified protest from the Society of Motor 
Manufacturers and Traders referring to the attitude taken up by the 
A.C.G.B.I. in regard to the Exhibition Question, on which we 
comment editorially in our front paragraphs. We also print a 
letter from a correspondent which is a sample of the large number 
of similar communications we have received on the same subject, 
not only Irom members of the trade, but from many members of the 
Automobile Club itself, illustrating in a forcible manner the strong 
feeling that the inconsistent action of the club has evoked. — El).] 

To the Editor of The. Automotor Journal. 

Sir, — So many communications of congratulation have reached 
me during the last few days on the action of the Automobile Club 
of Great Britain and Ireland in again associating themselves with 
my Automobile Exhibition at the Agricultural Hall, London, that 
I am compelled to ask my correspondents to accept this public 
acknowledgment of their appreciation. They will be interested to 
know that the eighth automobile dUplay at the Royal Agricultural 
Hall will be the most representative of the series that has yet been 
held. 

Thanking you in anticipation for the favour of your insertion ot 
this brief letter, 

I remain, yours faithfully. 

C. Coki)Im;ley. 



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[January 30, 1904. 



A VISIT TO THE CROSSLEY 
WORKS. 

To christen the Crossley car, which we describe in another column, 
a goodly company, composed of representatives of the chief auto- 
mobile journals, assembled last week in Manchester at the 
newest and most perfectly appointed hotel in Great Britain, to 
wit, the new Midland. The fact that Messrs. Crossley Brothers, 
of world-wide gas and oil engine fame, had entered the auto- 
mobile field was one of national importance, and that alone would 
have been sufficient attraction to draw towards Cottonopolis all 
those invited to inspect this new production. The occasion 
was made doubly important from the fact that in association with 
Messrs. Crossley in this new departure were Messrs. Charles Jarrott and 
Letts, and Mr. J. S. Critchley. Such a partnership must necessarily 
lead to important results, combining as it does manufacturers of 
Messrs. Crossley's reputation and experience, Mr. Charles Jarrott's 
practical driving knowledge, Mr. Critchley's intimate acquaintance 
as an engineer with every move on the automobile board since it 
received its first real launch into the British world in 1896, and last, 
but not least, Mr. W. M. Letts's exceptional ability as a successful 
commercial and business man. Every effort has been made to ensure 
that the work on the Crossley car shall be of the most perfect type, 
and the statement was made by Mr. Turner — the director under 
whose practical control the actual works are run— at the christening 
lunch held at the Midland Hotel, that his firm were extending their 
works, at a cost of ,£30,000, to make room for its manufacture. 

A good deal of interesting information concerning the works was 
also given by Mr. Turner at the same time. No less than 180 tons 
of iron castings are produced per week, 3 tons of brass and gun- 
metal castings, 15 tons of crankshaft and connecting-rod forgings, 
and 4 tons of various small forgings. About 800 engines are 
at all times in course of construction, and the firm usually have 
a stock of about 200 finished engines ready for delivery. The 
output of the works is about 80 engines per week, and they 
range in size up to those developing 1,000-h.p. : this means 
that a complete engine is turned out and delivered every three- 
quarters of a working hour. Gas-producing plants, pumps, and 
air compressors are also made. Thirty-five large travelling cranes 
are installed in the various shops, apart from the numerous 
hydraulic jib-cranes and lifts which are employed for handling the 
work. Many of the special tools and appliances for cheapening 
production and ensuring absolute accuracy of workmanship are of 
the firm's own design and make, and in many cases the alloys used 
for special parts are prepared in accordance with their own practical 
experience, and the composition is kept secret. Even the largest 
engines have their more important moving parts turned true to a 
thousandth of an inch. The foundries, the stores, the machine shops, 
the erecting shop, and, in fact, each of the numerous departments 
is kept quite distinct and under separate control, and indeed a 
thoroughly up-to-date and excellently organised system exists 
throughout. During the last six or seven years about ^80,000 has 
been spent in replacing old machines, adding to the plant and 
extending the works, with the result that the output for last 
year was 48,900 b.-h. -p., as against 21,600 b.-h.-p. for 1894; the 
49,000th engine is now in hand. Referring to foreign competition, 
Mr. Turner made some amusing remarks with regard to statements 
which have been made to the effect that engineers in this country are 
much behind the times, and gave some interesting data concerning the 
steadily increasing business which is being done with the Crossley 
engines abroad. At the present time they have on order for 
America no less than 13 engines, varying in size from 85 -h. p. up to 
700-h.p., these above giving a total of 4,515-h.p. During an 
interesting tour round the works, one of the new 700-h.p. gas 
engines was shown working, and the one half of a large flywheel, 
weighing 30 tons, was cast in the presence of the visitors in the 
large iron foundry. 

One of the new Crossley vehicles will be on view publicly for 
the first time at the Crystal Palace Show, opening on February 12th. 
We wish the very heartiest success both to the manufacturers and to 
those concerned with them. * 



Arthur J. Herschmann, who has been prominently 
connected with the Adams Express Company in America, 
has severed his connection with that firm and assumed 
the direction of the Commercial Automobile Company, 
which has been recently incorporated with offices at 
45, Broadway, New York. Commercial vehicles, the 
Herschmann system of steam trucks in particular, will 
be the feature of the Company. 



THE LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE MOTOR 
CAR ACT/ 

By Earl Russell. 

So much confusion as to the exact provisions of the Motor Car Act, 
1903, and the regulations of the Local Government Board made 
thereunder appears to exist, that it may not be altogether without 
interest to consider them in detail. 

The first section penalises reckless driving. The power to a 
police constable to apprehend without warrant is limited to the case 
of a person who has already driven recklessly, and who in addition 
has 

(a) Refused to give his name and address or to produce his 
licence, or 

(b) Is driving a car without an identification mark. 

Sec. 13, requiring a male servant's licence for a " person em- 
ployed to drive a motor car," is reasonable, if reasonably construed, 
that is to say, where the engineer corresponds to a coachman. 
Where, however, he is an engineer, and only drives the car inci- 
dentally to or from the stable, it would be unjust to impose the tax, 
and I hope that any attempt to do so will be resisted by automo- 
bilists in general, and by the Motor Union. 

Registration. — To effect registration the owner must apply, 
and pay a fee of 20s. The Council cannot refuse a registration, but 
must assign a number forthwith. Any owner can apply to any 
Council lor his registration, not necessarily the one in whose area 
he resides. Notice of change of ownership costs 5-r. To change a 
car to which the same number applies is perhaps possible under 
Article 5, without charge, and can certainly be done under Article 
6, but would probably require another sovereign. 

Identifying Marks. — The provision in the draft order that no 
other letter shall be placed or shall appear within 24 inches of the 
plate has disappeared. Only the back number is required to be 
illuminated. The mark may be painted upon the car instead of 
using plates. Similar plates must be fixed upon any other vehicle 
drawn by the car, but at one end only. 

The onus is thrown on the driver of seeing that his number 
remains easily distinguishable by day and properly illuminated at 
night. 

Driving Licences.— The third section of the new Act pro- 
vides for the granting of licences, and the fourth section for their 
endorsement. It is an offence under the Act either to {a) " drive 
a motor car on a public highway" without a licence, or {b) to "em- 
ploy any person who is not so licensed to drive a motor car." A 
person can only be licensed in the county or county borough where 
he resides ; the fee is 5*. a year, and the grant of the licence to 
persons of either sex is compulsory without examination, unless the 
applicant is disqualified. There are three disqualifications : — 

{a) Being under seventeen years. 

{&) Holding a licence already for another county. 

(c) Disqualification by order of the Court, under Sec. 4. 

The Court before whom any person is convicted shall cause 
particulars of the conviction, and of any suspension or disqualifica- 
tion, to be endorsed upon the licence, and shall send a copy to 
the Council granting the licence. This compulsory endorsement 
applies to every offence in connection with the driving of a motor 
car, except a first or second conviction for exceeding the speed 
limit. As these are not to be endorsed, it is not quite clear how a 
driver will ever reach a second conviction except at the same Court. 
The particulars of the endorsement are supposed to be carried on 
from year to year, though I can find no provision for this except a 
casual note on the form of licence shown in the regulations. The 
driver of a car must always produce his licence when required by a 
police constable. 

Speed Limits. — The new Act provides a maximum speed 
limit of 20 miles per hour, with power to the Local Government 
Board (subject to the observations made hereafter) to fix a speed 
limit of 10 miles per hour, on the application of the local authority, 
with a view to the safety of the public in certain places. Prosecu- 
tions for exceeding the speed limit simply are subject to the fol- 
lowing safeguards : — 

{a) Warning shall be given at the time, or notice sent within 
such time as ihe Court think reasonable, in no case exceeding 
21 days. 

{&) The first and second offences shall not involve endorsement 
of the licence. 

(r) There shall not be a conviction for exceeding 20 miles per 
hour " merely on the opinion of one witness as to the rate of 
speed." This last safeguard does not apply to exceeding the 
10 mile limit. 



* Extract from a Paper read at the Automobile Club on January 21st. 



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January 30, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



«23 



J". 


d. 








10 





I 





5 





15 






The Local Government Board may make regulations to prohibit 
or restrict the use of motor cars or any special kind of motor cars on 
any part of a highway which either 

(a) does not exceed 16 ft. in width, or 

(b) is in the opinion of the Local Government Board especially 
dangerous. 

Local authorities are to place notices in conspicuous places on or 
near the highway where the speed is limited to 10 miles per hour, 
or where the use of motor cars is prohibited. The duty is also 
imposed on them of setting up caution boards where necessary, to 
denote dangerous corners, cross roads, and precipitous places. 

Taxes and Fees. — A motor car is now liable to the annual 
carriage duty of £2 2s., with an additional £2 2s. if over one ton, 
and £3 3s. if over two tons. The new Act imposes the following 
additional payments : — 

(1) Registration 1 

(Motcr cycles, $s.) 

(2) Change of ownership o 

(3) Duplicate, if licence lost or defaced ... o 

(4) Driving licence, annual ... o 

(5) Male servant's licence, annual o 

Offences and Penalties. — The following sixteen new offences 
and new penalties are created by the new Act, in addition to which 
the jfio fine remains in force for infractions of other regulations 
of the Local Government Board under Sec. 6, or of the Home 
Secretary under Sec. 5, of the principal Act (Locomotives on High- 
ways Act, 1896) : — 

•Penalties.— 
1st offence £20, ABC; 2nd offence £$0 or 3 months, A B C, for 

(1) Driving a motor car on a public highway {a) recklessly, (b) 
negligently, {c) at a speed or in a manner dangerous to the 
public, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, in- 
cluding the nature, condition, and use of the highway, and to 
the amount of traffic which actually is at the time, or which 
might reasonably be expected to be on the highway. 

(2) Driver who has committed one of the three previous offences 
refusing to give, or giving false, name and address. 

(3) Owner failing to give any information in his power which 
may lead to identification and apprehension of above driver. 

(4) Using a car on a public highway — 
(a) Without being registered. 

{b) Without fixing identification mark. 

(c) Obscuring the mark in any way, or rendering it not easily 

distinguishable. 
{d) Allowing the mark to become not easily distinguishable. 

(5) Driving a motor car on a public highway without a licence. 

(6) Employing an unlicensed person to drive a motor car. 

(7) Failing to produce licence for endorsement within a reason- 
able time. 

(8) Applying for or obtaining a licence — 
{a) While disqualified. 

{b) Without giving particulars of endorsements. 

(9) Forging, or fraudulently altering, or using, or lending any 
mark or any licence under the Act. 

I st offence, £io t A B C ; 2nd offence, £20, ABC; 3rd offence, 
£20, ABC, for 

(10) Failing to stop, and, if required, give name and address, 
after knowing of the occurrence of an accident owing to the 
presence of the motor car on the road. 

1 st offence, j£io ; 2nd offence, £20 ; 3rd offen.e, £$0, ABC, for 

(11) Exceeding the speed limits of 20 and 10 miles per hour 
respectively. 

1st offence, £\o, ABC; 2nd offence, ^20, A B C ; 3rd offence, 
£$o,A B C,for 

(12) Driving over Menai Bridge other than in accordance with 
regulations made by the Commissioner of Works. 

Apprehension without warrant by any police constable who sees the 
reckless driving, for 

(13) Committing the offence of reckless driving (No. 1), and then 

(a) refusing to give name and address or produce licence, 

(b) not having mark on car. 

* The letters ABC refer to the additional power to deal with his 
licence given to the Court which convicts an automobilist, and have 
the following meanings : — A. Endorsement of licence : B. Suspen- 
sion of licence for remainder of current year, or any less period : 
C Disqualification for obtaining another licence for any period 
the Courts think fit. 



£$,A BC,for 

(14) Driver failing to produce licence when demanded by police 
constable. 

£10, A B C,for 

(15) Driving motor car on specified highway where forbidden by 
the Local Government Board. 

£10, A B C,for 

(16) Disobeying any of the existing regulations of the Local 
Government Board lawfully made under Seetion 6 of the prin- 
cipal Act as to (a) car being in charge of competent person, 
(b) lamps, (r) travelling backwards, (d) keeping rule of the 
road, (e) sounding horn, (/) stopping for police or restive 
horse. 

( To be concluded. ) 



The descriptive article on the Pedrail, which we 
conclude this week, will give our readers a good 
general idea of this very ingenious and extremely 
interesting system, but it is naturally impossible for us in 
the comparatively small space at our disposal to deal 
with the subject at any greater length than we have done, 
although there are many other aspects which are well 
worth the attention of those studying the problem of 
road traction. We might, however, again call their 
attention to Mr. Diplock's book, "A New System of 
Heavy Goods Transport on Common Roads," which 
enters into the question very thoroughly, besides con- 
taining much information of general interest to the users 
of the roads. 



A somrwhat unpleasant fact has come to the surface 
in connection with the New York Madison Square 
Automobile Exhibition, as it has been found that some 
early applicants for large spaces who have obtained their 
allotments have done so merely for speculative purposes, 
and have thereby no doubt secured premiums from 
many exhibitors who would have been legitimately 
entitled to have had their applications for space granted 
by the management. There should be no difficulty, 
now such a system has been discovered, in ensuring that 
bona fide exhibitors for the future will receive preference 
in the allotment of show space, as the passing of a rule 
rendering it impossible for any space to be transferred, 
except by re-allotment by the Committee, and at the 
discretion of the Committee the forfeiture of any deposit 
paid, would at once place the entire power in the hands 
of the management. 



GRATITUDE. 

Chauffeur: What do you want? 

Tramp: I jest want to t'ank youse pents for keepin' de 
village constables so busy dat dey ain't got no time to 
bodder wid us hoboes. — The Motor, C\S\A. 



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[January 30, 1904. 



REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 



" A Man and a Motor," by R. W. Bradshaw-Needham. 
(London : Clements Publishing Company, Portugal 
Street, is.) 

This is really an exceedingly funny, and, what is more, 
at times a thoroughly witty book. It might be correctly 
described as being to automobilism much what Jerome's 
u Three Men in a Boat " was to boating. Of course a 
good deal of the funniness is at the expense of the 
motor, and from that point of view was truer to life and 
fact a few years ago than now, but the greater part of it 
is at the expense of the driver, and the driver, who 
ultimately obtains a wife far in excess of his deserts, is 
a terrible fellow. We would not like to apply an epithet 
to him, but he is certainly one of those whose pro- 
ceedings must have been largely responsible for the 
public hostility to which we attribute the stringent pro- 
visions of the 1903 Act. 

The frontispiece of this book, which we reproduce, is 
thoroughly indicative of its contents. It is one broad 
laugh from start to finish, and considering how broad 
the humour is, and how vigorous is the fun, it is really 
quite surprising that there are so few lapses into vulgarity. 
The tall stories are excellent, particularly the one of how 
the car ran down a hill on one wheel only, being followed 
by the other three which had come off, and were sub- 
sequently replaced on the axles when the next incline 
upwards was reached, the journey being continued with 
five minutes interruption as if nothing had happened. 
At the speed described we are astonished that it was 
thought necessary to retain one wheel on the car, for the 
air pressure on the horizontal surfaces should have been 
quite sufficient to raise the vehicle like an aeroplane. 
The illustrations throughout are as amusing as the letter- 
press, and the picture of the policeman stopping the 
car will probably be extracted and framed by many a 
motorist. Curiously enough the policeman appears on 
page 98, a coincidence which may give a new significance 
to that old ballad, " Who fears to speak of '98 " ? 



CLUB DOINGS. 

Herefordshire Automobile Club.— The annual general 
meeting, presided over by Mr. J. T. Hereford, the President of the 
club, took place last week at the Mitre Hotel, Hereford. The 
Hon. Secretary, Mr. Wilfred Groom, in his report mentioned that 
the membership now totalled 58, 28 of whom owned motor cars, 
and 30 motor cycles. A substantial cash balance was in hand, in 
addition to a good stock of club badges. He reported that the 
County Council had decided not to apply for the closing of any 
roads to motorists or impose the 10-mile speed limit. After 
referring to the affiliation schemes with the London club, he stated 
that arrangements were in course of being made for the ensuing 
season to meet various other clubs on some of the club runs. 



Lincolnshire Automobile Club. — At a recent meeting of the 
committee, Captain J. A. Cole, J. P., in the Chair, and the Presi- 
dent, Sir Hickman Bacon, Bart., being amongst those present, 
letters were read from Lord Willoughby de Eresby, M.P., and 
Mr. William Garfit, M.P., consenting to continue to act as Vice- 
Presidents of the club for the ensuing year. It was decided to hold 
an informal dinner at Boston on January 30th, open to members and 
their friends, to bs followed by a paper, to be read by Dr. Gilpin, 
of Bourne, on " The cost, care, and upkeep of a motor car." The 
club's annual dinner was fixed to take place at headquarters on 
April 15th, and a sub-committee (with Mr. Godfrey Lowe, of 
Lincoln, as hon. sec.) was appointed to make the necessary arrange- 
ments. The following new members were elected : — Mr. E. A. 
Arnott, of Maida Vale, London, and Mr. A. Curtis, of Gains- 
borough. It has been decided to issue to members who desire it, 
notes of committee meetings, on payment of a small sum (one 
shilling) to cover postage. 



Manchester Automobile Club. — At the annual meeting of 
this club, Mr. Fred Smith occupied the Chair when the report of 
the committee for 1903 was read by Mr. Hoyle Smith. The 
membership of the club, it was notified, was now 166, and the 
report dealt very fully with the proceedings of the committee and 
the various runs which had been made during the period under 
review. The Chairman, in moving the adoption of the report, 
pointed out that although the work done during the past year had 
not been of a very sensational character, the committee had been 
engaged in doing solid practical work according to its lights, which 
he thought the members would admit to be of much more im- 
portance to their pleasure as motorists than arranging for club runs. 
He dealt fully with the negotiations and the question of affiliation 
with the London club. This led to considerable discussion and 
criticism from Mr. Henriques, Mr. L. Schwabe, Mr. Herbert Lee, 
&c. The report of Mr. S. Okell, the Treasurer, showed a con- 
siderable balance in hand. 

A discussion followed the adoption of the report in regard to 
increasing the subscription from one to two guineas, and a vote was 
subsequently taken amongst those present in favour of increasing 
the subscription, subject to the confirmation of an extraordinary 
general meeiing to be called for that purpose. 

Mr. Okell and Mr. Hoyle Smith were re-elected Hon. Treasurer 
and Hon. Secretary respectively, a high compliment being paid to 
Mr. Hoyle Smith for his work in promoting the comfort and enjoy- 
ment of all members of the club. 



Midland Automobile Club. — Amongst the meetings for the 
winter season already arranged to be held at the Club Room in the 
Birmingham Grand Hotel, are " Roatl Reminiscences and Cine- 
matograph Pictures " to-night, January 30th ; the annual dinner 
on February 6th ; a piper by Mr. F. W. Lanchester, entitled 
" Wire Wheels Tyred/ on February 27th, followed by a smoking 
concert ; and on March 12th the general meeting, winding up with 
a dinner and discussion on next season's events. 



Scottish Automobile Club (Eastern Section).— The Rt. Hon. 
Sir J. H. A. Macdonald, K.C.B., President of the club, in the 
absence of the Lord Provost, presided in Edinburgh on the 21st 
inst. at the annual dinner of this club. About 100 guests were 
present, the Chairman being supported by the Rt. Hon. A. Graham 
Murray (the new Secretary for Scotland), Col. Borthwick, Major 
Portall, Mr. Norman D. Macdonald, Mr. Adam (Chairman of the 
Western Section), Col. Dufl" (Black Watch), Dr. Dawson Turner, 
Sheriff Lees, Chief Constable Ross, Mr. John Wilson, Mr. J. R. 
Smith, &c. 

The Chairman proposed the toast of the evening, the health of 
Mr. Graham Murray, and remarked that Mr. Murray was invited, 
not so much because he was an automobilist, as to give a hearty 



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welcome to the gentleman who now occupied the position of Secretary 
for Scotland. He felt sure that the new Secretary being an auto- 
mobilist was a good thing in the interests both of the public and of 
those who used motor cars, as he would be able to deal, as they 
knew that he would deal, with perfect impartiality in regard to what 
was undoubtedly to be one of the great industries of the future, with 
what was undoubtedly to be one of the great advances, not only of 
sport but of what was to benefit the country in the matter of road 
transport. 

The Secretary for Scotland, in acknowledging the toast, said that 
if he had been invited to the banquet in the month of October he 
might perhaps have thought it was gratitude from automobilists for 
favours to come, but as the first set of regulations had already been 
issued he was quite satisfied to think that it had nothing to do with 
a sort of attempt to get at the Secretary for Scotland. He stated 
that he believed he had been as great a road user as anybody 
present, having been a bicyclist for a great many years. He 
acquired a motor bicycle at its very inception, and since then he 
had become the possessor of a car. He thought the possession 
of a motor bicycle was a fine experience. It gave them ex- 



gone on, motoring would have practically been stopped altogether. 
Therefore, he had no hesitation in saying that it was a wise position 
of his colleague, Mr. Long, to accept the 20 miles limit as it 
stood. He really thought that as automobilists they might take the 
motto of Mr. Micawber— expenditure, £\q igs. \d. ; income, 
£20— result, happiness ; expenditure, £20 and a penny —the result, 
misery. So if they applied that to the speed limit they would find 
that, with a pace of 19 miles 1,759 yards per hour, the result would 
be happiness, whereas if they went over that it would end in 
misery. 

The Chairman, in proposing the toast of " Automobilism," said 
that it was said the passing of the Bill would mean the crushing of 
the industry of automobiles. This he never had l>elieved, and he 
had said so. What he did think was that it would have been fatal 
to automobilism in this country if the Bill had not been passed last 
year, for whatever might have been its defects, whatever might be 
its restrictions — he hoped temporary restrictions— i had had the 
effect of satisfying the public mind that something htd been done for 
them, and thereby to quiet down the ebullition in which the public 
were in regard to motor cars. 



The two first ladies in Ireland to obtain licences to drive automobiles under the new Act are the Misses Rowley, 
of Sylvan Park, Kells. These ladies are enthusiastic automobilists, and have attained considerable skill in 
driving their 10-h.p. Lanchester on which they are here seen seated. The Miss Rowley who is driving the car 
took the greatest interest in the Gordon~Bennett Race, and will be remembered by many as having been very 

much in evidence on the course on that occasion. ut-» 



perience for the car. He managed during the summer to run a 
light car for 3,000 miles without a chauffeur or a break- 
down, and he did not think he could have done that if 
he had not previously had a motor bicycle. In regard to the 
passing of the new Motor Bill through the House of Commons, he 
believed he did a good deal of good in connection with it, as in the 
first place he never spoke, and that was useful, because the people 
that did not know anything about it did speak. He acted, how- 
ever, as a sort of intermediary between the automobilists and the 
anti-automobilists. The discussion on the Bill, he said, revealed an 
amount of absolute prejudice against this new form of locomotion 
which was perfectly shocking to anybody that knew anything 
about it. On the other hand, if human testimony was to be 
believed at all, it revealed a series of outrages on the part of those 
who used automobiles which certainly was rather heartrending 
to anybody who had the sport at heart. He was quite aware, from 
the point of view of a motorist, that the speed limit was considered 
absolutely low. He was also quite aware, from the point of view" 
of a member of the House of Commons, that if the speed limit of 
20 miles had not been accepted the Bill would have been wrecked, 
and, if the state of prejudice and feeling which existed then had 



After giving some amusing road experiences, the* Chairman 
remarked that he wished them to recognize that this was. not merely 
a question of personal enjoyment ; it was not merely a question of 
ricn people or of people of moderate means having a car in which 
to enjoy themselves. He wanted them to realize that it was a 
movement which was going to have an extraordinary effect on all 
branches of national life, of military life, social life, and mercantile 
life, and above all, of agricultural life. There could be no doubt 
that the revival of the road as a means of transit in opposition to 
the railway would be of enormous commercial advantage to the 
country. 

Dr. Dawson Turner replied, and the other toasts were : — " Other 
Automobile Clubs," by Mr. Norman D. Macdonald, Chairman of 
the Scottish Automobile Club, and replied to by the Comte L. de 
Clercq, member of the Technical Committee of the A.C. of Francs ; 
and "The Chairman," proposed by Councillor W. W. Macfarlane. 
Some excellent musical selections helped to enliven a very enjoyable 
evening. 

Sheffield Automobile Club. — The annual report for 1903 01 
this club, which was founded in 1902, has now been submitted. It 



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[January 30, 1904. 



details the various runs, trials, and hill-climbing competitions held, 
and records the important work which has been carried through by 
the club in the general interests of automobilism. The committee 
have, in fact, found it necessary, to cope with the business of the 
club, to meet at least once a fortnight throughout the year, and 
often once a week, a fact which will no doubt be fully appreciated 
by the members of the club. In concluding the report, the com- 
mittee place on record their appreciation of the valuable services 
and help rendered to the club from the editors of each of the auto- 
mobile journals and the local press. 



RACES, RECORDS, AND TRIALS. 

GORDON BENNETT ITEMS. 



Motor Cycling Club. — From the report issued of this club, and 
presented to the members on Thursday of this week,, it appears that 
the membership on November 30th, 1903, was 109, as against 30 at 
the same period in 1902. In like manner the surplus of assets over 
liabilities have advanced very considerably, and the club altogether 
appears to be in a very satisfactory state. 

It is in contemplation by the club to hold a twenty-four hours' 
run from London to Edinburgh during the present year. 



The absurdity of the 10 
mile limit in towns, particu- 
larly the Metropolis, has 
been well demonstrated by 
some experiments privately 
carried out last week in the 
West End with a Napier 
car fitted with a speed- 
ometer The object was to 
test the speed of ordinary 
horse-drawn traffic, and the 
Napier car accordingly in 
turn accommodated its 
pace to that of omnibuses, 
cabs, and electromobiles. 
The results were distinctly 
surprising. Even omni- 
buses when not interfered 
with by other traffic were 
found to proceed normally 
at 8 to 9 miles an hour, 
quickening at times to 1 1 ; 
cabs and carriages at 9 
or 10, sometimes exceeding 
the latter pace by a mile an 
hour ; while electromobiles 
seldom proceeded slower 
than 10 miles an hour, and 
even reached 12 and 14. 
Enforcing a 10 mile limit, 
therefore, would mean that 
automobiles in towns would 
be compelled to go slower 
than the ordinary traffic of 
the roadway, and would, 
under no circumstances (even for getting out of a 
squeeze), be legally permitted to go faster. In the 
interests of the ordinary traffic of the road we submit 
that this is absurd, and is no doubt one of the reasons, 
amongst many, which has weighed with practically the 
whole of the County Councils throughout the country 
in inducing them to refrain from asking for the imposi- 
tion of the 10 miles limit. 



M. Paul Meyan, of u La France Automobile/' has offered 
a challenge "cup" for competition for motor boats during 
the coming season. We reproduce from our contempo- 
rary two views of the trophy from which an idea of the 
vigorous action and verve with which the artist has 
successfully imbued his work can be obtained. It will 
be raced for at Nice on April 17th. 



It is now practically certain that the chief portion of 
the Eliminating Trials, for determining the representatives 
for Great Britain, will take place over the Circuit des 
Ardennes, and to that end Mr. Julian Orde, the club 
Secretary, is now engaged in final negotiations. 

In France hopes are great that the Argon ne Circuit 
will be authorised by the French Government, in which 
case some slight variations from the route already 
suggested will in all probability be made. These will 
help to make the course nearer in character to the 
Taunus course, and, therefore, enable drivers to more 
effectually demonstrate what they can do under the 

conditions likely to prevail 
in the actual race. 

In spite of Ch. R. de 
Knyff's name having been 
given as one of the Pan- 
hard team, his driving is 
more than doubtful, and 
Maurice Farman after all 
may join his brother and 
Teste in the trials. 

The excessive greed of 
the German hotel-keepers 
in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the Taunus 
course is already beginning 
to bear fruit, as the French 
" caravan " of tourists being 
arranged by LAuto to 
attend the race, is, it is an- 
nounced, being recon- 
sidered with a view to so 
altering the programme as 
to defeat the unreasonable 
demands which are already 
looming large in the dis- 
tance. 

For the three Opel-Dar- 
racq cars, built at Russels- 
heim, which are to take part 
in the preliminary trials for 
Germany, the drivers named 
are Fritz Opel, Heinrich 
Opel, and Willy Poege. 
Madame du Gast is men- 
tioned as likely to drive one 
ot the 80-h.p. Benz-Parsifal cars, but as the final decision 
as to the selection of drivers rests with the German 
Automobile Club, we doubt very much if official consent 
will be given for a lady to take part. 

The A.C. of Austria announce that they will organise 
an excursion to attend the race, starting from Vienna on 
June it, and arriving at Homburg on June 15, the route 
being via Salzburg, Munich, and Heidelberg. 



In consequence of the Preston Corporation seeking to 
impose a 10 miles limit within its borough boundaries 
under the new Act, a number of automobilists of the 
district have determined, in condemning their action, to 
band themselves together by founding an automobile 
club for the district. 



Ventoux Hill Climb is definitely announced to take 
place on August 28th next. 

By cable from America, W. K. Vanderbilt, jun., 
driving a 90-h.p. Mercedes car, is announced to have, on 
Wednesday, covered a mile in 39 sees. (= 92*30 m.p.h.) 
on the Ormond-Daytona Beach. 



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A fortnight ago we published the remarkable feat 
of Henry Ford on his 7 oh. p. racer in covering the mile 
in 39 1 sees., equal to 91*37 miles per hour, on an ice- 
covered lake in America. Following this cabled informa- 
tion some interesting particulars are now to hand of the 
track on which this marvellous record was made. 
Baltimore Bay was selected as the scene of the attempt, 
and a considerable gathering of onlookers witnessed the 
performance. A five-mile stretch was selected, and 
swept clear of snow. Hot cinders were then laid on the 
ice, which melted into it, and then froze. On these 
another layer of fine cinders was sprinkled, and finally 
over this a layer of warm sand. Subsequently the entire 
track was swept, brushing away everything loose. A 
measured mile was laid off between the second and 
fourth miles, the first mile allowing for getting up speed 
and the last for stopping. The timekeepers were 
approved by the American Automobile Association, and 
no doubt Ford's time will, therefore, in good time, be 
officially booked as the world's record. 



Under the auspices of the Deutscher Radfahrer Bund, a motor 
bicycle road competition is to be runoff on June 6th between Frank- 
fort-am- Main, Cassel, Hanover, Magdeburg, and Potsdam. 



At Barcelona, on the 17th instant, a motor bicycle race was 
successfully carried through after several postponements in conse- 
quence of bad weather. Fifteen competitors started over the 
course of 140 kilometres between Pedralves and Igualada. The 
results wereas follows : 1, Abada (3^-h.p. Werner), 3 hrs. 21 mins. ; 
2, Escoda (2-h.p. Peugeot), 4 his. 2h mins. ; 3, Mendelssohn 
(2-h.p. Deciuville), 4 hrs. 28 mini. 25 sees. ; 4, Chassaigne 
(if-h.p. Clement), 5 hrs. 5 mins. 25 sees. A maximum time of 
7 hours was allowed, the above four b^in^ the only machines com- 
pleting within the specified time. 



Italy is joining in the general craze for airship con- 
struction, and an airship of the navigable balloon type 
has just been finished by Capt. Frassinetti, of Milan, of 
which we are able to furnish the following data : the 
length of the gas vessel is 37 metres, its maximum 
diameter 8 J metres, its capacity is 1,300 cubic metres, 



The automobile has long ceased to be a mere fair weather vehicle, and its capacity for negotiating even a con* 
siderable depth of snow is far in excess of that of any horse-drawn vehicle, a fact which we think is well 
illustrated by our two picturesque photographs of White Cars in the neighbourhood of Cleveland, Ohio* The 
effect of complete isolation on the snowy landscape has something of the romantic about it, and shows the well' 

designed lines of the White Vehicles to advantage. 



In connection with the Vienna Alcohol Exhibition, as already 
announced, an alcohol fuel consumption trial is being organised by 
the Austrian Automobile Club. This will take the form of two 
competitions, one being for tourist cars and the other for heavy 
vehicles. The tourists' run will be over 100 kilometres, a maximum 
time being fixed for covering this distance. Heavy vehicles will be 
divided into several categories, viz., 1. Omnibuses carrying at least 
6 passengers. 2. Delivery vans. 3. Light wagons carrying 600 to 
2,000 kilogs. 4. Heavy wagons carrying over 2,030 kilogs. 5. 
Tractors hauling one or more vehicles. Vehicles in categories 1 
and 2 will have to cover a distance of 75 kilometres ; categories 3, 
4, and 5, 50 kilometres. The maximum time allowed will be 12 
hours. A competition for electrical vehicles will also be included in 
the programme. These will have to cover 30 kilometres. 



Last week the particulars affecting the tourist vehicles were pub- 
lished by us in connection with V Autos consumption Criterium 
taking place on March 3rd, 4th and 5th next. The regulations 
governing the heavy vehicles in this competition are now available. 
There will be two categories, viz., 1, vehicles carrying less than 
1 ton useful load ; 2, vehicles carrying more than 1 ton. 

The formula under which the consumption will be ascertained 
and penalised is the same as that published by us last week for the 
tourist vehicles. In regard to the regularity of working and average 
speed the daily distance will be 60 kiloms., which must be covered 
under four hours at an average speed of 1 5 kiloms. per hour. For 
the Picardie Hill Test all vehicles must maintain an average speed 
of 12 kiloms. per hour. 



and its lifting power when inflated with hydrogen 1,500 
kilogs. The hull of the vessel, which is built of steel 
tubing, is provided with two petrol motors of 24 h. p., 
which are said to be exceptionally light. In addition to 
the driving propeller, further propellers are provided for 
raising and lowering the vessel and for steering it. The 
Frassinetti airship is attracting considerable attention 
in the town of its origin. 



Mr. Cody continues to carry on his interesting kite- 
flying experiments, and on Thursday in last week he 
broke his previous record of 1,200 feet by ascending to 
just under 1,600 feet above the surface of the earth. 
Mr. Cody took up a telephone transmitter and receiver 
with him, and paid out a telephone wire as he ascended. 
In this way, when seated at his highest altitude, he was 
able to keep up a telephonic conversation with his 
assistants on the ground. The value of the experiments 
for purposes of military reconnaissance are obvious, so 
that we are rather surprised that the naval officers who 
witnessed Mr. Cody's flight were not supported by 
some representatives of the other branch of the Service. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[January 30, 1904. 



Lord Iveagh has announced that he hopes that the 
scheme for the development of Irish industries and 
agriculture by means of canals and motor car services, as 
arranged by Mr. Pirrie and himself, will very shortly be 
started. 



Senator Hill, in the name of the Automobile 
Association of the State of New York, is introducing a 
Bill into the Senate modifying the existing Bailey Auto- 
mobile Enactment. The new Bill mainly deals with 
the present speed limits and the authorities controlling 
same. 



The New York Madison Square Automobile Show 
closed on Saturday last, when a big club banquet took 
place as a wind-up. Amongst the guests present were 
T. A. Edison, Santos Dumont, Hotchkiss, General 
Miles, and Gol. Pope. The Show is reported as having 
been the best and most successful so far held in America. 



It has been decided by the Tunbridge Wells Educa- 
tion Committee to start a class in motor car construction 
and driving at the Technical Institute. By way of 
encouraging this excellent idea, the Mayor, Alderman 
E. Elvy Robb, has announced his intention of becoming 
a pupil, and a number of local professional gentlemen 
have also notified their intention of joining. 

A general scare appears to have taken hold of the 
licensing authorities throughout the United States follow- 
ing upon the fearful Iroquois Theatre disaster. One of 
the houses pounced down upon in consequence was the 
Chicago Coliseum, at which the Chicago Automobile 
Show is to be held on February 6-13, and a summary 
order was issued for its instant closing as being unsafe. 
This order, however, was subsequently cancelled in con- 
sequence of it being found that the officials' fears were 
groundless, and once more there is rejoicing in the city 
that the Show was not thereby brought to a sudden and 
untimely end. 

Cording ley's Automobile Exhibition, to which, it is 
announced, the Automobile Club have given their 
patronage, will, as our readers are no doubt well aware, 
be held from March 19th to the 26th of the present 
year, and we understand that it promises to be the 
largest of the series yet held at the Agricultural Hall, 
over 250 exhibitors having already booked spaces. 
Heavy motor vehicles will occupy the whole of the minor 
hall, including motor 'buses, public service vehicles, 
agricultural motors, and lurries for the transport of goods 
and produce, whilst in the Aeronautical Section, under 
the auspices of the Aero Club, military balloons actually 
in use at Ladysmith, as well as airships, will form part of 
many interesting exhibits on view. Berners Hall, King 
Edward's Hall, the annexes, and the galleries will all be 
devoted to the purposes of the Exhibition. 



This week the following firms were elected members 
of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders, 
viz. : — The Bat Manufacturing Company, Limited ; 
Minerva Motors, Limited ; the Cadogan Garage and 
Motor Company, Limited; the Rex Motor Manufacturing 
Company, Limited. 



DOINGS OF PUBLIC COMPANIES. 

Newton Pearce Motor Car Company (Limited).— At an 

extraordinary general meeting of the above company, convened and 
held at 55, Market Street, Manchester, on January 4th, 1904, it was 
resolved that it having been proved to the satisfaction of the Newton 
Pearce Motor Car Company, Limited, that the company cannot, by 
reason of its liabilities, continue its business, it is advisable to wind 
up the same, and that accordingly it be wound up unconditionally, 
under the provisions in that behalf of the Companies Acts. Mr. P. 
F. Huddleston, of 72, Finsbury Pavement, London, E.C., was ap- 
pointed liquidator for the purpose of such winding up. 

British Electric Car Company (Limited). — In the 
Chancery Division on Wednesday, Mr. Justice Kekewich had before 
him the action of Sinclair v. the British Electric Car Compmy 
(Limited), which came on as a motion lor judgment. The plaintiff 
is a debenture stockholder in the company, and he asked for the 
enforcement of his security. Mr. Justice Joyce had appointed a 
receiver and manager of the company, and it was stated that the 
company had a number of contracts which must be carried out. 
Mr. Justice Kekewich gave judgment for the plaintiff, directing the 
usual accounts and inquiries to be taken, continued the manager 
until the 31st July next, and gave general liberty to apply. 



NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. 

[Taking powers to manufacture or deal in motors, motor cars, or 
accessories, either as their principal or part of their objects.] 



Messrs. Kelly t Bourn phry and Co., 73t Market Street, Birken- 
head, have been appointed sole agents for Birkenhead and the 
district on behalf of Messrs. De Dion Bouton, Limited. 



L'Agence Generate des Automobiles Francaises 

(Limited).— Capital, ^"15,000 in £1 shares (10,000 preference). 
Object, to carry on the business of wagon, carriage, motor car, &c, 
builders, and to construct on the Thames, or elsewhere, a dock with 
patent and other slips, workshops, buildings, machinery, warehouses, 
and other conveniences. 

L. A. Beckett (Limited), 31, and 32, King William Street, 
E.C. — Capital, j£i,ooo in £1 shares. Object, to acquire the busi- 
ness of a motor dealer, carried on by L. A. Beckett, at 47, Pall 
Mall, S.W. First directors, L. A. de Becker and H. A. Mabey. 

Lake District Road Traffic Company (Limited), 
Church Street, Ambleside, Westmoreland. — Capital, ^"25,000 in 
£1 shares (24,500 preferred ordinary and 500 deferred ordinary). 
Object, to carry on the business of carriers of passengers and goods, 
dealers in and letters to hire of motor cars and wagons, &c. First 
directors, W. P. J. Fawcus, R. Rigg, F. Fowkes, R. Bounass, T. 
Taylor, J. S. Harker, A. Jackson, and J. Cowperthwaite. 

Dublin and Swords Motor Car Company (Limited), 
Mantua, Swords, co. Dublin. — Capital, £2, 500 in 500 shares of £.5 
each, for the purpose of establishing a line of motor cars between 
Dublin and Swords, both for passenger and goods traffic. Directors 
or managers, Rev. David P. Mulcahy, P.P., Messrs. Joseph Christie, 
J. P., Thomas Aungier, J. P., Elias Corpally, J. P., J. P. Cuffe, C. L. 
O'Callaghan, and M. McDonagh, J. P. 

Manufacturers' Centre (Limited), Commercial Buildings, 
19, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham. — Capital, £2,000 in £1 shares. 
Object, to carry on the business of cycle and motor agents, factors, 
and dealers, &c. 

Peto and Radford.— Capital, £40,000 in £1 shares. Object, 
to adopt two agreements (1) with Peto and Radford (Limited), and 
(2) with the P. and R. Storage Battery Company (Limited), and to 
carry on the business of manufacturers of and dealers in electric 
meters and any other electrical instruments. 

Select Cycle and Motor Manufacturing Company 
(Limited). — Capital, £6,000 in £1 shares. Objects, to acquire the 
business of the Select Cycle Company, of 1, Iverkip Road and 
Prince's Pier, Greenock, of cycle builders, hirers, and repairers, 
mechanical engineers, &c. 



NEW INVENTIONS. 

Patent Specifications Published. 

Applied for in 100a. 

Published February 4///, 1904. 
27,361. T. W. Barber. Burners for liquid fuel. 
Applied for In 1903. 

Published January 28th, 1904. 

344. A. G. Melhuish. Internal combustion engines. 

374. P. L. Renouf. Internal combustion engines, transmission and 

steering gear. 

435. M. H. Smith. Steering mechanism. 

472. A. W. Wall. Friction clutches for motor cycles. 

560. P. L. Renouf and E. B. Tillam. Internal combustion engines 

78S. P. Bruneau and Cie. Gear wheels. 

881. W. Cross. Liquid fuel burners. 



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The AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL 



A RECORD AND REVIEW OF APPLIED AUTOMATIC LOCOMOTION. 

Circulates amongst Makers and Users of Motor Cars, Cycles, etc., in the United Kingdom, the 

Colonies, and the Continent. 



Offices: 44, St Martin's Lane, London, W.C. 



No. 161. (No. 6, Vol. IX.)] FEBRUARY 6th, 1904. [*^:!£™] HEMS**" 



CLIMBING SNOWDON BY AUTOMOBILE. — WHY THE ATTEMPT HAD TO BE 

ABANDONED. (See page 133). 



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[FEBRUAkY 6, I9O4. 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES. 
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DIARY OF FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 



British Events. 



1904. 
Feb. 1 
Feb. I 



Final Entry Day for British International Cup. 

" Evolution of Road-making in Scotland, ' by 
Mr. R. Drummond, C.E. (Scottish A.C.). 

Liverpool Cycle and Motor Show (St. George's 
Hall). 

44 Steam Cars for Public Service," by T. Clarkson 
(Society of Arts). 

" Why Motor Cars ? " by " Cargill Gentry " (AC. 
Paper). 

"Motor Traction in War," by Major W. H. 
Balfour (Royal United Service Institution). 

" Recent Developments in Internal Combustion 
Engines," by Mr. L. Rottenburg (Glasgow 
University Engineering Society). 

44 The British Automobile Industry," by Mr. T. C. 
Aveling (A. C. Paper). 

2nd Annual Exhibition of the Society of Motor 
Manufacturers and Traders at the Crystal Palace. 

Quarterly 100 Miles Trial. 

A. C. G.B.I, and Provincial Clubs' Conference. 

Hull Cycle and Motor Show (Assembly Rooms). 

44 The Manufacture and Use of Pneumatic Tyres," 
by Mr. J. C. Siddeley (A.C. Paper). 

44 Wire Wheels Tyred," by Mr. F. W. Lanchester 
(Mid. AC). 

" Some Practical Notes on Electric Storage Bat- 
teries," by G. C. Allingham (Junior Institute 
of Engineers). 

Manchester Motor Show (St. James's Hall). 

Automobile Club General Meeting. 

44 Motor Vehicles for Goods Transport," by Mr. J. 
E. Thornycroft, A.M.I.C.K. (Glasgow Un. 
Engineering Society). 

44 Cost, Up-keep, and Care of an Autocar," by 
Messrs. J. Adam and J. H. Steen (Scottish A.C). 

" Valves and Valve Mechanism of Internal Com- 
bustion Engines," by Mr. R. E. Phillips, 
M.I.M.E. (A.C. Paper). 
Cordingley and Co.'s Motor Car Exhibition at the 
Agricultural Hail. 

Smoking Concert. 

*Side-Slip Trials. ( Entries close Feb. 29. ) 

Examination of Cars for Gordon- Bennett British 
Eliminating Trials. 

British Gordon -Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 

Glasgow- London Non-Stop Run. 

Motor Bicycle Endurance Trial. 

British International Cup for Motor Boats. 

•Reliability Trials. 

* Light Van Trials (about 2,000 miles). 

foreign Events (Trials, Races, &c). 

(All French road racing fixtures are subject to confirmation by 

the French authorities. ) 



Feb. 2-6 
Feb. 3 
•Feb. 4 
Feb. 10 
Feb. 11 



♦Feb. 11 

Feb. 12-24 

•Feb. 12 
Feb. 15 
Feb. 23-27 
•Feb. 25 

Feb. 27 

Mar. 4 



Mar. 7-12 
Mar. 9 
Mar. 15 



Mar. 15 
•Mar. 17, 



Mar. 19-26 

•Mar. 24 
Mar. 25-30 
Apl. 16 

May 

May 19-20 
June 1-7 
August 
Sept. ... 
Oct. -Nov. 



1904. 

Jan. 23-Feb. 4 Brussels Automobile Salon. 

Feb. 3-6 ... Paris-Turin Tourist Run {France Automobile), 

Feb. 6-13 Chicago Show. 

Feb. 6-21 ... Turin Exhibition. 

Feb. 14 ... Coupe Sneyden 1 kilom. on flat (A.C. Algeria). 

Feb. 15-20 ... Detroit Show. 

Feb. 23-27 ... Anti-Skid Trials at Versailles. 

Feb. 29-Mar. 5 Cleveland Show. 

Mar Paris- Rome (La France Automobile). 

Mar. 3, 4, 5 . . Fuel Consumption Trials (VAuto). 

Mar. 6-12 ... Buffalo Show. 

Mar. 13-20 ... Cannes Automobile Week. 



Mar. 14-19 ... 


Mar. 15-16 ... 


Mar. 19-27 ... 


Mar. 20-29 ••• 


Mar. 21-26 ... 


Mar. 23-27 ... 


Apl. 5-15 ... 


Apl. 16- May 31 


Apl. 17 


Apl. 18-23 ... 


May 


May 


May 


May 1-12 


May 11-15 ■•• 


May 12 


May 12-15 ... 


May 14-15 ... 


May 16-23 ••* 


May 23-31 ... 


June 7 


June 7 


June 17 


July 10 


July 


Tuly 16-17 ... 


July 17. 


July 18-23 ••• 
July 22 


July 23-25 ... 


Aug. 5-1 1 ... 


Aug. 12 


Aug. 13-14 ... 


Aug. 15 


Aug. 28 


Aug. 


Sept 


Sept. 2 


Oct. 5 


Oct. 9 


Oct. 14-22 ... 


Nov. 20 


Dec 


__ — _ - 



Boston Show. 

A.C. America Commercial Vehicle Trials. 

Frankfort Exhibition. 

Nice Week (details, Oct. 31, p. 1168). 

Washington (U.S.A.) Auto Show. 

Electric Vehicle Trials (Monde Sport if). 

Monaco Motor Boat Week (details, Jan. 2, p. 25). 

Vienna Auto Show. 

Coupe Meyan ( Motor Boats). 

Nice- Rome. 

Circuit des Ardennes (A.C. Belgium). 

French Gordon-Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 

Guadarrama Hill Climb (A.C. Spain). 

A.C. Bordelais Automobile Fortnight. 

Milan Exhibition and Tourist Trial. 

Perigueux Hill Climb (A.C. Dordogne). 

Tours Tourist Trial. 

Nantes -Croisic (Motor Boats), Monde Sportif. 

Circuit National Beige. 

Aix-les-Bains Week. 

Namur Week. 

Spa Week. 

Gordon-Bennett Race. 

Mont-Cenis Hill Climb (A.C. Italy). 

Speed Trials (VAuto). 

Ostende Motor Boat Races. 

Antwerp-Ostende Motor Boat Run. 

Ostende Week. 

Kiel Motor Boat Races. 

Lucerne Motor Boat Races. 

Paris-Deauville Motor Boat Race. 

Motor Boat Race for Gaston Menier Cup. 

Calais- Dover-Calais (motor bo its). 

Calais- Boulogne-Calais (motor boats). 

Ventoux Hill Climb (Avignon). 

Paris Industrial Vehicles Trials (A.C. France). 

Deauville Automobile Meeting (V Auto). 

Chateau Thierry Hill Climb (L Auto). 

Dourdan Kilometre Trials ( Monde Sportif). 

Gaillon Hill Climb (VAuto). 

Leipzig Cycle and Motor Show. 

100 Kiloms. Trial (A.C. Algeria). 

Paris Salon. 



* Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland Events. 



CONTEN rs. 

* Page. 

Climbing Snowdon by Automobile : — 

Why the Attempt had to be Abandoned 129 

The Start for the Climb 133 

Tacking for a Higher Point 133 

Driving on a Frozen Snowdrift .. .. .. ..133 

Halfway iown the Mountain on a Gradient cf 1 in 7 134 

A Steep Descent at the Bottom on a Gradient of about 1 in 5 . . 134 
Diary of Forthcoming Events .. .. .. ..130 

Passing Events :— 

A Legal Point to be Settled 131 

Automobilism in India ' .. .. 131 

A Triumph for Everyone .. .. .. .. .. 131 

Similar Moderation in other Cases 132 

A Record as Prosecutor 132 

A Judicial Caution 132 

Mieusset Petrol Cars : — 135 
Fig. 1, 16-2 vh. p. Car ; Fig, 2, View of Engine from right side ; Fig. 3, 

View of Engine from left side 

A New Garage and Automobile Factory in London 138 

Some Further Details of the Crossley Peirol Car 139 

Fig. £. FrontViewof Chassis; Fig. 8, View of Chassis from Rear; 
Jig. 9, Side Elevation of Car ; Fig. 10, View of Steering Gear ; 
Fig. ix, Sectional View of Steering Gear; Fig. 12, Two Views of 
Expanding Clutch : Fig. 13, Front Elevation and Cress Seed on of 
Clutch; Fig. 14, Operating Levers and Pedals; Fig. 15, View of 
Gear Box; Fig. 16, Horizontal Section of Change-Speed Gear; 
Fig. 17, View of Expanding bide Brakes; Fig. 18, Elevation and 
Cross Section of Side Brakes. 

The Jungner Alkaline Battery 145 

A Petrol Inspection Trolley tor a South African Railway 147 

Progress in Aeronautics : — 

The Flight of the Wrights 148 

The Intentions of M. Archdeacon .. i«8 

The Wrights' Aeroplane 149 

Marine Motoring # 150 

Development in Motor Volunteering 150 

Legal Aspects of the Motor Car Act (concluded), by Earl Russell . . . . 151 

Railways and the Motor Problem, by Mr. G. Montagu, M.P 151 

The Edison Accumulator .. .. .. .. ..152 

Races, Records, and Trials 153 

Ormond- Dayton a Race Meeting 153 

Milan- Nice Endurance Trial .. .. .. .. 754 

New York Automobile Show .. .. .. 155 

Locomotion in other Parts of the World 155 

A New Lamp .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 156 

Club Doings .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 156 

Turin Exhibition Poster .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 157 

Doings of Public Companies 158 

New Inventions .. .. .. .. .. .. ..158 



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131 



PASSING EVENTS. 

A Legal Point to be Settled. 

A good deal of discussion has taken place recently 
on the provisions of the 1903 Motor Car Act, from 
which it has emerged with tolerable distinctness that the 
measure contains an even larger number of ambiguous 
provisions than was at first supposed. Most of the pro- 
visions of the Act have already been discussed at some 
length, but there is one on which a conviction has already 
taken place (we cannot help thinking unjustly) on which 
no one seems to have concentrated his attention. We 
refer to the provision of Section 4, that "a licence must 
be produced by any person driving a motor car when 
demanded by a police-constable." This has already 
been held in the case of Mr. Smith, who appeared 
reluctantly before the magistrate at Marlborough Street, 
to mean that the driver of the car must have it 
about his person and produce it at once. Mr. Smith 
had his licence at home, and could have got it in 
a ten minutes' run if the constable had been willing 
to go with him, and he satisfied the magistrate that 
he was the possessor of a licence by fetching it. Never- 
theless he was convicted. Now we submit that there is 
nothing in the phraseology of this section of the Act 
which can warrant this conviction. There is nothing 
which says the motorist must produce it instantaneously 
or immediately, or must have it about his person. Of 
course, if a motorist who resides in London and who in 
driving, say, through Newcastle-on-Tyne, was asked for 
his licence and had not got it, it might not be considered 
a reasonable excuse that he had left it at home at that 
distance, but where a driver or car owner, who happens to 
have forgotten his licence within a reasonable distance 
from his residence, says that he has got the licence at 
home and can produce it there, and if it is subsequently 
shown that he has duly taken out a licence, we very 
much doubt whether there is power to convict. We 
should certainly like to see the matter settled by a case in 
the Divisional Court. It is really intolerable to think that 
a car owner who happens to jump on his car in a hurry, 
say, to take a friend to the train, and forgets to put his 
licence in his pocket, is liable to be fined ^5 through 
any police-constable who, perhaps knowing him to be a 
forgetful man, thinks he has probably left his licence 
behind him. We trust that the first automobilist of 
position who is summoned on this count will set up the 
defence we have suggested, and, if unsuccessful, will 
arrange to appeal on the case to the higher tribunal. 

♦ ♦ «o» 
Automobilism in India. 
We have from time to time drawn attention to the 
extent to which the automobile movement is receiving 
recognition in India. We now hear from Mr. Rolfe, of 
Calcutta, that an Indian Automobile Association — The 
Automobile Association of Bengal — has been formed, 
with its headquarters in that town, and that it already 
numbers an influential membership Mr. Rolfe sends 
us some interesting information with regard to the class 
of vehicles for which there is at present the greatest 
demand in India. Pleasure vehicles of all kinds 
are, of course, in request, but, in addition to 
them, there is a large field, he informs us, for 
power haulage, and he would like to receive particulars 
from manufacturers in a position to supply tractors 
weighing about two tons, and capable of hauling 
two cr three trailers carrying a couple of tons each. The 



bridges in India are generally of rather weak construction, 
and about two tons on each vehicle is the maximum 
that can be taken over them. The tractor, he informs 
us, must be of simple construction and, of course, cheap. 
There also appears to be a market in India for motor 
tricycles of strong build, and developing about 4 h.p., 
for carrying about a hundredweight of mails, the ordinary 
journeys being about seventy miles on fairly stiff gradients, 
often of about 1 in 15 for ten miles, with extra steep 
gradients in places, for which change-speed gear would 
be required. This gives a good idea of the requirements 
which Indian customers are likely to make with regard 
to other vehicles, as, at any rate, in the part of India 
that Mr. Rolfe refers to hill climbing, is evidently an 
important matter in any automobile. Mr. Rolfe is at 
present organising a syndicate for arranging an automo- 
bile 'bus service, and in case it is satisfactorily carried 
through, intends ordering some Chelmsford steam 
'buses. 

♦ ♦ «o» 
A Triumph for Everyone. 

Every motorist in the Kingdom must be highly 
delighted at the result of one of the first cases brought 
under the new Act for exceeding the speed limit of 20 
miles an hour. The case was one of the batch to which 
we referred last week as having formed part of the "bag " 
made by Superintendent Marks and his trusty lieutenant, 
Sergeant Lucas, in the neighbourhood of Cobham. Mr. 
H. Liddell, of Kensington, was one of those who fell 
into the police trap on the Portsmouth Road on January 
17 th, and a summons was issued against him by 
Superintendent Marks, who timed Mr. LiddelPs car over 
a measured quarter of a mile with a stop-watch of the 
usual police kind, to the vagaries of which we have so 
frequently called attention in the past. Hitherto, stop- 
watches of this description have been regarded by 
magistrates as almost as infallible as the police 
witnesses who produce them. On this occasion the 
result was different, thanks to the manner in which 
defendant's case was conducted by Mr Firth and to the 
evidence of Mr. Swindley. In spite of the fact that 
Superintendent Marks' stop-watch had been supplied as 
he said by the ratepayers — we understand at his sugges- 
tion — it was, as Mr. Firth pointed out, a very cheap-look- 
ing affair, and Mr. Swindley conclusively demonstrated 
that by squeezing the starter slightly its action could 
be stopped and restarted at any moment. The precious 
stop-watch would accordingly have failed to pass the 
very first test to which chronographs are submitted at 
Kew or anywhere else where stop-watches are tested. 
To exercise slight pressure of this sort is just the kind of 
thing that an excited policeman, whose nerves were in 
a commotion lest his victim should escape him, would 
be likely to do, with the very probable result that several 
miles an hour would be added to the pace at which 
the motor car under observation would be made out to 
be travelling. The Chairman of the Kingston Bench was 
so impressed by this evidence that he at once dismissed 
the case, a result on which both Mr. Liddell, the Motor 
Union, who took up the case, those who conducted the 
defence, and every automobilist in the United Kingdom, 
are to be congratulated. 

For it was the first case under the new Act which has 
been adequately defended, and the result has been to 
confirm in a striking manner what we have always said 
about the nature of the stop-watches on which convic- 
tions in these cases have been usually obtained in the 
past. Even the sacrosanct character which Superinten- 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[February 6, 1904. 



dent Marks seemed to think attached to a stop-watch 
because it was supplied by the ratepayers, does not 
make it a reliable article. The number of motorists 
who have been convicted on the evidence of such stop- 
watches in the past ought to make many magistrates 
feel exceedingly uneasy in their minds, and would do, 
probably, but for the comfortable assurance that the 
moneys thus extracted from automobilists , pockets by un- 
reliable stop-watches have gone to reduce the local rates. 
The case is also very satisfactory as it shows that what 
we have always hoped and suggested would be likely to 
occur under the new Act is actually taking place ; that 
is, that magistrates, recognising the superior penalties 
which they will be called upon to inflict, will take a 
more serious view of the evidence offered, and be less 
ready to convict. This attitude on the part of magis- 
trates generally will have the effect of discouraging 
frivolous prosecutions. Statutes are made for the benefit 
of the public generally, not for the benefit of local rate- 
payers, and it is simply an abuse, as we have frequently 
urged, that a mere technical violation of the law, when 
no one is inconvenienced and no danger is caused, 
should be systematically made a ground for prosecution. 
We hail this action of the Kingston magistrates as an 
indication that the old bad spirit is likely to influence 
magistrates, who have to administer the new Act, to a 
much smaller degree in the future than has been notice- 
able before its introduction. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Similar Moderation in Other Cases* 

A similar sensible attitude has been adopted by met- 
ropolitan magistrates in other mainly technical cases which 
have been brought under the new Act. Thus, at the 
City Summons Court, a driver was arraigned for not 
having a lamp burning in such a way as to show his rear 
numbeivplate. He was only fined 5*., while Mr. Garrett, 
at the South- Western Police Court, imposed no penalty, 
but merely costs, in the case of another motorist who 
was summoned for having an incorrectly constructed 
number-plate. The very moderate penalty of 35. and 2s. 
costs was also imposed by Mr. Hopkins in a similar case 
at Lambeth, and in one instance of an owner permitting 
an unlicensed driver to drive his car a penally of 20s. 
was inflicted. These cases would not be of much im- 
portance in themselves, but when we bear in mind that 
they are all offences under the new Act, and that penalties 
in some cases amounting to ^20 could have been in- 
flicted, we submit that they are evidence of a change of 
spirit on the part of some of our magistrates which is of 

the happiest augury. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

A Record as Prosecutor. 
It is impossible to avoid noticing, in reference to 
Mr. Liddell's case, that prosecutions of, a similar kind 
have been made a great speciality by Superintendent 
Marks. Indeed, one might be almost inclined to imagine 
that he owed his rather rapid recent advancement to the 
position of superintendent to the number qf convictions 
of motorists and bicyclists that he has secured. A police 
superintendent is a rather highly placed official, and we 
do not know whether it is consistent with the general 
idea of dignity which prevails in the force for a super- 
intendent actually to take personal part in police traps. 
It has, at any rate, hardly ever been done before, but evi- 
dently the sport is an exhilarating one, and Superintendent 
Marks has been unable to bring himself to abandon it 
with his elevation in position. Until last summer it was 
the Weybridge district which enjoyed the benefit of his 
ministrations, and nearly all the cases against motorists 



and bicyclists that came before the Chertsey Bench 
were brought by the then Inspector Marks. A favourite 
ambush of the inspector was the village pound at Byfleet, 
in which for long hours on Saturdays and Sundays he lay 
ensconced in a retreat that had been last previously tenanted 
by a more active, though not necessarily more intelligent, 
occupant. When no motor cars passed, the inspector 
pounced upon unfortunate bicyclists and summoned 
them, either for riding on the path or for proceeding at a 
furious rate of speed. At a still earlier period of his career 
Marks was quartered at Reigate, and the summonses taken 
out against bicyclists and motorists before the Reigate 
Bench were so unreasonably enormous in their numbers 
that the inhabitants of the town became indignant, and 
publicly petitioned the Joint Committee on the subject. 
With the transference of Superintendent Marks to Cob- 
ham, we may look forward at an early date to a similar 
protest by the inhabitants of that town, unless his igno- 
minious failure in the prosecution of Mr. Liddell should 
induce him to adopt a change of tactics — a consumma- 
tion devoutly to be wished ! Sergeant Jarrett, of the 
Ripley Road, has been described in the daily press as 
the champion motor catcher, but his methods have, as a 
general rule, been open and above board, and he has 
exercised, at any rate, the discretion of seldom stopping 
cars that were proceeding at a reasonable rate of speed. 
We trust that as the prejudice against automobilists 
diminishes — and it is rapidly diminishing now — a mere 
record for motor catching will not in future lead to such 
rapid promotion as has occurred in the career of Super- 
intendent Marks. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

A Judicial Caution* 
There is no doubt that Lord Lindley was very well 
advised in his remarks on the new Motor Car Act, and 
in emphasising the fact that the drivers who thought that 
because 20 miles an hour is the maximum speed pre- 
scribed, that therefore they are at liberty to drive at that 
speed on all and every occasion, were making a huge 
mistake. This is and always has been the point of view 
of every sensible and considerate automobilist, and when 
the few people who in the past have not duly observed 
it are converted by utterances like Lord Lindley's and 
by the fine which will probably be inflicted on them if 
they do not hearken to the voice of the charmer in this 
respect, the few still lingering public prejudices against 
the automobile will disappear. At the same time, when 
Lord Lindley was discussing the subject we should have 
been glad had a Judge of his weight seen occasion to 
express the hope that, in view of the greatly increased 
and drastic penalties provided by the new Act, Justices 
of the Peace who have to administer it will exact a 
higher standard in police evidence than that which they 
have hitherto been pleased to accept. Had he further 
added that deliberate arrangements between the authori- 
ties who control the police and the authorities who 
benefit by the payment of fines, resulting in the elabora- 
tion of police traps and the withdrawal of police over 
wide areas from their proper and ordinary duties, was 
opposed at any rate to the spirit of British jurisprudence, 
if not to the actual letter of British law, he would have 
done a service not only to the automobile movement 
but to the community at large. We are unable to under- 
stand the position of the judicial mind so often plainly 
evidenced in the Divisional Courts, which persists in 
regarding the pioneers of the new movement with almost 
as much prejudice as is displayed by farmers, butchers, 
and Justices of the Peace. 



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February 6, 1904.) „ . THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 133 



MOUNTAINEERING BY MOTOR. 



CLIMBING SNOWDON BY AUTOMOBILE. -The start for the Climb. 

Some two years ago our amusing comic contemporary, mountaineers, as Professor TyndalPs account of how he 

Das Schnauferl, came out with an imaginary diary of a and Huxley once scaled it in January will call to mind, 

motor car ascent of the Wetterhorn, or some such peak, But it has almost yielded to .the modern automobile, 

illustrated by impossibly realistic photographs. Snowdon and, thank goodness, to an English-built machine, 

is not the Wetterhorn, but it is a pretty tough eminence Mr. Harvey du Cros, jun., and Mr. Charles Sangster 

to climb in the middle of winter, even for experienced thought they would like to see what an Ariel car could 



Tacking for a higher point. Driving on a frozen snow-drift. 

CLIMBING SNOWDON BY AUTOMOBILE. 



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[February 6, 1904. 



CLIMBING SNOWDON BY AUTOMOBILE.— Half- way down the mountain on a gradient of 1 in 7. 



do under exceptional circumstances. So they drove a 
15-h.p. Ariel car over from Birmingham and arrived at 
the foot of the Snowdon Mountain Railway on Janu- 
ary 27th. Mr. Aitchison, of the Snowdon Mountain 
Railroad Company, placed the line at their disposal, as 
the line formed the only possible route by which Snow- 
don could be scaled by a car ; but even on the line the 
dilficulties were enormous. 

A great part of the gradient is 1 in 6 and 1 in 6£, and 
the ballast on either side of the metals is of the loosest 
and coarsest description that can be imagined. In addi- 



tion, it has not been made up since the last train ran 
up in October, and floods and rains have cut deep 
gaps, over which the car had to be lifted by external 
assistance. The same was the case with the points, for 
the Snowdon Railway has a double rack between the 
rails, vertical flanges being arranged on either side of the 
rack, which project 7 in. above the rails, and at the 
points, of course, the car had to be lifted over them. In 
addition, there was a considerable amount of snow 
about, and a stout chain had to be bound round 
one of the driving wheels to prevent skidding on the 



CLIMBING SNOWDON BY AUTOMOBILE.— A steep descent at the bottom on a gradient of about I in 5. 



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135 



loose, slippery and half-frozen ballast mixed with snow, 
so that on the whole the climb was one of the most 
difficult ordeals to which a motor-car could possibly be 
subjected. Notwithstanding this, Mr. Harvey du Cros 
and Mr. Sangster, on the first day, reached the half-way 
station, about half the distance to the summit, and, on 
the succeeding day, reached and passed Clogwyn, more 
than three-quarters of the way to the top, where their 
further progress was stopped by an enormous snow-drift 
which failed to yield to the exertions of the diggers who 
attempted to remove it, and further progress was 
rendered impossible. It was at this point that the 
photograph forming our frontispiece was taken. The 
venture was an exceedingly plucky one, as the motor- 
mountaineers had not only to contend with the difficulties 
of the route, the frightful gradient, and a violent storm 
that was raging all the time, but the car, at times, 



almost hung over precipices 1,000 ft. deep. Mr. 
Harvey du Cros intends trying the experiment again in 
the summer, when there are no snow-drifts about, and, 
considering that he passed the last of the three stations 
before the summit, and had overcome the steepest 
inclines, there is little doubt that he would be successful 
in reaching the summit when there is no snow to impede 
him, and the ballast on the line is in its normal con- 
dition. Even as it is, the almost-completed exploit 
forms an admirable testimonial to the hill-climbing 
capacities of the modern car. If a 15 h.p. British-built 
automobile can climb nearly to the summit of Snowdon 
on rough ballast at the present time of year, this means 
that there is no hill with a road over it that the 
modern motor vehicle of moderate power cannot, under 
suitable weather conditions, surmount with comfort and 
ease. 



THE MIEUSSET PETROL CARS, 



Fig. 1. — A 16-20-h.p. Mieusset Petrol Car. 



The Mieusset cars, which are built at Lyons by a com- 
pany who are chiefly known in France in connection 
with the manufacture of fire engines and other apparatus 
for salvage corps, are quite new to this country, and are 
now being introduced over here by the Farman Auto- 
mobile Company, of Long Acre. They are made in 
various sizes ranging from a voiturette with the single 
cylinder engine up to racing vehicles having six-cylinder 
engines of about 70- h.p. Except in the voiturette, 
which is made either with a live axle or with side chains, 
they are all of the chain-driven type, and are, we under- 
stand, similar in general design to the 16 to 20-h.p. 
vehicle, which we have recently had an opportunity of 
examining, and from which our illustrations are taken. 
This car does not differ materially in outward appear- 
ance from many other vehicles of the same power, but is 
nevertheless of interesting construction in several 
respects, and is the result of much original work and 
experiment on the part of the builders. Special attention 
is drawn to the form of frame used, to the manner in 



which the cylinders are constructed, to the automatic 
carburettor, to the arrangement of the clutch, and to 
the size of the teeth on the wheels in the gear-box. The 
single-cylinder voiturette has a 6-h.p. engine, which, like 
all the larger engines, has a low tension magneto ignition 
system, and mechanically-operated inlet-valves ; it is the 
only Mieusset model which has but three instead of 
four forward speeds, in addition to a " reverse.* The 
twin-cylinder car has an engine of 8 to 1 2-h.p., and, as 
we have already indicated, has side chains driving the 
rear-wheels. No less than three different shed cars with 
4-cylinder engines are made, the one being smaller 
than the car we are about to describe, and the other 
larger, their respective powers being 12 to 1 6-h.p. and 
20 to 25-h.p. The standard cars have either detachable 
tonneau bodies, or those known as Roi des Beiges, the 
rear seat in which will also be detachable. In all these 
cars a separate and smaller hand-lever, which is mounted 
alongside the change-speed-lever, is used for introducing 
the reverse. 



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[February 6, 1904. 



The 16 to 20-h.p. car is shown in Fig. 1, and the engine 
is seen both from the right- and the left-hand sides in Figs. 2 
and 3. The engine and the gear-box are fixed to an under- 
frame, which forms part of the main frame, and is securely 
attached to it. The entire frame is built up of rolled 
steel members, which have an ["* cross " sect i° n > anc * a 
sheet metal apron is fitted to form a dust-proof cover 
beneath the front of the car. The frame is carried on 
the usual side-springs, which lie beneath its side mem- 
bers. Both axles are solid forgings, and the wheels run 
on plain bearings having dust-proof fittings. The back 
axle is connected with the frame by adjustable radius 
rods as usual, and the ends of the front axle, which bows 
down beneath the engine, are bifurcated to form the 
steering-head above and below the stub-axle forgings. 
Irreversible, worm steering-gear is fitted in connection 
with the usual wheel, mounted upon a steering pillar 
having an unusual amount of rake, and the connections 
with the stub axles are of very substantial construction. 
The transverse rod which ties the two steering heads 
together is provided with an adjustment so that the front 
wheels can be brought parallel with one another if they 
should at any time cease to be so. 

The cylinder casting for each pair of cylinders is made 
of a special aluminium alloy, although their outward ap- 
pearance does not indicate any such unusual construc- 
tion. We are told that the cylinders themselves are 
formed by cast steel liners which are forced into the 
aluminium castings. The cylinders have a bore of 
103 mm., and the stroke is 130 mm. The inlet-valves, 
which are interchangeable with the exhaust- valves, are 
arranged on the opposite side of the cylinders to them, 
the seats for these valves being made separate from the 
cylinder castings, and forced into place in them under 
considerable pressure. The inspection plugs above 
the valves v each pair of which is held down by a yoke, A, 
and one nut, are made of the same metal as the main 
castings ; apparently, to judge from their weight, the 
alloy contains somewhere about 50 per cent, of aluminium, 
though its composition is kept secret by the makers. 
The cylinder castings are bolted to the upper portion of 
the crank-chamber in much the usual way, and the valves 
are operated by cams on two separate cam-shafts. The 
large wheels, B, on the front ends of these cam-shafts, by 
which they are driven from a pinion on the crank- shaft, 
are seen in Figs. 2 and 3. The cam-shafts are arranged, 
together with the bushes which form their bearings, in 
such a way that they can be drawn out forward without 
disturbing the engine, it being only necessary on the car 
to rembve the honeycomb radiator, C, and to unscrew 
the bolts holding the end bearings in place. Half-com- 
pression cocks are fitted into the heads of the cylinders, 
and low-tension make-and-break igniters are fixed into 
the inlet-valve chambers on the right side. 

The igniters are operated by cams on the same shaft 
as those which actuate the inlet-valves, and these cams 
engage with levers, D, which pass through slots on the 
side of the crank-chamber casting, as seen in Fig. 2. 
The levers are fulcrumed on a rod, D 1 , which can be 
moved inward and outward, toward or away from the 
engine, to vary the time of ignition in the well-known 
manner ; the connection between the levers and the 
igniters are also clearly seen in Fig. 2. When the vertical 
rods, D 2 , connected with the horizontal levers are raised 
by the cams, the electrical current is completed in the 
igniter by a weak external spring, and when the cam 
allows these rods to fall they do so under the action of a 
more powerful spring, D 3 , which causes small hammers, 



D 4 , on their heads to break the circuit in the igniter. 
The time of ignition is varied by a small lever mounted 
above the steering-wheel, the connection being made 
with it through the hollow steering pillar by the lower 
external sleeve, E, seen in Fig. 1. The magneto, F, 
which generates the current, is fixed on the opposite 
side of the engine (Fig. 3), and the current is led 
from it by a bare copper wire, F 1 , running over a 
porcelain insulator, F 2 , to chopper switches on each 
igniter. It is driven at the same speed as the engine by 
gearing from the large wheel, B, on the exhaust cam- 
shaft ; all these larger gear-wheels in front of the engine 
are built up of fibre, faced with phosphor bronze. 

A second small lever above the steering-wheel, lying 
just beneath the timing-lever, is connected in a similar 
manner through the hollow pillar with a throttle-valve, 
G, in the induction-pipe ; the tube passing down the 
pillar is connected through a slot in it with a sliding- 
sleeve, G 1 , engaging with the forked end of the lever, 
from which the connecting rod passes to the throttle- 
valve, G. This throttle-valve acts entirely independently 
of the centrifugal governor, H, which is fitted into the 
large wheel on the exhaust cam-shaft, and is connected 
by a lever, H 1 , both with an accelerator lever near the 
base of the steering-pillar behind the dash, and with 
another throttle- valve, H 2 , in the carburettor itself. The 
carburettor is of the float-feed type, and is .rendered 
automatic on a somewhat similar principle to that 
employed in the well-known Krebs model. The only 
heat imparted to it is derived from a jacket around the 
mixing-chamber, J, through which part of the exhaust 
gases are led by a small pipe, J 1 , communicating with the 
main exhaust-pipe fitting, K. An adjustable auxiliary 
air valve, which can be set by hand, forms a portion of the 
carburettor, and the automatic valve, which maintains 
an approximately constant degree of vacuum on the 
engine side of the carburettor, is contained in a separate 
fitting, J 2 , and admits more or less auxiliary air through 
a small pipe, J 3 , entering just beneath the hand-controlled 
throttle-valve, G. It is claimed for this carburettor that 
it maintains a sufficiently constant richness of mixture to 
enable the engine to run satisfactorily at any speed 
between 50 and 1,200 revs, per min. The carburettor, 
and the parts which connect the throttle-valves with the 
governor and with the hand-levers, are of very substantial 
construction. The speed of the engine is normally 
controlled by hand by opening or closing the second 
throttle-valve and by timing the ignition, but the 
accelerator lever is arranged so that it can vary the 
strength of the spring, H 3 , acting against the governor, 
and thus enable the governor to maintain any desired 
constant speed. 

A centrifugal circulating pump, L, is fixed just behind 
the magneto, on a lower level than it, and this is driven 
by a large spur-wheel fixed to the flywheel. The water 
is drawn from the bottom of the multitubular radiator, 
C, is delivered by a branched pipe, C 1 , to the bottom of 
each of the jackets, and is forced out through another 
branched pipe, C 2 , at the top of the jackets back to the 
top of the radiator. The radiator is constructed in just 
the same way as an ordinary fire-tube boiler, no solder 
being used in its manufacture, and the fan, C 3 , which lies 
close behind it, is fitted to it in such a manner that the pin 
upon which it revolves can be moved up or down, and 
fixed, in a slot to adjust the tightness of the flat belt, C 4 , 
connecting it with a pulley on the crank-shaft. The 
exhaust gases are led through a single pipe, K 1 , to a 
large exhaust box placed longitudinally on the left side 



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Fig. 2. — View of the 16-20-h.p. Mieusset Engine, from the right side. 



Fig. 3.— View of the 16-20-h.p. Mieusset Engine, from the left side. 



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[February 6, 1904. 



of the car, and are finally allowed to escape through 
another pipe passing rearwardly from it. 

The external member of the main clutch, which is of 
the ordinary cone type, is constructed separately from, 
and is bolted to, the flywheel. The inner cone is made of 
aluminium, and has a leather friction face. It can be 
easily taken out bodily for having a new leather fitted to 
it if required, and it is not necessary /to disturb either 
the flywheel or the gear-box for the purpose, because a 
wide flange coupling, having an intermediate loose 
block between the two flanges, is introduced on the first- 
motion-shaft. The gear-box itself is rigidly fixed to the 
frame, and has two sliding sleeves mounted upon the 
first-motion-shaft. Each sleeve carries two gear-wheels, as 
in the well-known Mercedes practice ; the second-motion- 
shaft is placed to the left of the first-motion-shaft and is 
connected with the differential countershaft through bevel- 
gearing as usual. The four forward gears are introduced 
alternatively by a single side lever, which can be moved 
forward or backward in either of two parallel slots in the 
quadrant. The " reverse " lever is shorter than the 
other lever, and is fitted just outside the same quadrant. 
It brings an intermediate spur-wheel, which lies in the 
base of the box, into mesh with the first-speed- wheels on 
the two gear-shafts. The gear-wheels are made of very 
hard steel, but are not hardened after the teeth are cut ; 
as we have already said, they are large wheels and have 
wide teeth of a coarse pitch. 

A metal-to-metal band-brake is mounted on the 
countershaft, and is controlled as usual by a foot pedal 



to the right of the steering pillar, and the clutch pedal. 
The usual side brakes act direct upon the hubs of the 
rear wheels, and are actuated by a hand lever outside 
the car. A pawl-and-ratchet device is arranged in con- 
junction with the countershaft brake to act in the same 
manner as a sprag, by preventing the car from running 
backwards on a hill. 

The engine is lubricated by a mechanical feeder which 
is fixed to the dashboard, and is driven by a belt from 
the rear end of the exhaust cam-shaft. The gear-box 
and the circulating pump are fed with grease from a 
nine-feed greaser on the dash, each of the feed pipes 
being fitted with a cock so that any desired bearing can 
be fed separately when necessary. The other bearings 
on the car have separate lubricators arranged in con- 
junction with them, and they are all of thegplain 
type. JE - "' 

The car appears to be well and strongly constructed, 
and is fitted with a comfortable body, accommodating 
five persons. The petrol tank, which has a capacity of 
ten gallons, is fitted beneath the driver's seat, and the 
fuel flows by gravity from it to the carburettor. The 
wheel base is 7 ft. 3 in., the track 4 ft. 6 in., and the 
wheels are shod with 910 by 90 mm. pneumatic tyres. 
The engine runs at a normal speed of 800 revs, per min., 
and with the standard-sized chain wheels — 22 tooth on 
the countershaft and 35 tooth on the rear wheels — the 
various speeds provided represent about 12, 17, 28, and 
40 miles per hour, and about 1 2 miles per hour 
" reverse." 



A NEW GARAGE, SHOW-ROOMS, AND AUTOMOBILE FACTORY IN LONDON. 



Among the many palatial premises recently erected 
and equipped for the benefit of automobilists in our 
somewhat cramped metropolis, those of the Lacre Motor 
Car Company — who, before their removal from Long 
Acre, were well known to many of our readers as the 
Long Acre Motor Car Company — deserve special 
mention, on account of the completeness of the accom- 
modation which they afford. The Company's new home 
is in Poland Street, which is one of the turnings out of 
Oxford Street, and lies quite a short distance east of 
Regent Street. It is, therefore, uncommonly well situated 
considering that it is quite a large factory in addition to 
being a garage for the storage of customers' vehicles 
and a large show-room, in which Wolseley cars — for 
which they are the sole London agents — figure most 
prominently. The building has an unusually large frontage 
in Poland Street, and a back entrance also through 
Livonia Street out of Berwick Street. No expense is 
being spared to secure the comfort of clients whilst on 
the premises, and a very thorough system has been 
adopted for ensuring the safe storage, not only of the 
cars themselves in the garage, but also of such 
portable accessories as tools, spare parts, &c. The 
Company have equipped certain portions of the building 
with a very fine plant for the manufacture of complete 
cars, of bodies of all kinds, and for carrying out any kind 
of repairs which may be necessary ; and they also stock a 
complete set of spare parts for the Wolseleycars,inaddition 
to the usual accessories of every description. At the present 
time a large number of chassis of different makes are 
being fitted by them with special bodies of their own 
design, not a few of these being neat convertible 
broughams, for town and general use; a feature, too, is 



made of bodies having side entrances, with a single step, 
to the rear seats, and of detachable canopy tops, afford- 
ing complete protection in bad weather. The whole of 
the machinery is run by elec.ric motors, and an immense 
electric lift connects the main floors. The building is 
heated throughout by hot water, including the painting 
and varnishing rooms, which are so arranged as to ensure 
a very perfect finish being obtained for all the carriage 
work. 

The Company intend to make a special point of 
courting the closest inspection from their customers, 
and have laid out the various departments in such a way 
that they can be visited by the public without interfering 
with the progress of the work. A motorist can, therefore, 
select his own materials, watch the progress of the work 
which is being carried out for him, and witness any tests 
which may be made with the engine, or with the car, 
before delivery. All the various departments are con- 
nected together by telephone, the Company can be 
communicated with at any time by either of the public 
telephone services, and motorists can obtain access to 
the building, and have their wants attended to, at any 
hour during the day or during the night. 



A fortnight ago we recorded the registration^of a 
new company under the title of the Sampson Leather 
Treads and Tyre Company, Limited, for marketing the 
Sampson leather treads in Great Britain. Captain Theo. 
Masui, of 1, Hanover Court, Hanover Street, W., who 
has already been associated with these treads in this 
country, has, we understand, been appointed sole 
representative for the United Kingdom. 



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February 6, 1904. j THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 139 



SOME FURTHER DETAILS OF THE CROSSLEY PETROL CAR. 



Fig. 7.— Front view of the Crossley Chassis. (The Starting Handle is not fitted in this view.) 

Further illustrations of the Crossley chassis are given the shape of the sloping floor in front oftheldriver's seat 

in Figs. 7, 8, and 9, the indicating letters on which cor- is shown. In this drawing, too, the change-speed-lever, 

respond with those previously used by us. Fig. 7 and Q 1 , the brake lever, V, the hand-levers, X and X 1 , above 

Fig. 8 are reproduced from photographs taken from the the steering wheel, the clutch-pedal, P, behind which is 

front and from the rear respectively, while Fig. 9 is a the brake-pedal, U, and the water-jacketted lubricator 

side elevation. In Fig. 9 the chassis is fitted with a on the dash, will be noticed, 

tonneau body, the engine is enclosed by its bonnet, and The Steering Gear, together with the pillar and 



Fig. 8. — A view of the Crossley Chassis from the rear. 



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THE AUT0M0T0R JOURNAL. 



[February 6, 1904. 




wheel, are seen in Figs. 10 and n, the 
former illustration being reproduced from 
a photograph, and the latter being a sec- 
tional drawing. The pillar is formed of a 
tube, W, which carries the wheel at its 
upper end, to which is fixed a toothed 
ring, W 1 , acting as a circular quadrant for 
the hand levers, X and X 1 , controlling the 
engine. The tube, W, at its lower end is 
securely keyed and fixed by the split clip, 
W 8 , to the sleeve forming a part of the 
worm, W 2 , this sleeve being mounted in 
bearings in the casing which encloses the 
gear. A ball thrust bearing is mounted 
inside the case both above and below the 
worm, and these ball bearings can be ad- 
justed by the threaded sleeve, W 4 , which 
fits into the casing as seen. The tube, W, 
passes through a flanged sleeve, W 8 , which 
is fixed to the floor and gives an additional 
support to the pillar, over and above that 
afforded by bolting the casing to the side 
of the frame. The worm, W 2 , meshes as 
usual with the toothed sector, W 5 , secured 
to the short shaft, W 6 , to which the steering 
arm, W 7 , is fixed. 

The hand-lever, X, is fixed to the top 
of a spindle, X^, which passes down through 
the centre of the steering pillar and through 
the worm, W 3 . It is surrounded by a 
tube, X 3 , which carries the other hand-lever, 
X 1 , at its upper end, and passes out be- 
neath the steering gear. Both the rod, X 2 , 
and the tube, X 3 , are fitted with screw 
threaded sleeves at the lower ends, and 
the nuts, X 4 and X 5 , ride on these threads, 
being thus caused to travel up or down as 
their respective hand-levers are moved over 
the quadrant, W 1 . The nut, X 4 , engages 
with a lever pivoted at X fl , and this is con- 
nected through the rod and bell-crank, X% 
with the engine control which it regu- 
lates; the nut, X 8 , is similarly connected 
with a rod, X 9 , through a lever fulcrumed 
atX 7 . 

As we have already said, the steering gear 
is connected with the front wheels, in the 
usual way, by very substantial tubes, and 
back-lash at the joints is prevented by short 
strong springs which are at all times in a 
state of compression. 

The Main Clutch, which is shown in 
Figs. 12 and 13, fits inside the flywheel, 
N, on the rear end of the crank-shaft, D. 
The projecting end of the shaft carries 
the casting, N 1 , which is free to revolve 
upon it, and is fitted with a long brass 
bush for this purpose. The shape of this 
casting is best seen in Fig. 13, and in the 
elevation it will be noticed that at its 
upper end it carries the brake-shoes, N 5 , 
pivoted to it. At its lower end a socket, 
N 2 , is secured to it by the bolt, N 3 , and 
the socket has left- and right-hand screw 
threads formed inside it. Before the 
bolt, N 3 , is inserted, the socket, N 3 , can 
be turned round about its axis so as to 



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February 6, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



141 



draw the lower ends of the two levers, N* (and, therefore, 
the lower ends of the shoes, N 5 ), nearer together or 
to press them further apart, it being pivotally connected 
with those levers as seen in the elevation. The levers, N 4 , 
are connected together at their upper ends, N* (Fig. 13), 
by a strong helical spring, N 9 (Fig. 12), and they are 
connected by links with the lower ends of the shoes, N 5 . 
Centrally, these levers, N 4 , carry small rollers, N 7 , which 
are normally clear of the casting, N 1 . A sliding wedge, 
N 9 , which rides on a feather-key on the sleeve, N 1 , is so 
arranged, however, that its sloping surfaces can be 
brought into contact with the rollers, N 7 , and so force 






Fig. 10. — View of the Crossley Steering Gear. 

the levers, N 4 , outwards against the action of the spring. 
Thejeflect of this action is to bring the lower ends of the 
shoes, N 4 , nearer together, and thus withdraw their cast- 
iron friction faces away from the inner face of the fly- 
wheel, N. The wedge piece, N 8 , is formed with a 
groove for the split collar, N 5 , to ride in, and this collar 
is engaged by the forked lever fixed to the rocking-shaft, 
P 2 , on the chassis. It will be seen that the spring, N 6 , 
which is adjustable, tends to force the brake shoes 
outward, that the contact surfaces of the shoes only 
extend over about one half of the complete circle, and 
that the end-thrust imposed by the wedges, N 8 , is taken 
by a ball-thrust bearing fitted between the flywheel and 
the casting, N*. The bearing inside the casting is 
lubricated from the grease-cup seen in Fig. 13, and the 



collar, N% from another grease-cup, which is visible in 
Fig. 12. 

The precise arrangement of the clutch-pedal, P, in 
relationship with the main-clutch, is very clearly shown 
in Fig. 14. The pedal is mounted upon the shaft, P 1 , 
which passes across the chassis and is rigidly fixed to a 
short arm, P 3 , projecting forward from it. The fork engag- 
ing with the collar, N 9 , by the pins, P 5 , is mounted upon 
the transverse shaft, P 2 , and it carries an eccentrically 
mounted steel roller, P l , with which the end of the lever- 
arm, P 3 , engages. When the pedal, P, is depressed, the 
arm, P 1 , acts upon the roller, P 4 , and causes the clutch 





Fig. 11. — Vertical Section of the Crossley Steering Gear. 

fork to turn about its axis, a very powerful leverage 
being in this way obtained. When the pedal is fully 
depressed the roller, P, rests against the end of the 
lever, P 8 , and therefore can exert but little force on the 
pedal against the driver's foot, very little exertion con- 
sequently being needed for holding the clutch out of 
engagement. 

The Change-Speed Gear is further illustrated in 
Figs. 15 and 16, and the flexible jaw coupling, R l , 
which connects it with the sleeve, N 1 , of the main clutch, 
is clearly shown (sectionally) in Fig. 14. The first-motion- 
shaft R, has a square section inside the gear-box, Q, and 
its forward end takes a bearing inside the sleeve of 
which the bevel wheel, T, and the jaws clutch member, 
T 1 , form parts. The three spur wheels, R 1 , R 3 ,and R 4 , 



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THE AVTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[February 6, 1904. 



are mounted upon a sleeve, which is free to slide upon 
the square portion of the shaft, R, and the front end of 
the sleeve carries jaw-clutch members, R 5 , which engage 
with the similar jaw-clutch member, T 1 , when the sleeve 
is moved to its furthermost position rearwardly. The 
second-motion-shaft, S, carries three spur-wheels, S 2 , S 3 , 
and S 4 , which correspond with the wheels, R 2 , R 8 , and 



the differential. On the top gear, however, the 
jaw-clutch members, R 5 , engage with those, T 1 , 
and the power is then transmitted direct through 
the bevels, T and T«, to the differential. In Fig. 15 the 
top gear is in use, and in our previous illustration — 
Fig. 6 — (and in Fig. 16) the reverse gear is in operation. 
The " reverse " is obtained by a pair of wheels, R*, 



N 



Fig. 12. — Two views of the Crossley Expanding Clutch. 




Fig. 13. — Front elevation and cross section of the Crossley Clutch. 




R 4 , to give the first, second, and third forward speeds 
respectively. This shaft terminates at its rear end in 
the bevel-wheel, S 1 , which meshes with the wheel, T\ on 
the differential gear, whilst the direct-through-bevel, T, 
meshes with the other bevel-wheel, T 6 , alongside it 
Except on the top gear the power is transmitted irom the 
first- motion-shaft, R, to the second-motion-shaft, S, and 
from it through the bevels, S 1 and T 7 , to the shell, T 2 , of 



which are mounted together on a sleeve that is free to 
slide upon a shaft, R 8 , in the base of the gear-box. This 
sleeve is at all times connected with the sleeve on the 
first-motion-shaft by the fork casting, R 7 , and both in 
turn engage with the sliding rod, Q 2 , which is connected 
with the hand-lever, Q l , by the arm, Q 3 (visible in 
Fig. 14.) One of the intermediate wheels, R 9 ,is ataM 
times in mesh with the spur-wheel, R 3 , and the other 



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Fig. 14, — The arrangement of the Operating Levers and Pedals 

on the Crossley Petrol Car, showing the inter-connection 

of the Brakes with the Clutch. 



comes into gear with the low-speed wheel, S 2 , on 
the shaft, S. The thrust of the bevel, T, is taken 
by the ball-bearing, R 8 , and that of the bevel, S 1 , by the 
ball bearing, S 5 . The outer member of the differential 
gear is also arranged between ball-thrust-bearings, T 8 , 
which take the end strains imposed on it by the bevels, 
T 9 and T 7 . All six bearings are ring lubricated, and 
have small oil troughs, Q 4 , formed in them for this pur- 
pose. Each of the four outside bearings, too, have 
grooves, Q 5 , arranged so as to catch any oil which may 
find its way through them. As we have already said, 
flexible couplings, T 4 , are introduced into each half, T 3 , 
of the differential countershaft, and ball-bearings, T 5 , 
are fitted at either end close up to the sprocket-wheels 
driving the side chains. The gear-box is provided with 
an unusually large cover, which enables a thorough 
inspection to be made at any time. 

The four forward gears on the standard car represent 
normal speeds of about 11, 22, 35 and 48 miles per hour 
respectively, when 20-tooth sprockets are fitted on the 
countershaft. 

The Brakes on the Crossley car are all double-acting, 
have metal-to-metal friction surfaces, and are very 
powerful. The foot-pedal, U, is connected with the 
brake-band, U\ by the rod, U 2 , as seen in Fig. 14, the 
band pressing upon the drum, U 3 (Fig. 16). The pedal 



Fig. 15. — View of the Crossley Gen Box, fixed in place in the Car, 
with its large Inspection Cover removed. 



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[February 6, 1904. 



Fig. 16. — Horizontal section showing the arrangement of the Crossley Change-Speed-Gear. 



is mounted upon the same shaft, P 1 , as the 
clutch-pedal, P, and a jaw-clutch is arranged 
between them in such a way that the clutch 
is withdrawn when the brake is applied. The 
hand-lever, V, which acts upon both side- 
brakes simultaneously, is connected with them, 
through the rocking-shaft, V 1 , and the cable, 
V 2 (already referred to), by the rod, V 6 . The 
clutch is also automatically disengaged when 
these brakes are applied, and this is provided 
for by the rod, V 7 , which connects the lever, 
P 3 , with the shaft, V 5 (to which the hand-lever, 
V, is fixed), as seen in Fig. 14. 

The construction of the side-brakes, and 
the manner in which they are fitted to the 
rear wheels, is shown in Figs. 17 and 18, 



.--- :A- 




k FiG. 18. 



-Elevation and cross-section 01 the Crossley Expanding Si Je Brakes. 



Fig. 17. — View showing the internal construction 'of the Crossley! Expanding Side Brakes. 



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February 6, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



I4S 



the former being reproduced from a photograph of 
the internal mechanism, and the latter giving an 
elevation and a cross-section respectively. The in- 
ternal brake surface is formed inside the drums, 
V 3 , on which the teeth of the large chain-wheels are cut 
The expanding shoes, V 10 , are both fulcrumed upon a 
pin, V 9 , which is carried about the stationary axle upon a 
casting, V 8 , and is tied by the hinged radius rod, V 4 , to 
the back of the main frame. The lower ends of these 
shoes are connected together, and with the lever, V 12 , in 
the manner shown in the elevation (Fig. 18), the upper 
end of this lever being connected with the steel cable, 
V 2 . The shoes, V 10 , are normally held clear of the 
drum, V 3 , by the tension spring, V 14 , and they are pre- 
vented from moving too far in this direction by the ad- 
justable stops, V 11 . The necessary adjustment by which 



wear can be taken up is provided at V 18 , and an adjust- 
ment is also introduced in the radius rod, V 4 , to make 
the necessary compensation when tightening the side 
chains by the usual radius rods. The adjustment nuts 
on all these rods are made of yellow metal, so as to 
prevent them from rusting up. 

An unusual feature of the Crossley car is that small 
lubricators are fitted to all the moving parts, however 
insignificant and however small the required movement 
may be. Many of these joints only require a drop of 
oil very occasionally, and are therefore liable to receive 
no attention whatever on many vehicles. They are, 
nevertheless, likely sooner or later to occasion trouble if 
completely neglected, and they are far less likely to be 
forgotten or ignored by the owner if oil cups are fitted, 
as on this vehicle. 



THE JUNGNER ALKALINE BATTERY. 



Owing largely to Edison's world-wide fame as an 
inventor of several of the electrical appliances with 
which the public is most familiar, and to the extensive 
propaganda carried on in his favour by the general 
press, the impression has become disseminated that he 
is the first and only inventor of a satisfactory secondary 
battery in which an unalterable electrolyte — a solution of 
caustic alkali — is employed. This is, however, very far 
from being the truth. We have from time to time 
during the last year or two alluded to the researches of 
Herr Jungner of Stockholm, and the different types of 
batteries which he has devised. Herr Jungner has been 
investigating the problem of producing a secondary 
battery using a solution of caustic alkali for several years 
past, and as a matter of fact he antedates the Edison 
invention in several important particulars. This is 
clearly shown by the records of the British Patent Office, 
and evidence of it may be seen by anyone who will be 
at the trouble of contrasting the first issue of Edison's 
nickel battery patent (shortly after acceptance) with the 
final form which that patent has assumed when amended 
by order of the Law Officer. 

As originally accepted the Edison patent contained 
very broad claims for the use of oxides of nickel, either 
mixed or not with flake graphite, as the active material 
in the positive plates — finely-divided iron, specially pre- 
pared, being, as our readers are aware, the active 
material of the negative plates (see Automotor Journal, 
July 15th, 1901, page 493). As since amended, by 
order of the Law Officer, Edison's patent no longer 
claims nickel oxide broadly, nor even when mixed with 
flake graphite, but only when prepared for use by being 
preliminarily subjected to considerable pressure. And 
the claims aie preceded by a most elaborate " dis- 
claimer," stating that Edison does not claim the use of 
oxides as depolarisers. 

These very extensive alterations in Edison's patent 
which, of course, enormously affect its commercial 
value, are the result of an opposition entered by Jungner 
on the ground of previous patents in this country 
granted to himself. These patents go back as far as 
1895, the date of Jungner's first British application for a 
patent in which metallic oxides were used as depolarisers 
in an electrolyte of caustic alkali. 

Jungner continued his experiments, and their progress 
is marked by various British applications, filed nearly 



every succeeding year, the final outcome of these experi- 
ments being the present form of Jungner battery, which 
was exhibited at the recent Paris Salon, and which has 
been most favourably reported on by Herr U. Schoop, 
the well-known German authority and writer on accumu- 
lators. Like Edison, Jungner has used in the negative 
plate not only deposited zinc, but also finely-divided 
metallic iron reduced electrolytically from the hydrated 
oxide of iron. One combination which Herr Jungner 
devised, and which promised very well at first, consisted 
of finely-divided iron as the active material of the negative 
plate, oxide of silver being used as the active material of 
the positive plate. This battery, of course, had the 
price of the silver oxide to contend with as an initial 
objection, but it was further found that the silver oxide 
was slightly soluble in the caustic alkali electrolyte, 
and tended on prolonged use to be deposited on the 
negative plate, giving rise to local action and loss of 
charge on open circuit. 

Jungner also apparently antedated Edison in the use 
of finely-divided cadmium as the active material of the 
negative plate, but, as in Edison's case, this was aban- 
doned owing to the low electromotive force produced. 

In its present form the most recent Jungner battery 
consists of negative plates in which finely-divided iron 
or cadmium is the active substance and positive plates 
in which the active material is oxide of nickel. The 
British specification in which this battery is described 
being antedated under the International Convention, is 
a prior grant to that of Edison's patent. 

A comparison of the two batteries is of interest as 
showing the different lines on which two inventors who 
have decided to use the same material to attain their 
object — a mechanical genius and an electro metal- 
lurgical expert — have attempted to solve the problem 
they have set themselves. 

Our readers are suriiciently familiar with Edison's 
battery to render it unnecessary for us to do more than 
briefly recapitulate its essential features. It will be re- 
membered that the active material mixed with flake 
graphite, presumably for increasing the conductivity, is 
formed into briquettes under great hydraulic pressure, 
and these briquettes are inserted into little cases or 
pockets of perforated nickel-plated steel, And inserted 
one above the other in the spaces in the grid. 

Jungner's procedure differs in many respects. Both 



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positive and negative plates are built up on grids of nickel- 
plated mild steel, of a shape similar to Edison's. The 
active material of the negative plates is simply inserted 
into the grid under pressure, and is retained there by 
thin plates of perforated nickel-plated steel covering 
the whole surface of the plates, and held in position 
by vertical rods, the edges of the plates being crimped. 
The negative active material is usually finely-divided 
iron, but in some cases — notably in the case of the 
battery tested by Herr Schoop — finely-divided cadmium 
is employed. 

The apertures of the grid in the positive plates are 
filled by plates or sheets of metallic nickel, firmly secured 
in position, the whole plate when finished being enclosed 
similarly to the negative plate. The rigidity of the 
whole battery is ensured by the insertion between the 
plates of corrugated separators of perforated ebonite 
of the kind frequently used in lead automobile cells. 

The conversion of the metallic nickel sheets occupy- 
ing the apertures or windows of the positives into active 
material is performed by Jungner by a special process, 
which has certain analogies with the Plante* formation in 
lead batteries. For however long a period metallic 
nickel is subjected to electrolytic action as an anode in 
caustic alkali, it remains unacted upon. This is not the 
case, however, when a certain proportion ofc chloride is 
added to the alkali, and Jungner's process of formation 
consists of treating the nickel plates as anodes (positives) 
in a mixed solution of caustic alkali and alkaline 
chloride. The result of this treatment is to produce on 
the surface of the nickel a layer of oxy-chloride of nickel 
at the same time eating into and pitting the surface of 
the metal considerably, thereby greatly increasing the ex- 
tent of the active surface. The nickel plates are then trans- 
ferred to a bath of pure caustic alkali, and again subjected 
to the action of a charging current for a considerable 
length of time. This process has the effect of converting 
the whole of the oxy-chloride layer into an adherent layer 
of nickel peroxide, and the active nickel plates thus 
formed are inserted into the apertures of the positive 
grid and secured there. 

This method of constructing the positive plates has 
not, however, been used in the most recent Jungner 
batteries. In them a hydrated oxide of nickel mixed 
with flaked graphite is compressed by powerful hydraulic 
presses into the apertures of the positive grid and 
subsequently formed, the active material being retained 
in place by the use of the perforated metal sheets above 
described. 

The positive and negative plates are assembled into 
sections by screwing the lugs of the plates to 
two horizontal conducting bars by means of nickel- 
plated iron nuts, the whole battery being assembled 
in the ordinary way. Caustic alkali solution is used 
as the electrolyte, and the containing vessel may 
be either ebonite or thin nickel-plated steel. Extensive 
works have been laid down at Norrkoping, in Sweden, 
for the manufacture of Jungner accumulators, and Herr 
Schoop, who spent some time there, reports that very 
satisfactory tests have been made with the Jungner 
battery, both in the laboratory and for running cars on 
the road. If accounts are to be believed the output of 
the Jungner battery is equal to that of the Edison 
battery, 24 watt- hours at low rates of discharge, and 
20 watt-hours at high rates, having been obtained per 
kilogram of cell. 

Herr Schoop's researches have brought to light a 
very interesting fact. The ordinary lead cell warms up 



to a certain extent on charging, and loses heat on dis- 
charge if the rate of discharge is low. The opposite is 
the case with the Jungner battery (and presumably with 
the Edison battery also). At moderate currents it 
absorbs heat and becomes cooler on charge, getting 
warmer on discharge. In other words, the compounds 
formed on charge are endothermic. The significance [of 
this fact is not at present fully apparent. 

The perfectation and commercial development of the 
Jungner battery are of high interest to all interested in 
the future of the electromobile. Its invention and 
practical exploitation, and above all the recognition of 
Jungner*s prior claims by the British Patent Office, 
render it unlikely that any advantages which the alkaline 
battery may be found to possess for the propulsion of 
electromobiles will prove so completely a monopoly as 
was at one time anticipated. It is, of course, far too early 
to form even a guess as to whether the Jungner or the 
Edison battery will prove commercially the superior 
article, but the existence of the two side by side provide 
the materials for healthy competition, while Jungner's 
method of constructing his positive plates certainly 
suggests that those plates are likely to possess some of 
the advantages of the Plants-formed positive plates of 
lead batteries, while the figures we have quoted in regard 
to output show that these advantages are not obtained at 
the cost of increased weight. 

It is interesting to learn that M. Krieger, the well- 
known electromobile constructor of Paris, claimed at a 
recent discussion on the Edison battery that he himself 
had experimented and obtained a certain amount of 
success with nickel oxide positives as long ago as the 
year 1897. In M. Krieger's experiments, the nickel 
was plated in a loose condition on to a support of 
metallic iron not previously nickel plated, and the locse 
deposit of metallic nickel was formed by a kind of 
Plante formation process (which M. Krieger did not 
describe) into nickel peroxide. He states that the facts 
obtained with nickel plated loosely on to an iron support 
are better than when nickel is plated on to a nickel 
support, there being some kind of local or differential 
action between the two metals which facilitates the 
formation of the peroxide. 

It is also of interest to record M. Krieger's view, that 
the reason the Edison, and very probably the Jungner 
battery, do not retain their charge on open circuit 
better than they do is that the highest nickel oxides act 
as a sort of acid radical and form compounds which 
might be described as nickelates of potash with the 
electrolyte, compounds the nature of which is assumed 
to be somewhat similar to that of silicates. 

No Jungner batteries have yet arrived in this country, 
we are therefore compelled to rely for data as to the 
capacity of the cells now manufactured on the reports of 
Herr Schoop, to which we have already referred. Some 
batteries are on their way from Sweden, and we 
hope to be in a position at an early date to supply 
our readers with illustrations of them and better 
authenticated statements as to what the capacity and 
general behaviour of these batteries are. 



^^^^<^^»w*»**%^<ww%^^»^ 



M. Vittorio Sambolino, of Turin, has a vast project 
in hand for organising a regular automobile service in 
Italy, and in the adjoining French departments and 
part of Switzerland. He is seeking powers from the 
authorities for running motor cars on no less than 250 
different routes. If authorised, he proposes to fix a 
uniform fare of 6 centimes per kilom. 



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A PETROL INSPECTION TROLLEY FOR A SOUTH AFRICAN RAILWAY. 



One of our illustrations shows a complete inspection 
trolley which has recently been built by the Simms 
Manufacturing Company at Kilburn, to the order of 
Messrs. Sir Douglas Fox and Partners for the Rhodesia 
Railway Company. The other illustration is a view of 
the chassis from above, and very clearly shows the form 
of construction and the arrangement of the various parts 
which has been adopted. The main-frame is of armoured 
wood, and it is mounted above the axles on semi-elliptic 
side springs. The wheels are 18 inches in diameter, and 
are made of cast steel ; those in front run loose on the 
ends of the stationary front axle, and those at the back 
are fixed to a live-rear-axle. The wheel base is 1 5 ft, 
and the gauge 3 ft. 6 in. 

The power is supplied by a 6-h.p. single-cylinder 
engine, which has a normal speed of 1,000 revs, per 
min., and a maximum speed of 1,500 revs, per min. ; 
magneto ignition, an automatic carburettor, and an 
automatic lubricator are used in conjunction with it. An 
ordinary cone clutch is mounted immediately behind the 
engine, and the change-speed-gear is fitted about the 
back axle, the power being transmitted from the clutch 
to the gear through a propeller shaft. The first-motion 
shaft in the gear-box is bevel driven, and lies parallel 
with the axle. It has two facing bevel wheels fitted on 
it, either of which can be brought into mesh with the 
wheel on the shaft driving it, thus providing a reversing 
gear. The first-motion shaft also carries a pair of spur- 
wheels with which corresponding sliding wheels on the 
axle can be brought into mesh, giving two speeds in 
much the usual way. When the engine is running at 
1,000 revs, per min., the trolley is driven at either 10 or 
30 miles per hour. The hand levers for operating the 
change-speed-gear and the reverse-gear are fitted near 
the driver's seat. A screw-brake, operated by a hand- 
wheel, is arranged to act upon the two front wheels, 
and a band-brake, actuated by a foot pedal, is 
fitted to the rear axle. The body has a floor space of 
38 sq. ft., and a seat for three people is fixed behind the 
driver's seat. The driver's seat is so hinged that it can 
be turned over to enable him to face in whichever 
direction the car may be travelling ; the foot pedal is 
arranged in duplicate, so that he can operate the foot- 
brake from either side of the brake wheel ; the hand- 
levers are so placed that they are equally convenient 
from either position. The cooling water is circulated 
through a radiator in front by a pump driven from the 
flywheel, and a water tank having a capacity of 5 gals, is 
connected with the system ; the petrol tank also has a 
capacity of 5 gals. 



Awards in connection with the Brussels Salon are 
announced as follows : — For the best Stands, 1st prize, 
Bayard-Clement. Chassis — 1st Category, 1st prize, 
Fabrique Nat. d'Armes de Herstal ; 2nd, Rochet 
Schneider ; 3rd, Pipe. 2nd Category, 1st and 2nd prize, 
Fab. Nat. d'Armes de Herstal ; 3rd, Pipe. $rd Category, 
1st, Fab. Nat. d'Armes de Herstal; 2nd, Van den 
Plass; 3rd, Germain. ±th Category, 1st and 2nd prize, 
G. Dutern. $th Category, 1st, Mallevez and Michotte ; 
2nd, Bovy ; 3rd, Oldsmobile. 



By way of emphasising the decision of the Hunting- 
donshire County Council last week not to specify any 
roads or places as dangerous through which motor 
cars must be driven at a reduced speed, the chairman, 
the Earl of Sandwich, remarked that it would be 
necessary to include every road and corner as dangerous, 
as almost every thoroughfare and turning unless a 
motorist exercised care and vigilance, would come under 
this category. 



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[February 6, 1904. 



PROGRESS IN AERONAUTICS. 



The Flight of the Wrights. 
We are now able to say exactly and precisely what the 
achievements of the Wright Brothers with their motor- 
driven aeroplane really were. Mr. Orville Wright has 
personally addressed an account of the experiments to 
our contemporary, LAuto. From this it appears that 
though the first accounts that came to hand by cable 
involved some exaggeration, the results actually ob- 
tained were of the highest possible value and interest, 
and though the actual distance traversed by the 
aeroplane was vastly less than the original three 
miles announced, the shortness of the flight was due 
merely to a very trifling accident. On the other hand 
the force of the wind against which the aeroplane suc- 
cessfully flew was greater than at first stated. At the 
Meteorological Observatory of Kittyhawk the wind- 
gauge registered 27 miles an hour, while with the hand 
anemometer on the surface of the ground it was 22 
miles during the first of the flights and 20 miles during 
the last. The aeroplane was started upon a rail arranged 
8 metres above the ground, and after running along this 
rail some 40 feet the machine slowly rose from it to 
a height of 8 or 10 feet above the level of the rail and 
then proceeded on its course. The new aeroplane, 
which has been christened the " Flyer," advanced against 
the distinctly high wind with which it was contending at 
a rate of 10 miles an hour over the ground, the actual 
speed through the air being in consequence between 30 
and 35 miles per hour. Bravery tempered by extreme 
caution has been the characteristic of all the Brothers 
Wright's experiments, and on the occasion of these 
particular trials they determined to keep the chances of 
accident as low as possible by manoeuvring at a very 
slight elevation above the surface of the sand-hills. It 
was this very caution that prevented a much longer flight 
from being effected. On the fourth flight, when the 
aeroplane had already been 59 seconds in the air, and 
had travelled half a mile through the air, and therefore 
an actual distance of 852 feet over the ground, Mr. 
Wright, who was manoeuvring it, dipped the forward 
tail slightly too much, and as the machine was just 
passing over the top of a sand-hill it struck the surface 
of the eminence before he had time to right it. The 
flight was thus brought to a conclusion unexpectedly, 
without the slightest damage to the machine, and could, 
as far as can be judged, have been continued indefinitely 
but for this very slight error of judgment. Owing to the 
state of the weather and the violence of the' wind, the 
Brothers Wright determined to postpone their experi- 
ments for the present, but sufficient was done to prove 
the adaptability of the Wright aeroplane for motor 
attachment, and to render it practically certain that when 
the experiments are renewed even more remarkable 
results will be obtained. 

We reproduce a picture of the latest type of gliding 
machine to which the Wrights have applied motor 
propulsion. Their latest and most satisfactory experi- 
ments with this aeroplane without motor attachment 
were referred to by us in the Journal for Oct. 3, 1903, 
It will be seen that this machine has two tails, one in 
front, by which the rising and falling of the aeroplane 
is controlled, and one in the rear (the rear rudder), by 
which its movements, right and left, are effected. The 
machine with which the recent experiments were carried 
out is, we understand, exactly similar in appearance to 



the one we reproduce. But while this machine was 
32 ft. from tip to tip, and only 5 ft. from front to rear, 
the motor-equipped aeroplane is 40 ft. from tip to tip 
of the wings, and 20 ft. from front to back, the total 
supporting surface being 1,020 square feet owing to the 
curvature, for as in all the Wright machines the surfaces 
are slightly curved upwards instead of being absolutely 
flat, this giving a slight forward component when gliding 
against a wind, and also increasing the lifting capacity 
of the machine. The " Flyer " is driven by two pro- 
pellers, one mounted on the rear of each aeroplane, just 
where the plane of the vertical tail intersects them. 
They are driven by a 12-h.p. internal combustion motor, 
designed by the Wright Brothers themselves, weighing 
complete 152 lbs. The motor which is on the ordinary 
Otto cycle has four cylinders, the stroke and bore being 
4 inches. The total weight of the machine, including 
motor and aeronaut, is a little over 745 lbs., and the 
whole is so solidly and firmly built that it was not in 
the slightest degree injured by coming to the ground 
with somewhat unintended rapidity. 

The Intentions of M, Archdeacon* 
M. Archdeacon, who, as we have already chronicled, 
has determined to follow in the steps of the Wright 
Brothers, and reproduce over the soil of France the 
flights which have made North Carolina so celebrated, 
arranged with Col. Renard to construct for him an 
aeroplane on the lines, we are told, of M. Chanute's 
machine. The framework is of ash, the fabric stretched 
over the ash rods being of French silk, and the whole 
weighs 30 kilogs. The machine has been already almost 
completed under the supervision of M. Dargent, Col. 
Renard's assistant at Chalais-Meudon. M. Archdeacon 
anticipates being able to commence experiments with it 
about the middle of February at Berck, the spot on the 
Channel coast which we have already referred to. He 
will be assisted in his experiments by M. Robart, who 
has himself designed several flying machines, and is 
greatly interested in aeronautics. 

It is a little difficult to understand why M. Archdeacon 
should have adopted the Chanute model of aeroplane. 
The model adopted by the Brothers Wright is recognised 
by M. Chanute himself as a great improvement on his 
own machine. In the Chanute machine an aeronaut 
hung on underneath and endeavoured to control the 
movements of the machine, partly by manipulating the 
tail and partly by varying his position, and, as a con- 
sequence, the centre of gravity of the whole. The great 
departure made by the Brothers Wright is in assuming 
the horizontal position for the aeronaut, which diminishes 
the resistance to the air, and manipulating the machine 
entirely by movements of the front and rear tails. This, 
as we have explained on previous occasions, enables the 
machine to cope with unexpected variations in the 
strength of the wind in a way (under the hands of a 
skilful manipulator) which cannot be approached in the 
case of a machine in which the centre of gravity of the 
whole is varied. As the modifications of design adopted 
by the Brothers Wright have been unquestionably 
effective in assisting in the great progress they have 
made, one would certainly think that the wiser course 
for another experimenter would be to follow in the same 
direction, though, of course, the Wright aeroplane may 
be somewhat like the bow of Ulysses — a machine that 
not everybody can tackle. Not everybody, at any rate, 



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U9 



is likely to be anxious to assume the horizontal position 
at the first start. But there can be little doubt that the 
Wright machine is less dangerous to experiment with 
than the earlier type designed by M. Chanute. 

M. Archdeacon's numerous friends and admirers very 
naturally are anxious to witness his first attempt at learning 
to fly. We are reminded of the cynic who observed that 
"the misfortunes of our friends are the source of our 
sincerest satisfactions." So M. Archdeacon's friends have 
persuaded him, if possible, to carry out his experiments 
in the near neighbourhood of Paris, and M. Archdeacon 
appears disposed to yield to their solicitations. At any 
rate, he has declared that he intends experimenting near 
the capital if he can find a suitable site for the purpose. 
We doubt his wisdom in this. Nemo repente turpis — no 
one can learn to fly all at once, and the first attempts of 
any experimenter are likely to be subversive of his per- 
sonal dignity, to say the least of it. This is probably 
one of the many reasons why the Wright Brothers selected 
the out-of-the-way Carolina coast for their first experi- 
ments, though as we shall point out presently, and have 
pointed out before, there are other reasons. 



possessor of such an eligible property in the neighbour- 
hood of Paris, and we, therefore, feel that M. Arch- 
deacon's numerous friends are likely to be disappointed 
and that they will have to travel to the Channel coast if 
they desire to enjoy the spectacle of M. Archdeacon's 
£rst attempts in aviation. 

We think M. Archdeacon will be wise and prudent 
to prefer the sea coast. The most important factor in 
experiments of this kind, as we have said before, but, 
on account of its great importance, have no hesitation 
in saying again, is a fairly reliable and steady breeze, 
which can be relied upon to blow for considerable 
periods at something like the same strength, and from, 
as far as possible, the same direction. It was the 
prevalence of winds of this kind blowing off the 
Atlantic that caused the Wrights in the first instance 
to select the coast of North Carolina. The Channel 
breezes are notoriously variable, and if M. Archdeacon 
could find suitable sand-dunes on the Atlantic coast, 
say, of Brittany, he would probably be able to command 
more regular breezes. An additional reason why a 
breeze blowing off the sea is preferable to anything else 



Side view, in full flight, with the aeronaut lying horizontally. 

The Wrights' Aeroplane. 



Rear view, in full flight. 



M. Archdeacon, as we have said, is willing to com- 
mence his experiments near Paris if a suitable site can 
be discovered. It is not very likely that it will be. A 
specification of what M. Archdeacon requires has been 
published by our contemporary, Le Veto. The ideal is 
a conical hill, of as large dimensions as can be found, 
presumably with a soft surface for falling on (sand pre- 
ferred for choice), with an angle as near as possible to 
20 degrees with the horizon. It must afford a straight 
run of at least 60 metres, and the longer the better. 
The hill must be conical, so that the experimenter, 
starting at the top, can take advantage of the wind, 
no matter what direction it blows from, and sail down 
on his aeroplane against it in any direction ; for these 
experiments, in which gravity is relied upon as the motive 
force, have on all occasions to be conducted against 
the wind. Anyone who is the happy possessor, therefore, 
of a conical hill with an angle of 20 degrees to the 
horizon consisting of sand or other soft material, or 
covered therewith to a reasonable depth, with no trees, 
rocks, walls, houses, police officers, or other obstacles, 
and is willing to place the same at the disposal of 
M. Archdeacon, should communicate with the office of 
Le Velo. If a structure, preferably on private ground, is 
at hand, in which the aeroplane can conveniently be 
housed when not in use, so much the better. Needless 
to say it is unlikely that anyone will be found to be the 



is because a wind is a very different thing in actual 
fact to what most people imagine it to be. The 
ordinary man in the street looks upon a wind as a 
current of air varying from time to time, no doubt, in 
force and direction, but as being, while blowing from 
any particular point, a steady stream, in which the 
particles of air all flow more or less parallel to one 
another. Though this may be true of wind high up 
above the surface of the earth, no idea of the winds 
that actually prevail near the surface could be more 
utterly incorrect. Wind is not a steady stream, 
but, as Mr. Chanute has ably pointed out, a "series of 
whirling billows of air." It is these that render the 
manipulation of an aeroplane so difficult and are so 
liable to wreck it at any moment. Now the billows are 
much more equable, and the wind approaches in 
character much more nearly to what the ordinary man 
imagines it to be when it is blowing fresh off the sea. 
The more land it blows over the more irregular do the 
billows which constitute it become. This is an 
additional reason for selecting the spot at which off-sea 
breezes are available. For obvious reasons, the off sea 
breezes on the Brittany coast are more suitable than 
those on the Channel coast, as, when not too violent, 
both their direction and, in a great degree, their speed, 
are more equable. Aeroplane experimentation requires 
not only great pluck, but persistency. Even on the 



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Carolina coast, the ideal spot for such work, the occasions 
when the Wrights could actually attempt flight were far 
from frequent. Exactly the right force of wind must pre- 
vail, and it must come, practically, from some particular 
point, for the directions in which the declivities of even 
the most ideal hill extend are distinctly limited. 
Then the aeroplane has to be balanced by the 
hands of assistants till it lifts before a glide can 
be commenced, and if there aie chopping and 
changing winds, the few propitious moments are almost 
certain to be squandered, and a start made too soon or too 
late. No, we do not think M. Archdeacon is likely to gain 
any really satisfactory experience in the neighbourhood 



of Paris, and is more likely to do so on the Atlantic coast 
than on the Channel. Some of these observations have 
been made by us before, but the matter is so serious, and 
M. Archdeacon is risking so much, that we have ventured 
to repeat them, for it must be borne in mind that Mr. 
Chanute, than whom there is no greater authority on the 
subject, admits there is a danger in these experiments, 
even under the equable conditions obtaining in 
North Carolina. He considers that to attempt the 
same kind of thing under the unsatisfactory, vary- 
ing, and often squally, conditions prevailing in 
Europe would be so dangerous that no one ought to 
attempt it. 



MARINE MOTORING. 



Monday last was the final date fixed for entering boats 
to compete for the British International Cup, subject to 
there being no challenge from abroad. In the event, 
however, of a foreign challenge being received by 
February 1st, it was announced that the lists would then 
remain open for some considerable time further. Several 
entries from abroad having been received, it is therefore 
possible the entry lists may not close until June. The 
entry of two Napier boats by S. F. Edge, Limited, was 
recorded some time ago (in our issue of January 2nd). 
Three 40 ft. launches have now been entered by 
J. E. Hutton, Limited. The hulls of these craft are 
built of wood, and have been designed by Mr. Linton 
Hope. Several novel features are introduced, lightness 
of construction (ribbon carvel) being a particularly notice- 
able point. They will be fitted with 6-cylinder motors, 
having 175 mm. bore, a stroke of 160 mm., and developing 
170-b.h.p. The total weight of these engines is 1,500 lbs., 
and they develop their full power of 170-b.h.p. at 1,200 
revs, per min., giving 142-b.h.p. at 1,000 revs. They 
are provided with a special patent carburettor, which is 



actuated directly by the governor controlling the speed 
of the engine. It can also be controlled by an ordinary 
hand accelerator. In addition to the Napier and Hutton 
boats, competing vessels have also been entered by 
Messrs. Thornycroft and Lord Howard de Walden, who 
intend running one boat each. 

A strong team will represent France in the competi- 
tion, two of the entries being for boats driven by petrol 
engines, one of which has been entered by Mons. A. 
Clement, whose boar will have a Clement-Bayard engine, 
and the other by Messrs. Pitre and Co., while a third 
French boat will be a Gardner- Serpollet steam launch, 
entered by Messrs. Legru and Gardner. It is 
anticipated that there will be still further entries on 
the part of France, while it is also probable that both 
Germany and the United States will enter competing 
vessels for the race, which will be held on July 30th, in 
all probability in the Solent. The number of English 
competitors who have entered will necessitate an Elimin- 
ating Race being held in order to select the three boats 
which will represent England in the race itself. 



Further Development in Motor Volunteering. 
The Motor Volunteer movement continues to grow 
in importance, and the energetic commander of the 
body, Lieut. -Col. Mark May hew, has now made an 
application which, if granted, will have the effect of 
making all the Motor Volunteers fully combatant mem- 
bers of the Service. He asks that rifles should be 
supplied for their use, as they are at present unprovided 
with any means of defence. Proposals are also being 
made for giving the Motor Volunteers regular military 
training. It will, of course, hardly be possible for them 
all to come together and train as one corps, since the 
majority of them live so widely separated from one 
another. But it is proposed that they should join local 
corps in the districts in which they reside, and so obtain 
a certain amount of military training, becoming locally 
" efficient " members of the Service. At the same time, 
they can assist the local corps to which they belong by 
acting as orderlies as well as ordinary combatants. A 
special corps for training in scouting and work of that 
kind is also proposed for motor cyclists. It is to be 
trusted that these ideas will be carried out practically at 
an early date, as they are calculated very materially to 
increase the utility of the Motor Volunteer Corps for 
military purposes. 



A number of sensational statements have been finding 
currency in the daily papers about the invention of 
improvements in the steam engine, which will effect an 
economy of from 25 to 80c per cent. The invention is 
credited to a Mr. Thornley, of Burton-on-Trent, and, as 
far as can be understood from the accounts that have 
hitherto appeared, would seem to consist in a special 
valve, by which the steam can be admitted behind the 
pistons more instantaneously at the commencement of 
each stroke than has been possible with existing valves. 
The extravagant claims made renders it difficult for us 
to avoid a certain amount of scepticism about the new 
motor, but we await intelligible information concerning it. 

As an expert in brow-beating Counsel, commend us to 
Judge Smyly, of the Shoreditch County Court. Counsel 
for a defendant — of course, in a motor car case — sub- 
mitted that it was the duty of every horse owner to train 
his horse to ignore noise. Witness replied he did not 
consider it a duty. On Counsel submitting that if his 
client sold his Honour a horse — Judge Smyly interrupted 
with : "He hasn't sold me a horse." Counsel : " I was 
suggesting." The Judge : " Well, don't suggest. Keep 
to the facts. We haven't time in County Courts to waste 
on suggestions " — nor, apparently, on fair play, either. 



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THE LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE MOTOR 
CAR ACT* {Concluded). 
By Earl Russell. 

Observations. — The Act has been so hastily thrown into its 
present shape by innumerable amendments at the extreme end of a 
session, that it is not surprising to find it full of anomalies, inconsis- 
tencies, and inaccuracies. 

Among the anomalies may be noticed the two kinds of local 
authorities, of which one registers and licences, while the other 
recommends roads for the 10-miles limit, and has the duty of 
erecting notice or caution boards. Another is the curious differ- 
ence already noted between the evidence required to convict for 
exceeding the speed limit of 20 miles, but not required for the 
10-miles limit. The "Good Samaritan" Clause (Sec. 6) was 
pro «osed by Lord Camperdown, and most rashly accepted by Lord 
Balfour of Burleigh, and gives rise to a host of conundrums, none of 
them admitting of an answer. What is an accident ? When is it 
owing to the presence of a motor car on the road ? Where is the 
motor car to stop, and how long ? If a lady falls off her bicycle 
through sheer terror, is that an accident ? If an unattended horse 
and cart runs away, is it in charge of any per-on ? If three motor 
cars pass, and one horse runs away with its lider, which car is to 
stop ? If a horse bolts for half a mile with a carriage and then turns 
it over, is the motor car to stop where it starts bolting, or where it 
finishes ? These questions must not be regarded as frivolous, for they 
are absolutely germane to the actual words of this amazing section of 
this most amazing Act, and any one of them may be seriously 
argued before the Divisional Court on appeal from a conviction. 
The clause has probably become absurd through being intended 
to hit everybody, but I suggest that the following form of words 
would have been much more effective: — " If any person driving a 
motor car who has knowingly been the cause of an accident drives 
away with intent to avoid identification or to escape civil or criminal 
liability, he shall be guilty of an offence under this Act." As the 
section now stands, if you only knock your person senseless, or even 
fluster him sufficiently, so that he omits to ask your name and 
address, you can drive on with perfect safety after waiting a reason- 
able time. 

I now come to some curious legal conundrums. 

(1) Sec. 9 professes to make it an offence to exceed 10 miles 
per hour " within any limits or place referred to in regulations 
made by the Local Government with a view to the safety of the 
public on the application of the local authority," and gives power to 
the Local Government Board to " revoke or alter " such regulations. 
But neither in this section, nor anywhere else in the Act, is power 
given to the Local Government Board to make such regula- 
tions in the first instance, unless, indeed, the very loose words of 
Sec. 6 (2) of the principal Act are considered to give this power. 
It seems that such regulations then would be ultra vires. 

It may be argued that the power must be necessarily inferred, but 
I am inclined to think the more constitutional doctrine is that when 
Parliament delegates its sovereign law-making power, the delegation 
must be express, and that nothing can be read into the words of the 
statute. I imagine that there must be decisions to this effect on 
record in many cases of by-laws. 

It is worth noting that the Local Government Board cannot act 
on its own initiative, but must be moved by the locil authority. 
Once the application has been made, however, the regulations may 
be revoked or altered without the consent of the local authority. 

(2) The Act says that " a mark " is to be fixed to the car, and 
this can only mean one mark. All the mark is to do is to indicate 
" the registered number of the car, and the Council with which the 
car is registered." The Local Government Board has power to 
make regulations as to how this mark " shall be fixed on the car, 
or on a vehicle drawn by the car, or on both." Under a later 
section they have power to make regulations as to its " size, shape, 
and character," mode of fixing and illumination, and the keeping of 
the register. It is true that in this section (7) the words " identify- 
ing marks" are used, but they relate to " motor cars " immediately 
preceding, and also in the plural. 

The Local Government Board endeavour to get over the difficulty 
by saying in Article 7 of their Regulations, .that the mark " shall 
consist of two plates." No person and no Government Department 
has the power to compel me to disfigure my private property, save 
in accordance with express statutory provision, which in this case is 
lacking. Article 7 is, therefore, in my opinion, ultra vires. 

(3) It may, perhaps, not be of importance whether the regulations 
are ultra vires or not, since there appear to be no penalties for 
offences in connection with identifying marks. 

Section 2 (4) creates the offence and fixes the penalties, but the 
vehicle to which they apply is described as " a car " and " the car,' ' 
expressions to which it is impossible to attach any legal meaning. 

* Extract from a Paper read at the Automobile Club on January 21st. 



Section 20 gives us the interpretation and meaning of the expression, 
" motor car," but nowhere can we find any meaning for " car '' by 
itself As penal provisions and penal statutes have to be construed 
strictly, and in favour of the defendant where there is any doubi, I 
should look forward with interest to the result of a prosecution 
under this section. 

(4) There are some strange confusions as to the places where 
offences can be committed. Section 20 extends the provisions both 
of the new Act and of the principal Act to " a roadway to which 
the public are granted access," as well as to a public highway. I 
am not aware of any Parliamentary or legal definition of " a roadway 
to which the public are granted access." Has the access to be 
continuous ? Must it imply a right on the part of the public, or a 
favour on the part of the landowner ? Has the public to be admitted 
free, or on payment ? I am aware of no possible authority to 
answer these questions. I do not know whether the roads round 
about Southampton, where one pays tolls, are public highways or 
not ; it is certain that the approaches to railway stations are not. 
But they are both alike in this — that any member of the public can 
obtain access to them by payment. If a landowner habitually allows 
the roads in his park to be used, but by closing his gates occasion- 
ally prevents the establishment of a right-of-way, are they within 
the definition or not ? If so, speed trials at Welbeck will be out of 
the question, and it seems to me that even the race track at Purley 
will be subject to the provisions of the new Act if any member of 
the public is granted access to it on payment. 

Tne offence of employing an unlicensed person to drive a car (Sec- 
tion 3(1)) appears from the Act to be complete without a road- 
way at all, and might be committed in the four walls of a garage. 

The L.G.B. Regulations.— There is, I think, some little 
doubt whether Article 12 of the regulations dealing with the general 
identification mark of a manufacturer or dealer does not go beyond 
the powers of the Local Government Board, which appear by the 
last words of Section 2, Sub-section 4, proviso (6) to be limited to 
the method of fixing the mark upon the car. Possibly this may 
interest the trade, as I think it would be a good defence to any 
prosecution for not keeping the record which Article 12 seeks to 
impose upon manufacturers. 

Earl Russell then dealt with some points in the second draft 
regulations of the Local Government Board, which are now being 
revised, and upon which we commented recently in our columns. 

In conclusion, Earl Russell, touching on the attitude which he 
thought automobilists should adopt, said that conclusions ought to 
be tried as test cases in the various legal points he had raised. He 
pointed out that for almost any trumpery offence a couple of J. P's, 
sitting in Petty Session, had the power to disqualify a man from 
obtaining a licence to drive a car for the next ten years. He hoped 
appeals would be frequent, as it gave trouble to the county and 
reduced the unjust profits made out of automobilists. He advocated 
good conduct on the road and the giving of drives to persons in 
authority or of local importance, but recommended aggressive action 
in elections of County Councillors or Members of Parliament who 
were in favour of continuing the present unfair discrimination against 
motor cars. Action of this sort should be effectively and officially 
organised. 

RAILWAYS AND THE MOTOR PROBLEM.* 
By Mr. George Montagu, M.P. 
Mr. Montagu, in opening his paper, said that his object was to 
point out what had already been done by the railway companies 
and what was being contemplated by some of them in the near 
future in relation to the motor question. His remarks were mainly 
confined to the passenger aspect of the question, little having, so 
far, been done by the railway companies in the direction of the 
carriage of goods by motor. Mr. Montagu then referred to the 
system which is now creeping in of the railway companies employing 
motor coaches running upon rails. He thought that this had a 
great bearing upon the motor problem, because it was a step in the 
right direction, inasmuch as the "car" principle was for the first 
time acknowledged as a solution of railway transit, and the main 
object, he thought, that automobilists had in view was to get the 
principles of the self-propelled vehicle acknowledged by the public. 
What was wanted was to get rid of the idea that there must be, 
of necessity, a separation of power from the load drawn, horse from 
carriage, locomotive from train, as the case may be. He then dealt, 
in detail, with Mr. Behr's high speed mono-rail principle, pointing 
out the enormous advantages which, by its adoption, must accrue to 
our leading railway systems and at the same time the increased 
facilities it would afford to the travelling public. Mr. Montagu 
next described the efforts which had been made by different 
companies to work short branch lines by means of motor railway 
coaches and trailers, and pointed out that Mr. Drummond of the 
London and South Western Railway was the first to have one of his 

* Extract from a Paper read at the Automobile Club on January 28th. 



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designs actually running between Fratton and Southsea last year. 
Mr. Drummond's figures for the cost of running were 2*3*/. per 
mile as against probably something like 8d. to is. in the case 
of the ordinary engine and coaches, while the coal consump- 
tion was 6*5 lbs. per mile against, probably, 20 lbs. or more 
under the ordinary system. The first coach was designed 
with a vertical boiler on account of cheapness, and the 
short distance of the journey. Under the new scheme on the light 
railway from Basingstoke to Alton, where longer distances will be 
traversed, a horizontal boiler is to be the standard pattern. These 
cars will be able to travel a distance of 60 miles without taking in 
water, and carry sufficient coal for the day's work, and attain a 
speed of 30 m.p.h. The Great Western motor coaches are designed 
for special work, having in the Stroud Valley to contend with 
gradients of 1 in 75 and 1 in 100. These coaches in view of their 
being able to stop at level crossings have proved enormously bene- 
ficial to the local population in the district. The experiments by 
the Taff Vale Railway in the same direction, between Cardiff, 
Penarth, arid Cadoxton, a distance of 9$ miles, was also referred to. 
Dealing with the experiments on the North-Eastern Railway Mr. 
Montagu said it was proposed to run petrol cars between East and 
West Hartlepool. To overcome the difficulty of starting the coaches 
and changing gear a method of a petrol engine driving a dynamo, 
which in turn drove motors on each of the four axles of the two 
bogies, has been adopted, this being similar to the system employed 
on the Fischer omnibus. The Caledonian Railway, he said, were 
also experimenting on cars similar to those of the North-Eastern, 
but these were driven by petrol engines direct. Should these petrol 
cars prove successful there was no doubt, he said, that they would 
be adopted altogether in the future, superseding the steam cars. 
He could not say whether petrol cars could be designed of sufficient 
power to be able to take trailers behind them, but it seemed to him 
that the governing principle ought to be to get rid of the idea of the 
train altogether, and not to fall back into the policy of using trailers. 
Economy must ensue from each motor-coach being of sufficient 
power for its own propulsion, and that alone. By adding 
trailers the most important point was lost, viz., rapid accelera- 
tion and retardation, which enabled the whole capacity of the 
railway to be enormously increased. The attitude generally 
of many railway companies to the motor problem was one 
of waiting and watching the experiments of others, the main ex- 
periments being carried on by the companies already mentioned, 
and the Caledonian Railway. The London and bouth- Western 
were building further motor coaches, and were also inquiring into the 
question of the motor car as a feeder for the railway. The Midland 
contemplated experiments with motors, and the Great Eastern 
Railway were seeking powers this Session for the running of motor 
cars. The experiments of the Caledonian Railway with petrol 
motor-coaches Mr. Montagu referred to at some length, and gave a 
few particulars of the attempt by Lord Leitrim to assist the develop- 
ment of the beautiful country in Donegal in the north of Ireland by 
regularly running motors in connection with the train services. 
Lord Leitrim had had no trouble at all with them, and they had run 
continually from July to October in connection with the trains with 
the exception of one day when one omnibus was running out of 
three. After referring to the motor services inaugurated during the 
past year by the Great Western Railway in Cornwall and Devon- 
shire, he said that the present 20-h.p. vehicles holding 20 passengers 
were to be improved upon, and some double-decked cars seating 
34 put on the road in addition. The Great Western contemplated 
having a sub-garage at Plymouth, the main workshop being at 
Penzance, where a large factory had been bought and turned into a 
garage with room for 30 cars. Of the 30 cars the company had 
ordered, 18 were to be of 20-h.p. and 12 of 16-h.p. Another 
service Mr. Montagu said was in contemplation in Wiltshire, 
between Calne and Marlborough, where there was considerable 
traffic in farm produce and light goods. Before closing his paper he 
mentioned the "Cattlet^ portable mono-railway, which had been 
successfully tried in South Africa and various parts of the world for 
carrying farm produce and light goods. It had many advantages 
over the ordinary bi-rail light railway as the single rail could be 
laid over very rough country and up extremely steep gradients. 
The cars carrying the produce had a very low centre of gravity, and 
hitherto had been drawn by horses. It was now proposed to 
substitute the motor car for hauling. The system might be 
adopted in developing agricultural districts with great advantage. 

In conclusion Mr. Montagu said that automobilists might con- 
gratulate themselves and the railway companies that within the last 
year a very great stride had been made in the application of the 
motor to the uses of the railways. Every day it was being shown, 
even in the experimental stage, that economy resulted from the 
adoption of the motor. It would, he believed, go far to cure not 
only social evils, such as the overcrowding in the great towns, but 
also those which were of no less importance, the difficulties of 
railway transit, which were so intimately bound up in them. 



DISCUSSION ON THE EDISON 
ACCUMULATOR. 

At a meeting of the Institution of Electrical Engineers held 
on Thursday, the 28th ult., the postponed discussion on Mr. 
Hibbert's Paper on "The Edison Accumulator for Automobiles," 
■ reference to which was made in our issue of December 5th last (an 
illustrated article on the same subject also appearing in the issue 
for January 2nd), was opened by Dr. J. A. Fleming, who said that 
his own experiments on the Edison Cell, carried out in the University 
College Laboratory, confirmed in the main Mr. Hibbert's results. 

Both Dr. Fleming and Mr. Hibbert testified to the small amount 
of precipitate found in the Edison Cell, only about 2 ^„th part of 
the whole active material being deposited after running a car 3,000 
miles. About 20 per cent, of this deposit is graphite and the 
remainder iron and nickel oxides. 

Mr. Hibbert made the interesting statement that he had already 
under test an improved Edison Cell whose weight for the same 
capacity did not exceed 13 lbs. and from which even better results 
were expected than those from which the data for his paper was 
obtained. Of the sixty Edison Cells now doing duty on a London cab, 
nine have lost about 50 per cent, of their capacity. Mr. Hibbert stated 
that he had already restored the capacity of one of them to 80 per 
cent.of its normal value and anticipated a complete recovery for them 
all. He also observed that he had hopes of preventing further 
breakdown by submitting the cells to a treatment he was then 
experimenting with. 

Dr. Fleming remarked on the long first charge necessary when 
the cells are received from the makers ; this Mr. Hibbert attributed 
to the fact that the cells were sent over from America in a dry state, 
and that consequently a certain amount of oxidization occurred. 
Also the first charge would naturally have to create more active 
material than the subsequent recharges, which have only to make 
good the amount by which the cells are run down. 

It was definitely stated that no local action had been observed 
between the grids and the active material. Some difficulty seems to 
be experienced in knowing precisely when the Edison Cell is fully 
charged, and this, Dr. Fleming remarked, was best ascertained by 
noting a rapid rise in the open circuit voltage. 

Apparently no change takes place in the density of the electrolyte 
during discharge, and this makes the similarity in shape of the 
discharge curves of the Edison Battery (reproduced in our issue of 
November 14th, 1903), with those ordinarily obtained from lead 
cells, an interesting comparison, with regard to which no satis- 
factory explanation was elicited, although Mr. Wade asked if any 
definite reason could be assigned to account for the very rapid fall 
noticed at the beginning and end of discharge, remarking that 
Mr. Hibbert had always attributed a similar phenomenon m the 
lead cell to change in electrolytic strength so tar as the fall at the 
end of discharge was concerned. 

Among others who took part in the discussion were Messrs. 
Cooper, Datshell and Joly, the last-named gentleman offering certain 
favourable evidence relating to lead cells obtained from the 
numerous experiments which he has conducted upon them. 

On Wednesday four members of the Society of Motor 
Manufacturers and Traders gave evidence on behalf of 
that Association before the Local Government Board 
Departmental Committee on Heavy Traffic Regulations. 
The gentlemen who appeared as witnesses were Messrs. 
J. E. Thornycroft, Sidney Straker, John H. Toulmin,and 
H. G. Burford. 

The Collier Tyre Company, of 210, Shaftesbury 
Avenue, London, have issued a neat little pocket-book, 
which will be found exceedingly useful to motorists. It 
contains, amongst other handy information, an extensive 
list of hotels, and of the agents in all the principal towns 
where petrol can be obtained, a useful memorandum- 
book for entering the cost of maintenance of one's car, 
a mileage-register, a list of lamp lighting-up times at 
different periods of the year, an almanac, a memorandum- 
table, and a reprint of the new Act. In addition there 
is a distance table, a number of selected routes to the 
principal towns, the gradients of the chief British hills, 
and a number of" Useful tips" and " First aid hints in 
emergencies." A somewhat significant provision is the 
section for "Things lent." No motorist should miss 
the chance of securing a copy of this very practical 
"companion." 



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153 



RACES, RECORDS, AND TRIALS. 



Gordon Bennett Items*— Very little that is new has 
transpired since iast week concerning the Gordon Bennett 
Race. The question of the local hotel charges is creating 
widespread discussion, and it is hinted that in the event of 
the proprietors not keeping their demands within reason- 
able bounds, that the burgomasters of the towns will take 
the matter up and fix the prices in similar fashion to the 
custom which prevails at Bayreuth during the Wagner 
festivals. Autocratic powers of this description there- 
fore have their advantages sometimes. The suggestion 
of the Hotel Proprietors' Syndicate that the tariff issued 
is reasonable is ludicrous. A minimum of jQi per 
night for a bed, which must be engaged for not less 
than eight nights, is hardly what most folk would term 
giving accommodation away. 

Following upon the plan adopted at last year's race 
at Ballyshannon, the Germans propose erecting an 
enormous grand stand to accommodate 10,000 persons. 
This, as at Ballyshannon, will' span the racing track, and, 
will be built of steel. 

Fritz Opel, one of the drivers of the Opel-Darracq 
team, is reported to be trying the paces of his car on the 



team, " however unfortunate,- and however mitigated 
by circumstances, the defeat was nevertheless over- 
whelming." Continuing, our contemporary speaks out 
plainly, and with sound common sense, as follows : — 

"To pit unknown, untried, and, by comparison, underpowered 
cars against the pick of Europe's best known and best tried cars 
strongly suggests folly, and unless the trials prove beyond per- 
adventure that the American candidates are able to cope with such 
formidable rivals, it is the duty of the Automobile Club to place a 
prompt and decisive veto on their aspirations. Better far that we 
be not represented at all than that we be misrepresented or poorly 
represented, and it must be regretfully admitted that present 
appearances justify the statement that America's chances in the race 
are on a par with the chance of the proverbial snowball in Hades." 

The plans for the British eliminating trials will probably 
have to undergo considerable modification, owing to the 
unreasonable demands made in Belgium for running 
over the Ardennes course. Something like ^200 per 
car is asked. 

As we stated some time ago, it is quite possible that 
Mr. Charles Jarrott may be found in the British team 
after all. Negotiations to that end are now in progress, 
and we hope to learn later of them concluding success 
fully. 



The re-constructed No. 999 Racing Vehicle on which Ford accomplished his remarkable feat of covering the 

mile in 39$ sees, on an ice track, equal to 91*37 m.p.h. 



Frankfort- Mainz Road, where it runs parallel for about 8 
kilometres with the railway. Opel makes a point of 
pacing the Ostende- Vienna express train and usually 
comes off best. The sporting instinct in the engine 
driver naturally comes into play, and excitement con- 
sequently rises high both on the engine and amongst the 
more observant passengers. 

The colours for the different nations' cars will be the 
same for those who took part last year, viz., Germany, 
white; England, green; France, blue; America, red. 
For Belgium, yellow has been selected ; for Italy, black ; 
whilst Switzerland's choice remains in abeyance. 

On the night before the race a gala performance is to 
be given at the Homburg Opera House, at which the 
German Emperor will probably be present, and, on the 
day following the race, excursions will be permitted over 
the course, and in the evening a big banquet will be 
given by the German Automobile Club. Sunday will 
be devoted to contests in the Frankfort Hippodrome, 
and a u concours d'elegance " will be held at Homburg 
the next day. 

In America counsel is being given that it would be 
better for the United States to be unrepresented than 
that untried cars should be put forward to compete with 
such formidable rivals as will be in the field on behalf 
of the European competitors. A Transatlantic contem- 
porary frankly admits that last year for the American 



Ormond Day tona Automobile Race Meeting. — The 

main results of this fixture, held on January 28, 29, and 
30, are some sensational performances by Mr. W. K. 
Vanderbilt, jun., who appears to have been the hero of 
the meeting, from start to finish, with his 90-h.p. Mer- 
cedes. We recorded last week the marvellous perform- 
ance of Mr. Vanderbilt in covering the mile in 39 sec, 
equal to a speed of 92*30 m.p.h., thus beating Ford's 
remarkable time of 39I sec. on an ice track for the same 
distance, recorded by us on January 16th. Vanderbilt, 
however, on the next day beat his own record by putting 
up a new time of 37^ sec. for the mile, equal to 
96*77 m.p.h., this fearful speed, however, being eclipsed 
in the same race by Barney Oldfield on the Winton car, 
who is reported to have been timed for 36^ sec, equal 
to 98*36 m.p.h., bringing a speed of ioo m.p.h. within 
measureable distance of accomplishment. In fact, 
Vanderbilt claims that during practice he succeeded in 
covering the mile in 35 seconds = to 102*85 m.p.h. 
But this time has no official recognition. These extra 
ordinary performances have taken place on the surf 
rolled stretch of sand extending from Ormond to 
Mosquito Inlet, Florida, a straight run of about 16 
miles. Even when it is high tide there is a broad belt 
of sand of 150 feet for driving, quite double that width 
being available when the tide is out. The higher 
stretch, however, is not in condition for record breaking, 
and consequently only at low tide can the high-speed 



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races be carried through. After the first day's racing, 
H. L. Bowden, on a 60-h.p. Mercedes car, covered 15 
miles in 10 min. 18 sees. The incoming tide on the 
first day stopped the completion of some of the races, 
the finals of these being run off on the next day. In 
the five miles invitation race, open only to gentlemen 
drivers, Vanderbilt, after winning his heat in 
3 min. 38! sees., came out first in the final in 
3 min. 34! sees. He, however, still bettered these 
times in the open five miles event, when his winning 
time in the final was 3 min. 3 if sees. 

Oldfield, who won his heat in 3 mins. 48 \ sees., did 
not take part in the final owing to an accident to his 
Winton car. 

On the third day, January 30th, Vanderbilt again 
scored highest honours on his Mercedes in practically 
all the events in which he took part. He secured the 
10 miles invitation race in 6 mins. 50 sees., and the 
50 miles event, which concluded the day's meeting, in 
40 mins. 49J sees. In this race H. L. Bowden, on his 
60-h.p. Mercedes, was second in 41 mins. 44 \ sees. ; 



timing is done by official French timekeepers, and the 
course approved and measured by the A.C. de France. 

Starting on January 27th, a motor bicycle en- 
durance trial has been run off between Milan and Nice. 
The test was organised originally to extend to Turin and 
then back to Milan, but on the 31st, owing to the bad 
state of the weather, the full trial was abandoned 
at Nice, and the remaining competitors returned 
home from that city. 83 entries were received, and 
of these 60 started from Milan on the 27th. The 
first day eliminated 14, and by degrees many were 
weeded out day by day. On the 29th a 500-metre 
standing start and " standing stop " competition was 
held at Oneglia on the Pie'mont Road. Tamagni on a 
Marchand machine was first in 59 J sees., Brambilla on a 
Turckheimer coming second in 1 min. 2-J- sees., Cerizza 
on a Stucchi being only \ sec. behind. Mentone and 
Nice were reached in very bad weather, with the 
result mentioned above, that the trial by general 
consent was abandoned. About 40 competitors 



A typical part of the road traversed on the 3rd stage, 
Oneglta to Nice. The road before Mentone. 

MILAN^NICE'MILfcN MOTOR BICYCLE AND HEAVY 



At Mentone.— A Control during the 3rd stage. 



VEHICLE ENDURANCE TRIAL. 



7£ sees., on a 40-h.p. 
Pan hard, abandoned 



F. A. La Roche third, in 45 mins. 
Darracq. J. I. Blair, on a 35-h.p. 
the race at 40 miles. 

The following table summarises Vanderbilt's records 
at this meeting : — 



Miles. 



Time. 



Total. 



Per Mile. 



Speed 

in 
m.p.h. 





min. sec. 


sees. 




I 


39 1 


39 


Q2*3 


5 


3 3i* 1 


42A 


85-50 


10 


6 50 


4i 


87-8 


25* 


17 2 | 


417 


86-50 


30+ 


23 52* 


477 


75-60 


50: 


40 49* 


49 


73*46 



* One turning, t Two turnings. % Four turnings. 

Vanderbilt's time of 37^ sees, in his heat for the mile 
equals 96 77 m.p.h. 

From France comes the news that M. Gobron is 
anxious to try conclusions with Vanderbilt, with one of 
his Gobron- Brillie cars, upon the condition that the 



got through to Nice. We give in our two photo- 
graphs pictures of the country when nearing Men- 
tone. Under the same organisation and at the same 
time a trial of heavy vehicles was arranged. This class 
had to traverse four stages of about 120 kiloms. each. 
Only two entries were received, viz., a Fiat and a 
Mercedes wagon, and both are reported to have made 
successful journeys in spite of the fearful weather 
encountered and the bad state of the roads. 

Instead of organising the motor boat races at Frank- 
fort during the Gordon Bennett Race week in Germany, 
it is now announced, in deference to the wishes of the 
German Emperor, that a motor boat race meeting will 
be held at Kiel on July 22nd, which will form part of 
the programme of the popular Kiel Regatta. 

His Majesty King Oscar of Sweden has consented 
to give his patronage to a Motor Boat Exhibition, to be 
held in July next, at Marstrand, in Sweden. The Ex- 
hibition will give the greatest prominence to motor cargo 
boats and motor-driven fishing boats. It is anticipated 
that not only Sweden will take part, but that both 
Norwav and Denmark will be extensive exhibitors. 



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155 



The end of August has been selected by the Com- 
mittee of the A.C. de France for this year's Industrial 
Vehicle Trials. . 



The result of the Conference of Manufacturers called by VAuto 
in connection with their Criterium of Consumption which will be 
held on March 3rd, 4th, and 5th, has now been published. For 
the delivery vans there will be 3 categories, viz. ( 1 ) vehicles carrying 
a useful weight of under 500 kilogs., this type representing a 
rapid van suitable to the requirements of tradesmen dealing in the 
lighter class of goods. (2) Vehicles carrying a useful load of 500 to 
1,200 kilogs., this type being of the design suitable for the heavier 
work of establishments like the Louvre, Bon MarchG, &c. (3) 
Vehicles carrying a useful load of more than 1,200 kilogs. The 
body part of all delivery vans must be entirely closed in. 

For the heavy wagons there will be 2 categories, ( 1 ) for wagons 
carrying a useful load of less than 1,000 kilogs. (2) Vehicles 
carrying over 1,000 kilogs. It has also been decided to limit the 
amount of useful load carried per square metre, a minimum 
of i^ square metres of surface being insisted on per ton of useful 
load carried. A lurry having 1 square metre of carrying surface will 



expedient of relying on a fan draught in conjunction with fin-covered 
cylinders as the only means of dissipating the waste heat. In 
general, far more attention was paid to the decoration of the 
exhibits than of the stands on which they were displayed, there 
being quite a number of admirably-finished chassis on view, these, 
in some cases, again being placed on mirrors to facilitate the inspec- 
tion of their under parts. 

Among the features of the Show the following details, seen on 
the various exhibits, may be noted : 

The Peerless Motor Car Company have made a slight change in 
the form of clutch used, and are now showing on their cars clutches 
of the internal conical type. 

The manufacturers ot the Winton Car have also adopted the 
above form of clutch, but it has metal to metal faces in which the 
engaging members are formed of case-hardened steel and phosphor- 
bronze, the whole being arranged to run in an oil bath. 

The Desbron Motor Car Company have a peculiar form of 
radiator, composed of six horizontal shelves, each individual shelf 
forming a honeycombed radiator, in which the air passages are 
vertical. 

A feature of the Twombly Car, which formed one out of the nine 
steam vehicles which represented this branch of the industry at the 



LOCOMOTION IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD.-Our picture on the left shows an ostrich harnessed 
to a buggy at Denver, Colorado, and on the right is shown a freight truck with draught camel as used in Cairo, 

Egypt. 



therefore not be permitted a load of more than 666 kilogs. , the 
surface is to be measured inside the side and tail-boards. 

Certain difficulties were encountered in arranging the rules to 
meet the case of delivery vans owing to the irregular shape of their 
interiors. It has been decided to make two categories for them, 
namely : one category with a minimum carrying space of I cubic 
metre, and another category for those with a minimum carrying 
space of 2 cubic metres, the weight limits per square metre of flat 
surface being the same as in the case of the lurries. 



New York Automobile Show. — The fourth annual Show, 
which was opened on Saturday, the 16th of last month, in the 
Maddison Square Gardens, failed to exhibit any sensa'ional 
surprises. All the well-known makers were as usual represented 
among the comprehensive display of 258 machines, but the 
tendency was rather towards perfecting last year's models than to 
experimenting in any radical change of design. One noticeable 
feature, however, was the evolution of that peculiarly American 
creation, the " Runabout," into a miniature touring car. 
Many of the well-known makes, which had previously faced the 
world with a plain dash in front, are now appearing with the French 
bonnet, even though it be only used to hide the petrol tank. 

Air cooling is still generally employed on the smallest cars, and 
even one or two of the larger models have resorted to the doubtful 



show, is its fireproof construction ; both body and floor are of 
aluminium, while steel wheels are used. 

The White Sewing Machine Company showed no radical de- 
partures in their exhibit of White Steam Cars, although minor improve- 
ments have been introduced to still further increase the efficiency. 

The Franklin Manufacturing Company exhibited a 24-h.p. 
chassis carrying an air-cooled motor, the steel cylinder of which has 
copper radiating ribs brazed to it. 

The Consolidated Motor Company, who now carry on the 
business of the Moyea Automobile Company, have on this 
year's model a variable-speed friction gear of the wheel and disc 
type. 

The Waltham Manufacturing Company, whose Orient buckboard 
is so well known among the light Runabout Cars in America, have 
adopted a two-speed change gear in place of the direct drive 
formerly used. 

The Haynes Apperson Company have mainly been content to still 
further develop their former design. A novelty was introduced, 
however, in the form of an adjustable steering pillar. 

The Packard Motor Car Company exhibited two distinct styles, 
one of them being the unaltered last year's design, and the other a 
copy of the ordinary European car, of which their " Gray Wolf" 
Racer is an example. 

The Upton Machine Company have arranged the headlights of 
their car to follow the movements of the front wheels, a feature 



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[February 6, 1904. 



which is said to add no small amount to the safety of negotiating 
corners in the dark. 

The Eisenhuth Horseless Vehicle Company exhibit an interest- 
ing car, in which is a 60-h.p. Graham-Fox compound petrol engine, 
having two high -pressure, 4-stroke cycle, cylinders of yh in. bore, 
exhausting into a single low-pressure cylinder of 12 in. bore. The 
stroke is 6 in. The speed of the motor is 800 revs, per min., and 
its weight about 500 lbs. This system was described by us on 
January 3rd last year. A considerable economy in fuel consumption 
is claimed by the makers, which, they assert, amounts to as much 
as 47 per cent. 

The American Coil Company display an interesting novelty in 
the form of a hydraulic transmission gear, in which a 4-cylinder 
pump is employed to supply oil to work two motors situated on the 
rear axle, one motor being employed to drive each wheel, and the 
stroke of the pumps being variable. 



We have referred on a previous occasion to the 
improvements in motor car lamps which, following 
suggestions that have been put forward originally, we 
believe, in these columns, have been adopted by Messrs. 
J. G. Statter and Co. of Birmingham. The above photo- 
graph of one of their lamps is almost self-explanatory. 
It is designed, as our readers will remember, to reduce 
(when going through traffic or where other users of the 
road are likely to be unpleasantly affected) the glare 
produced by acetylene lamps with powerful reflectors. 
A disc of blackened metal, shown in the illustration, 
between the burner and the side of the lamp, can be 
brought round so as to intervene between the flame and 
the reflector by simply operating a Bowden cord from 
the driver's seat. The light then becomes a light merely 



within the meaning of the Act, enabling foot passengers 
and other users of the road to see that a car is ap- 
proaching them, but not diffusing the slightest glare. 
On re-emergence into open roads, where it is important 
to the driver to see some distance before him, he 
operates his Bowden cord to restore the blackened disc 
to its original position, and the lamp then diffuses once 
more its full radiance. Messrs. Statter and Co. also fit 
a second translucent screen, which may be brought into 
position between the light and the glass to facilitate 
travelling in fog, thereby making use of the fact to which 
we have drawn attention, that a light screened in this 
manner enables the driver to see much further into a 
foggy atmosphere than he is otherwise able to do. 



Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth and Co., Limited, 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne, have taken over the entire patents 
and rights in connection with the Wilson and Pilcher 
petrol cars. 



CLUB DOINGS. 

March 9TH is the date fixed for the general meeting 
of the Automobile Club. 



Burnley and District Automobile Club. — Last week, at a 
meeting of the club, Mr. Burton, electrical engineer of Blackburn, 
gave an interesting paper on electric ignition. Mr. Burton dealt, 
in detail, with the various systems of ignition, and gave some details 
as to the construction and working of the coil. He expressed his 
opinion that in a short time the coil would be abandoned. An 
interesting discussion followed, in which Messrs. G. H. H. Clement, 
T. G. Parkinson and Mr. S. Lawson, the hon. secretary, par- 
ticipated. 

For ihe end of February a second paper is promised by Mr. Harold 
Smith, on the subject of "The Latest Improvements in Cars." 

The annual meeting is fixed to take place on Tuesday next. 



Eastern Counties Automobile Club. — Mr. F. L. Bland, 
chairman of the committee, presided at the annual general meeting 
of this club, which was held last week at the Great White Horse 
Hotel, Ipswich. Amongst those present were : — Dr. C. K. Moseley 
(hon. sec), Dr. E. L. Rowe, and Messrs. A. Hackblock, J. R. 
Egerton, C. C. Ching, Edwin Sayer, and W. G. Fisk. The chair- 
man announced there had been a considerable increase in member- 
ship during the year, and the hon. sec. read the report of the 
committee, summarising the work for 1903. In this it was 
pointed out that the club was only formed on January 28th 
of that year, and that the club had been very fortunate in 
securing the support, as president, of Lord Stradbroke. The 
year closed with a membership roll of 51, many being residents 
in the neighbourhood. This gave promise of considerably larger 
attendance upon club runs during the 1904 season, which would 
help to popularise the club and the pastime. The accounts submitted 
showed a credit balance in the hands of the treasurer. It. ^gas^^r 
determined to increase the number of the committee from 6 
members to 9, and upon the motion of the chairmaM^J^arH^g^. 
Stradbroke was re-elected president for the year. Dr^FMoseley 
was again elected hon. secretary and Mr. E. P. Ridley hon. 
solicitor, the new Administrative Committee being constituted as 
follows : Mr. F. L. Bland (ex-officio, as chairman), Major Carthew, 
Mr. A. Hackblock, Mr. Godolphin Milbank, Captain Duff (Bury 
St. Edmund's), Mr. Robert Page (Great Clacton, Essex), Mr. W. P. 
Burton, Mr. A. C. Churchman, Dr. Rowe, and Mr. E. C. Sayor. 
Mr. F. L. Bland was again re-elected to act as chairman. 

Following the elections the affiliation question was discussed, and 
it was determined to leave the question in the hands of the com- 
mittee on condition that the capitation grant should not exceed 5*. 

The arrangement of the club runs for the season was also left to 
the committee, and Mr. Ernest H. Arnott was elected a new 
member of the club. 

A communication from the Adjutant of the Motor Volunteer 
Corps led to a discussion, but no practical result followed the 
suggestion contained in the communication. 



Lincolnshire Automobile Club. — The members of this club 
held a very enjoyable dinner at the Red Lion Hotel, Boston, on 
Saturday evening, January 30th, and in connection therewith Dr. 
Gilpin, of Bourne, read an excellent paper on "The Cost, Care, 
and Upkeep of a Motor." The president of the club (Sir Hickman 
Bacon, Bart.,) was prevented from attending the gathering owing to 
an attack of influenza, but a letter was read from him which stated 
that the Lindsey County Council had decided not to enforce the legal 
limit anywhere, but to rely upon Section 1 of the Act, and not to 
impose any limit or close any roads. Sir Hickman further stated 
how desirable it was that there should be no division in the 
ranks of automobilists. Capt. J. A. Cole, J. P., presided, and in 
addition to about twenty members, there were also present Supt. 
Adcock, of the Boston police, and Mr. B. B. Dyer, clerk to the 
Boston magistrates. Dr. Gilpin's paper was full of interest. With 
regard to the cost of a motor car he did not think that it would 
come down to any appreciable extent, because four years ago two- 
seated cars were selling at exactly the same price as they were 
now. They certainly got better mechanism now and for the 
same money. About the care of a motor car he urged them to 
do whatever they could themselves. If they employed anybody 
they should take care that they knew as much as they did. Con- 
cerning the upkeep, there was no doubt that tyres were the most 
expensive item. Personally he would not go back to solids, 
because in spite of their liability to puncture, pneumatics were 
infinitely superior. They should not use a brake oftener than they 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



157 



could help, and his experience was the less they used it the better. 
He always advised careful driving round corners, and changing gear 
as seldom as possible. A discussion ensued, in which the chair- 
man, Mr. C. W. Penneli, J. P. (Lincoln), Dr. Husband (Crowland), 
Mr. C. Holland (Boston), Mr. K. M. Wright (Lincoln), Dr. F. H. 
Cragg(hon. sec, Billingborough), and Mr. Godfrey Lowe (Lincoln) 
took part. Mr. Penrell stated that he always wore his tyres until 
the fabric was through, and then he had them re- rubbered. He 
considered they were then better than before. Votes of thanks to 
the chairman for presiding and Dr. Gilpin for his paper were 
carried with acclamation. Several friends of the Boston members 
came in after dinner to hear the debate, and the proceedings passed 
off most pleasantly and successfully. 



Scottish Automobile C ub (Western Section).— Last Monday 
evening, the 1st inst., in the Windsor Hotel, Glasgow, Mr. R. 
Drummond, C.E., F.S.A , read a highly interesting paper on 
"The Evolution of Roadmaking in Scotland." There was a fair 
attendance of members, the meeting being presided over by the 
Section chairman, Mr. John Adam. The chairman in introducing 
Mr. Drummond referred to the splendid 
roads in the county, Renfrewshire, of 
which he is county surveyor, and to his 
qualification to speak on the subject. 

Mr. Drummond in opening traced 
the origin of the " King's highway " 
to its being ordained as one of three 
places of succour or refuge by Molun- 
cius, twenty-third king of the Britons. 

Mr. Drummond then traced the 
origin of Scottish roads through the 
Act of 161 7, empowering Justices of the 
Peace to mend highways to market 
towns and seaports, such roads to be 
not less than twenty feet wide ; the Act 
of 1 66 1, which was a renewal of that 
named ; the Act of 1669, introducing 
the system of personal service or labour 
on the roads, known as Statute Labour ; 
the Scotch Turnpike Act of 1 7 13 re- 
lating to the County of Edinburgh 
only, which was promoted, a remark 
which applies to subsequent Turnpike 
Acts, by proprietors of the lands 
through which the roads passed, and 
which authorised these proprietors to 
erect toll-bars, and levy tolls to reim- 
burse them for their outlay. Reference 
was then made to the fact that coaches 
found little favour with the populace 
because they were supposed to injure 
trade, and that so recently as 1740 
carts in Scotland were looked upon as 
curiosities, that in 1740 the Glasgow 
Town Council tried to institute a stage 
coach l>etween Glasgow and Edinburgh, 
but the project fell through, but that in 
1749 such a service was begun. The 
Highway (Scotland) Act ot 1770 pro- 
vided the power to take ground and 
make compensation to proprietors. 
In 183 1 the system of Statute Labour, 

which fell most heavily on the working classes, was commuted by 
an annual payment. Between 1750 and 1844, 350 Roads and 
Bridges Acts were passed, and road and bridge making made rapid 
progress. The connection of Macadam and Telford, two Scotsmen 
to whom our present highways are largely due with the question was 
traced, until in 1824 the new Great North Road from London to 
Edinburgh was engineered by Telford, but was abandoned on 
account of the competition of railways. Improvement had gone on 
till in 1840 road-making came practically to an end. 

In 1878, the Roads and Bridges (Scotland) Act for the first time 
placed the control of roads to a partial extent in the hands of the 
public, which was completed by the Act of 1889 constituting County 
Councils and placing the roads under the immediate control of the 
representatives of the people. 

Mr. Drummond then entered into the question of financial 
administration, showing that assessment varied in Scotland from 
$\d. to is. $d. per £ on tne valuation payable equally by landlord 
and tenant, and that in Scotland to-day there are 21,400 miles of 
country roads. By means of a vari-coloured map he showed the 
members how the rates varied, attributable to a number of causes 
such as geographical positions, vicinity to large towns, high or low 



Our picture shows the poster of the Turin Inter- 
national Automobile Exhibition which opened 
this week. 



rateable value, &c. He showed how, under the toll system, the 
main roads were well maintained while the local roads were 
neglected, a condition of things now reversed ; he stated that our 
roads were being used to a greater extent every year ; that tnere is 
no such classification of roads in Scotland as in England, but that 
there is no clashing of authorities with us as exi ts to some extent in 
England. He then referred to the improved and easie< methods of 
road making and maintenance resulting from the use of the road 
roller, and went into the question of using petroleum and other 
articles for dust prevention, suggesting that the S. A. C. should 
undertake experiments to assist in solving the problem. 

After referring to the work of the Departmental Committee on 
Roads, he devoted some time to demonstrate the best contour of 
road surface, depreciating excessive camber as worse thau useless. 

A discussion followed, in which several road authorities, includiu^ 
Mr. Nisbet, Master of Works, Glasgow, and others took part. A 
vote of thanks concluded the proceedings. 



Sheffield Automobile Club. — A very successful first annual 
meeting of the members of this club took place at the Whamcliffe 
Hotel, Sheffield, last week. Mr. 
Herbert Barber presided, and the re- 
port and statement of accounts were 
carried unanimously. 

For the ensuing year the following 
officers were elected, the selection of 
president being left over, viz. : vice- 
presidents, Messrs. Harvey Foster, 
Herbert Barber, Duncan Gilmour, and 
James Barber ; treasurer, Mr. E. F. 
Coupe ; hon. secretary, Mr. F. B. 
Cawood ; committee, Messrs. A. J. 
Blyde, W. Coldwell, C. A. Clarke, 
S. E. Fedden, E. H. Hill, Benj. 
Hind, W. James, J. W. Needham, 
J. T. Thompson, and J. R. Wade. 

The chairman said he thought the 
committee were to be congratulated 
upon the steps taken with regard to 
the new Act by means of which they 
had got the authorities to act in a 
reasonable way with reference to the 
imposition of the 10 mile limit regula- 
tions in contrast to what had been done 
in some- districts. He thought it was 
due greatly to the excellent Chief Con- 
stable and Town Clerk which the city 
possessed. 

The question of affiliation was left by 
the meeting in the hands of the com- 
mittee. It was decided to support, as 
far as possible, the Theatrical Profession 
Carnival arranged to take place on 
Thursday of this week, in aid of the 
Lord Mayor's Distress Fund. A num- 
ber of those present promised to assist 
in the procession by driving their cars. 
A beany vote of thanks to the chair- 
man wf the club concluded the meet- 



ing. 



The following fixtures have been 
arranged for February, viz. : — For cars 
to meet at the Town Hall, Feb. 27th, at 2.30 p.m., a run 
to Castleton For the Motor Cycle Section the runs arranged are 
Feb. nth, Blylhe ; 13th, Grindfeford ; 18th, Baslow ; 20th, Wcrk- 
sop; 25th, Bawtry; 27th, Castleton. A special party of club 
members is being made up for the purpose of visiting the Auto- 
mobile Show at the Crystal Palace about Feb. 15th. 



Durinc; each year an enormous number of " paper 
corporations " are registered in New Jersey, United 
States, and periodically the Governor of the State annuls 
their charters when default or failure to pay the State 
taxes occur. A list of those who have brought them- 
selves into this category for the year 1901 has just 
been published, and the astonishing number of ^^ cor- 
porations, directly or indirectly established for taking 
up automobile work, have been proclaimed non- 
existent. 



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[February 6, 1004- 



H.R.H. The Prince of Wales has conformed to the 
new law by registering his car. 



Commencing on Monday last, a service of motor omni- 
buses was announced to start running between Forest Hill 
Railway Station and Camberwell, via Peckham Rye. 

On Feb. 14th a Children's Fete is to be given by the 
A.C. of France, at their clubhouse, followed by a 
children's ball. These functions will be exclusively 
reserved for the families of members. 

Alive to the earning powers of a competent automo- 
bile driver, the Governors of Bray Technical Schools 
in Ireland have recently opened a training class for 
chauffeurs. The class is open both to professional and 
non-professional drivers. 



Referring to our front paragraph on the subject of 
the development of the automobile industry in Jndia, 
we would point out that manufacturers who wish to 
export are invited to forward catalogues and particulars 
to Mr. Rolfe at 3, Council House Street, Calcutta. 



In the final list of French automobile exhibitors at the 
St. Louis World's Fair are the names of A. Clement, 
Darracq, De Dietrich, Fouillaron, Falconnet and 
Perodeaud, Jeantaud, Krieger, Michelin and Co., Mors, 
Panhard and Levassor, Renault, Georges Richard and 
Turgan Foy. 

In several directions Vaurs carburettors have been 
sold in Great Britain by firms claiming to have the 
agency. We learn that M. Vaurs, of Paris, has now 
placed the sole agency in the hands of the United 
Motor Industries, Limited, of 45, Great Marlborough 
Street. The new models of this carburettor will be on 
view for the first time at the forthcoming Crystal Palace 
Exhibition. 



Last week, at the meeting of the Executive Council 
of the County Councils' Association, the report of the 
Motor Cars' Committee, and the recommendations agreed 
to at the conference between representatives of the 
County Councils and Municipal Corporations Associa- 
tion, and of the Local Government Board and the 
Scottish Office, were considered and adopted, with one 
slight alteration. Among the designs for warning boards, 
it was suggested that the one indicating dangerous spots 
should be painted green. In view of the fact that red is 
generally recognised as a sign of danger, it was decided 
that the hollow triangle denoting danger should be of 
that colour instead of green. 



Without question the Automobile Show, which opens 
at the Crystal Palace on February 12th, will be the 
finest exhibition ever held in this country. Already the 
whole of the interior of the building is practically given 
over to the preparations for the instalment of the various 
stands, and the inaugural luncheon, on February 13th, 
at the Palace, promises to be an extremely inter- 
esting ceremony. The chair will be occupied by the 
Hon. John Scott Montagu, M.P.,and amongst a long 
list of guests who will be present are the names of Lord 
Stanley, Lord Hothfield, Col. Holden, Lieut -Col. Mark 
Mayhew, Maj.-Gen. Sir Chas. Knox, Sir Bache Cunard, 
Earl Russell, the Hon. D. Greville, M.P., Mr. George 



Montagu, M.P., Sir Edward Jenkinson, Lord Claud 
Hamilton, Count de Lalaing, Lord Norbury, Sir J. 
Macdonald, Mr. Rutherfoord Harris, M.P., Lieut.-Col. 
Waring, Professor C. V. Boys, Sir Edgar Vincent, M.P., 
Captain Nugent, etc. 



■^^^^^^^^^^^^^^w»#^^^ 



DOINGS OF PUBLIC COMPANIES. 



NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. 

[Taking powers to manufacture or deal in motors, motor cars, or 
accessories, either as their principal or part of their objects.] 



Ferguson's Carriage Company (Limited), 68, Bradford 
Road, Shipley, Yorkshire. — Capital, ,£5,000 in £\ shares. Object, 
to adopt an agreement with J. VV. Ferguson, and to carry on the 
business of cab and carriage proprietors, motor and other omnibus 
and vehicle proprietors and manufacturers, &c. First directors — 
j. \V. Ferguson and J . C. Fergjson. 

W. F. French and Sons (Limited), 314, High Road, 
lialham, S. W. — Capital, £2, 500 in £1 shares. Object, to acq-ure 
the business of a cycle and motor trader, hirer, maker, and 
repairer, carried on by W. F. French, at 314, High Road, Balham, 
as W. F. French and Sons. First directors — G. A. Crosland, 
VV. H. Crosland, W. F. French, Mrs. L. Crosland, Mrs. N. Cros- 
land, Ethel F. French, and E. Cropland. 

Grande Maison D' Automobiles (Limited), 366, Euston 
Road, N.W. — Capital, £10,000 in £1 shares. 

A. G. Mulliner Motor Body Company (Limited), 61, 
Oriel Road, Bootle, Lancashire. — Capital, £2,000 in £1 shares. 
Object, to adopt an agreement with A. G. Mulliner and T. C. 
Usher for the acquisition of the business carried on at Church as the 
Mulliner Motor Body Company. First directors — J. J. King and 
J. W. Wall. 

Selbach (Limited), 66 and 66a, Great Russell Street, W.C.— 
Capital, £80,000 in £1 shares. Object, to carry on the business of 
automobile, motor car, engine, and carriage builders, .Sic. Oscar C. 
Selbach is the first director with power to nominate two others. 



1,031. 
1,218. 
1,219. 
2,172. 
4,220. 

4,796- 
4,798. 

4.799- 
6,200. 

24>634- 

2>,I7I. 

25.588. 

26.498. 

26,4^9. 

26,720. 



607. 
7*5- 
857. 
952- 
959- 
1,288. 

2|t25- 
2,3»I- 
2,422. 
2,805. 

3.7Q9- 
5. > 29- 

5.720. 
5.845. 

5,920. 

6,145. 

6.455- 
6,461. 

8,677. 
i8,934- 
21,195. 

23,482. 
25,150. 
25.953- 
26, 14 7. 
26,592. 
27,210. 



NEW INVENTIONS. 

Patent Specifications Published. 
Applied for In 1003. 

Ptil>li*Jud January 28/A, 1901. 

A. H. P. Blunt Propelling and stecin< aerial machines. 
H. Crouan. Safety coupling for change-speeds. 
H. Crouan. Automatic carburettor. 

A. Craig. Change-sp-ed mechanism. 

Humbbk (Limited) and others. Factional driving clutches. 

E. Pkrkins and J. A. Rowclikfe. Differential gear. 

E. Perkins and J. A. Rowcliffe. Carrier plate for boilers. 

E. Pewkins and ). A. RowcLiEFE. Change-speed -gears. 

B. Crawford. Exhaust silencer. 

Soc. Automobiles " Hkr«ld." Brakes. 

Martin and Lethimonnier. Cylinders mechanism. 

Soc. d' Automobiles Mors. Valve controlling. 

J. Spyker. Explosion motors. 

J. Spyker. Steering gear. 

J. H. Bishop. Siart ;ng device. 

Published February 4th, 1904. 

L. Renault. Steering g*ar. 

W. Rourke and W. W. Horsburgh. Fitting to prevent side-slip. 
P. Steinhauer. Driving and steering gear. 
H. C. Marx. Internal combustion engines. 

B. H. Thwaite. Internal combustion engine . 
A. G. Melhuish. Internal combustion engines. 
J. Weller. .^peed -change transmission gearing. 
M. J. P. O'Gorman. Internal combustion engines. 

F. W. Lan Chester. Steering and controlling mechanism. 

C. Jenatzv (fils>. Magnetic clutches. 
A. B. Brown. Reversing valve gear. 
K. Phillips Axles. 

Wolseley Tool anx> Motor Car Company and H. Austin. 

Means for regulating proportions of air and liquid fuel. 
H. F. Joel. Construction of electrodes. 
T. Slack and T. Whitaker. Stands or jacks.^ 
W. Fennell and W. P. Perry. Storage batteries. 
W. J. Crossley amd W. Webb. Internal combustion engines. 
Wolselpy Tool and Motor Company and H. Austin. Combined 

means for mechanically operating the inlet valve or the exhaust valve 

and causing the ignition and the charge. 
M. E. P. Chaboche. Burners for heavy petroleum. 
H. Pratt and F. Vince. Electric storage batteries. 
L. S. Van Westrum and Westrumite (Limited). Method of 

making roads. 

G. Rosset. Secondary batteries. 

G. Honold. Generators for electric ignition. 

P. Arbel. Frames. 

ooc. Chenard, Walcker, and Co. Carburettors. 

Soc. des Moteurs Thermiquks. Valve gear and ignition apparatus. 

J. Wyss. Spray vaporisers. 



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The AUT0M0T0R JOURNAL 

A RECORD AND REVIEW OF APPLIED AUTOMATIC LOCOMOTION. 

Circulates amongst Makers and Users of Motor Cars, Cycles, etc., in the United Kingdom, the 

Colonies, and the Continent. 



Offices: 44, St Martin's Lane, London, W.C. 



No. 162. (No. 7, Vol. IX.)] FEBRUARY 13TH, 1904. [^^Ne^^ ] [Weekly, Price *L 



The King and Queen of Italy are, as everybody knows, most enthusiastic automobilists. They are here shown 

in their two~seated victoria, to which the Queen is particularly devoted, and in which she makes long excursions, 

frequently by herself, as she has now become quite an expert driver. 



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[FEBRUAkY 13, I9O4. 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 

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W. H. Smith and Son's, and Willing and Co., Ltd.'s book- 
stalls and usual newsagents, 

Paris.— -W. H. Smith and Son, NeaPs Library y 248, Rut de 
Rivoli. 

When any difficulty is experienced in procuring the Journal from 
local newsvendors, intending subscribers can obtain each issue direct 
from the Publishing Office, by forwarding remittance as above. 



DIARY OF FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 



1904. 

Feb. 12-24 

Feb. 15 
*Feb. 18 

Feb. 23-27 
•Feb. 25 

Feb. 25 



Feb. 27 
Mar. 4 

Mar. 7-12 
Mar. 10 
Mar. 15 

•Mar. 17 

Mar. 19-26 

•Mar. 24 
Mar. 25-30 
Apl. 16 

May 

May 19-20 
June 1-7 
August 
Sept. ... 
Oct. -Nov. 



British Events. 

2nd Annual Exhibition of the Society of Motor 
Manufacturers and Traders at the Crystal Palace. 

A. C. G.B.I, and Provincial Clubs' Conference. 

" Aeronautics and Ballooning as a Sport," by Mr. 
C. F. Pollock (A.C. Paper). 

Hull Cycle and Motor Show (Assembly Rooms). 

"The Manufacture and Use of Pneumatic Tyres," 
by Mr. J C. Siddeley (A.C. Paper). 

" Motor Vehicles for Goods Transport," by Mr. J. 
E. Thornycroft, A.M.I.C.E. (Glasgow Un. 
Engineering Society). 

" Wire Wheels Tyred," by Mr. F. W. Lanchester 
(Mid. A.C.). 

" Some Practical Notes on Electric Storage Bat- 
teries," by G. C. AUingham (Junior Institute 
of Engineers). 

Manchester Motor Show (St. James's Hall). 

Automobile Club General Meeting. 

" Cost, Up-keep, and Care of an Autocar," by 
Messrs. J. Adam and J. H. Steen (Scottish A.C). 

" Valves and Valve Mechanism of Internal Com- 
bustion Engines," by Mr. R. E. Phillips, 
M.I.M.E. (A.C. Paper). 
Cordingley and Co.'s Motor Car Exhibition at the- 
Agricultural Hail. 

Smoking Concert. 

•Side-Slip Trials. ( Entries close Feb. 29. ) 

Examination of Cars for Gordon -Bennett British 
Eliminating Trials. # 

British Gordon -Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 

Glasgow-London Non-Stop Run. 

Motor Bicycle Endurance Trial. 

British International Cup for Motor Boats. 

•Reliability Trials. 

•Light Van Trials (about 2,000 miles). 



Foreign Events (Trials, Races, &c). 
(All French road racing fixtures are subject to confirmation by 
tht French authorities.) 
1904. 
Feb. 6-21 ... Turin Exhibition. 

Feb. 14 ... Coupe Sneyden 1 kilom. on flat (A.C. Algeria). 
Feb. 15-20 ... Detroit Show. 
Feb. 23-27 ... Anti-Skid Trials at Versailles. 
Feb. 29- Mar. 5 Cleveland Show. 

Mar Paris- Rome (La France Automobile). 

Mar. 3, 4, 5 .. Fuel Consumption Trials (VAttto). 

Mar. 6-12 ... Buffalo Show. 

Mar. 13-20 ... Cannes Automobile Week. 

Mar. 14-19 ... Boston Show. 

Mar. 15-16 ... A.C. America Commercial Vehicle Trials. 

Mar. 19-27 ... Frankfort Exhibition. 

Mar. 20-29 ■•• Nice Week (details, Oct. 31, p. 1168). 

Mar. 21-26 ... Washington (U.S.A.) Auto Show. 



Mar. 23-27 . 
Apl. 5-15 
Apl. 16-Mayj 

Api. 17 : 

Apl. 18-23 . 
May ... 
May ... 
May ... 
May 1- 12 
May 11— 15 .. 
May 12 
May 12-15 . 
May 14-15 . 
May 16-23 . 
May 23-31 .. 
June 7 
June 7 
June 17 
July 10 
July ... . 
Tuly 16-17 
July 17 
July 18-23 • 
July 22 
July 23-25 . 
Aug. 5-1 1 
Aug. 12 
Aug. 13- 
Aug. 15 
Aug. 28 
Aug. 
Sept. ... 
Sept. 2 
Oct. 5 
Oct. 9 
Oct. 14-22 
Nov. 20 
Dec. ... 



-14 



Electric Vehicle Trials (Monde Sportif). 

Monaco Motor Boat Week (details, Jan. 2, p. 25). 

Vienna Auto Show. 

Coupe Meyan (Motor Boats). 

Nice- Rome. 

Circuit des Ardennes (AC. Belgium). 

French Gordon- Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 

Guadarrama Hill Climb (A.C. Spain). 

A.C. Bordelais Automobile Fortnight. 

Milan Exhibition and Tourist Trial. 

Perigueux Hill Climb (A.C. Dordogne). 

Tours Tourist Trial. 

Nantes-Croisic (Motor Boats), Monde Sportij. 

Circuit National Beige. 

A»x-les-Bains Week. 

Namur Week. 

Spa Week. 

Gordon-Bennett Race. 

Mont-Cenis Hill Climb (A.C. Italy). 

Speed Trials (VAuto). 

( Jstende Motor Boat Races. 

Antwerp- Ostende Motor Boat Run. 

Ostende Week. 

Kiel Motor Boat Races. 

Lucerne Motor Boat Races. 

Paris-Deauville Motor Boat Race. 

Motor Boat Race for Gaston Menier Cup 

Calais- Dover-Calais (motor boats). 

Calais-Boulogne-Calais (motor boats). 

Ventoux Hill Climb (Avignon). 

Paris Industrial Vehicles Trials (A.C. France). 

Deauville Automobile Meeting (L'Auto). 

Chateau Thierry Hill Climb (L'Auto). 

Dourdan Kilometre Trials (Monde Sportif ). 

Gaillon Hill Climb (VAuto). 

Leipzig Cycle and Motor Show. 

100 Kiloms. Trial (A.C. Algeria). 

Paris Salon. 



CONTENTS. 



* Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland Events. 



• Pag*. 

The King and Queen of Italy in their Two-seated Victoria 159 

Diary of Forthcoming Events 160 

Passing * vents : — 

The Automobile Muse 161 

Mere Want of Diplomacy 161 

To Revivify the Club Committee 162 

A False Suggestion 162 

Encouragement Across the Channel 163 

A Jobmaster Among the Prophets 163 

Aviation 163 

The 1904 Germain Petrol Ca s 164 

Fig. 1, A 16-h.p. Car; Figs. 2, 3, and 4, The Engine from right side 
and left side ; Fig. 5, Crots-section through Cylinders ; Fig. 6, 
Change-speed -gear : Fig. 7, A 2-stroke Hardt Petrol Engine on a 
Germain Car ; Fig. 8, Two Diagrammatic Views of Hardt Engine. 

The 1004 Achilles Petrol Cars 169 

Fig. 1, An 8-h.p. Car ; Fig. 2, View of 9-h.p. Chassis from above ; 
Pig* 3i View from beneath ; Fig. 4, Cnange-speed-gear on 8-h.p. 
Cars ; Fig. 5, Sectional Drawing of Change-speed-gear ; Fig. 6, 
Sectional Drawing of Back Axle. 

The Crossley Petrol Engine 173 

Fig. t, Four Views of Crossley Engine ; Fig. 2. Four Drawings of 
Crossley Engine ; Fig. 3, Three Views of Cylinder Casting ; Auto- 
matic Carburettor on the Crossley Car ; Six Fieures showing four 
Photographic Views ; Cross-sections and Plan of Carburettor ; also 
Automatic Portions. 
The Crystal Palace Exhibition :— 

A 25-h.p. Mandslay Omnibus t8o 

Thornycroft Tonneau Car and Thornycroft Double Phaeton 18 1 

A ro-h.p. Ryknield I'onneau .. .. .. 182 

The 15-h.p. Rose Car 182 

A 4-Cylinder James and Browne Landaulette 183 

Elect romobile Company's Car de Luxe .. 183 

Dennis Wneel and Live Rear Axle 184 

Albany Petrol Car 184 

Langdon-Davie* Petrol Van 184 

The Napier 6-Cylinder 1 8- h.p. Car 185 

Fig. i, View of 6-Cylinder Chassis from right side ; Fig. 2, 6-Cylinder 
Chassis from left; Fig. 3, View of iSh.p. Chassis from above; 
Fig. 4, Arrangement of Re* r Springs on latest Napier Car ; Fig. 5, 
6-Cyhnder Engine from right side ; Fig. 6, 6-Cylinder Engine 
from left side ; Fig. 7, Central Portion 01 6-Cylinder Chassis ; 
Fig. 8, View of Gear Box. 

Siddeley Petrol Cars 189 

Fig 1, Side View of 18-h p. Chassis ; Fig. 2, 4-Cylinder 18-h p. Engine 
from left side; Fig. 3, 18-h.p. Engine from right side; Fig. 3, 
Central Portion of 1 8-h.p. Chassis. 
Some of the Features on 1904 Brush Cars .... . . . . 191 

Fig. i, View of 18-h.p. Engine from right side; Fig. 2, Component 
Parts of Doyte Air- Valve ; Fi?. 3, Various Parts of Clutch. 
The Club and the Exhibitions 193 

Clab Doings .... 194 

Races, Record «, and Trials . . 194 

De Dion 6 h.p. Car .. 195 

Doings of Public Companies . . . . 196 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



i6t 



PASSING EVENTS. 



The Muse Among the Automobiles. 
Mr. Kipling has again been providing one of those 
remarkable proofs of his amazing versatility with which 
he from time to time enjoys electrifying the public. 
We are pleased to find that his new departure is dedi- 
cated to the service of automobilism, and is to take the 
form of a number of imitations or parodies of leading 
English poets, from Chaucer downwards — each of the 
parodies dealing with some phase or feature connected 
with automobilism. The first few poems of the series 
have already appeared in the columns of the Daily Matt, 
which has arranged with Mr. Kipling for their publica- 
tion. The imitation of Chaucer is delightfully quaint 
and characteristic, and is very, appropriately entitled 
" The Justice's Tale." It invests the modern chauffeur 
with a Chaucerian atmosphere in a wonderfully effective 
and entertaining manner, though, perhaps, the chauffeur 
so quaintly described comes perilously near in his 
characteristics to the road-hog whom it is the desire of 
ourselves and all who have the interests of automobilism 
at heart to see eliminated with the greatest possible 
rapidity by the new Act. Nor is it quite fair, we think, 
to represent the chauffeur as frightening ordinary users 
of the road by the use of his horn " until they crope 
into a piggestie." Owing to the tactics generally 
adopted by the police in organising motor traps, the 
pigstye has become consecrated in popular imagination 
(when not needed by its customary occupant) to the 
use of the ambushed policeman. We would prefer had 
Mr. Kipling, when dealing with the savoury structure, 
afforded recognition to the successful manner in which 
the tactics of the police have permanently associated 
them with it. The Chaucer imitation is all too short. 
It would have been delightful had we had a whole long 
story of the misfortunes of a motorist, say at the hands 
of police and magistrates, something in the style, say, of 
" Pelamon and Arcite," from Mr. Kipling's pen. Six- 
teen lines is not long enough for a real imitation of the 
Chaucerian style. 

A singularly forcible and really vivid imitation of 
Ben Jonson urges a lady to adopt automobilism, and 
the vagaries and troubles of electric ignition are por- 
trayed in a quaint and humorous parody of the celebrated 
satirist, Dr. Donne ; while the verses in the style of 
Herrick have all that writer's fire and almost more. 
Presumably Mr. Kipling intends to give us a complete 
series of such imitations coming down to modern times. 
Should we be presented with an imitation of Shelley, we 
may hope to encounter something really worthy and 
illustrative of the force and rush of the modern motor 
vehicle, to a degree which will show how unsuccessful 
some recent attempts to embody these features in verse 
have been. 

We never quite like the puff preliminary in regard to 
poetry, and in the case of Mr. Kipling, particularly 
where he has adopted such a novel and original de- 
parture, it is decidedly superfluous. So we do not 
feel that Mr. Marriott-Watson's introduction to the 
verses adds much either to the pleasure or appreciation 
of the reader. Mr. Watson carefully explains to us that 
" wood " in Chaucerian English means " mad," but he 
might have added for the information of many that 
" roode " does not mean, as many readers we fear will 
think, the road, but means the cross, or crucifix — " by 



the rood " being a frequent mediaeval form of assevera- 
tion. And oh ! Mr. Watson, there is no poem in the 
English language entitled " Piers Plowman." Langland's 
poem is " The Vision of Piers Plowman." 
4. *. 4. 
More Want of Diplomacy. 

If the publishers of the late Mr. Whistler's " Gentle 
Art of Making Enemies" should ever contemplate an 
up-to-date edition of that sprightly work, we would 
recommend them to procure the co-operation of the 
gentlemen who at present manage the affairs of the 
Automobile Club. We make this observation with 
special reference to the letters of the Society of Motor 
Manufacturers and Traders, and the official statement 
made by the club, published in our present issue. 
It will be obvious to anybody perusing these letters that, 
the action of the club committee on the Exhibition 
question, in addition to being ill-advised, short-sighted, 
and a complete reversal of its former dignified policy, 
as we have already pointed out, was conducted in a way 
specially calculated, though presumably not designed, to 
exasperate and annoy a powerful trade body. Even 
had the committee been well advised in reversing the 
previous policy of the A. C. G. B. I., solemnly announced 
a year and nine months ago, even had it been wise to 
bestow the patronage of the club on one Exhibition 
while the trade still remains divided on the great question, 
and even had that patronage been bestowed in such a 
way that no suggestion of pecuniary advantage to the 
club could have been made, it would still have been 
incumbent on the committee, and at any rate only 
common sense, to bestow that patronage without un- 
necessarily irritating the organisation to which it had 
been decided not to give it. It appears from the letters 
to which we refer, that after the first rupture of negotia- 
tions between the Society of Motor Manufacturers and 
Traders and the club committee, resulting in the 
bestowal of the club's a patronage" on the Agricultural 
Hall Exhibition, the Society of Motor Manu- 
facturers and Traders were willing to re-open 
negotiations in the hope, apparently, that the club 
might be induced to permit the light of its favour to 
illuminate its Show, at any rate next year, and a letter 
was accordingly written by the secretary of the society 
proposing to re-open negotiations for this purpose. It will 
hardly be believed that this courteous note has never 
been replied to on behalf of the club committee. There 
are occasions in conducting the affairs of life when dis- 
courtesy — always unwise — is evidence of monumental 
incapacity, and we think the extraordinary discourtesy 
here displayed is an instance in point. 

In the light of this extraordinary indiscretion, the fine 
show of indignation made by the club newspaper over the 
suggestion, mentioned in a letter from Lord Russell, that 
the club was bestowing its patronage on the Agricultural 
Hall Exhibition for the consideration of ^500, and the 
statement by the Editor that such an imputation is a 
grotesque misrepresentation, borders on the farcical. 
The official statement in the club's organ has the appear- 
ance of protesting too much. It forcibly calls to mind 
the French proverb, qui s 'excuse s' accuse. The whole 
situation is an eloquent commentary on the dangers 
which, as we have always insisted, are inherent in any 
attempt to engage in trade on the part of a body like 
the Automobile Club, which desires (or should desire) 
to be regarded as a supreme Court of Appeal in automo- 
bile matters, and to establish for itself such a reputa- 



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THE AUTQMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[February 13, 1904. 



tion for impartiality and strict honour that public 
authorities, the automobile world and the general public 
will hasten to invoke its assistance in matters of dispute, 
and its advice in questions of legislation and adminis- 
tration. 

This is the second time which we refer to this unfortu- 
nate controversy, and we distinctly desire that our 
position should not be misunderstood. We are far from 
hostile to Mr. Cordingley's Exhibition. On the contrary 
we were extremely pleased to learn that steps were being 
taken to effect a rapprochement between the two Exhibi- 
tion Associations in which Mr. Cordingley would have 
played a leading part. When the automobile movement 
was in its infancy Mr. Cordingley was the first exhibitor 
in the Metropolis to afford hospitality to the then by no 
means numerous automobile exhibits which were first 
displayed at his Laundry Exhibition in 1896 (before the 
Act), and the first Automobile Exhibition held in the 
Metropolis took place under his auspices in 1898. For 
this early encouragement he certainly deserves well of 
the industry, and he is by no means to be blamed for 
purchasing what he may consider an asset for his Exhibi- 
tion. Our contention is, as we argued on January 30th, 
that, by its action, the club is reversing a policy decided 
on after solemn and serious consideration, is displaying 
partiality calculated to injure the industry and mislead 
the public, and is doing this for money down. Even 
had the club patronage been bestowed gratis, such action 
would have been open to the criticism which we have made. 
The situation is merely accentuated and invested with an 
unpleasant air of sordidness by the introduction of the 
pecuniary and other " considerations." 

But when all this has been said, it cannot be denied 
that the chief manufacturers of this country, and many 
of the chief manufacturers of the Continent, are exhibiting 
at the Crystal Palace only, and that no Exhibition from 
which they are excluded can be looked on as completely 
representative of the industry. A " society of encourage- 
ment " should have, above all things, satisfied itself as to 
which of the Exhibitions is the more representative 
before deciding upon a course of action. We entirely 
fail to see that matters are made any better by the 
exceedingly disingenuous account of the whole proceed- 
ings which has been published in the club paper, and 
reproduced in our columns this week, together with the 
letters of the society explaining what really occurred. In 
the first place the club organ states that the Society of 
Motor Manufacturers approached the club asking on 
what terms the club would grant its patronage. There 
was no question at all of terms. It merely asked 
for the club patronage on the ground that it was 
the most representative Exhibition. It is further 
not correct to say that the terms proposed were 
" rejected /// toto by the society without leaving 
any loophole for any further negotiations in the 
matter." So far was this from being the case that the 
society, as we have explained above, attempted to re- 
open the negotiations. If the Society of Motor Manu- 
facturers and Traders were capable of a iu quoque it 
would be justified in describing this travesty of what 
actually took place as a " grotesque misrepresentation." 
♦ «•» «•» 
To Revivify the Club Committee. 

The annual election of the club committee on March 
10th, when the whole club will have an opportunity of 
deciding whether it will retain the same members in office 
or not, is now rapidly approaching. The infusion of 



fresh blood into the committee on a large scale would, 
we are convinced, benefit the club as an institution, and 
also be of service to the automobile movement. An 
administrative body which continues from year to year 
to consist of the same members is liable to fall into a 
groove, and to take a restricted view of the questions 
which present themselves for their consideration and 
decision. We should like to see the next committee 
more representative of varying automobile interests. If 
the whole present committee, considering the criticism 
to which the policy which has been pursued has been 
subjected, should see their way to resigning, and so afford 
the club members an opportunity of appointing an 
entirely new committee, it would be a graceful and self- 
sacrificing act on their part. In any case, those members 
of the club who wish to see new members elected should 
take care that those they wish to vote for are duly 
nominated in good time, for unless members are 
nominated they cannot be elected, and, unless attention 
is given to this point, practically the same committee 
may be elected over and over again. Such nominations 
should be made before the 23rd of this month. 
♦ «•►«•» 
A False Suggestion. 
We have always been good friends with the County 
Gentleman, and recognise to the full the amount of 
friendly support which our contemporary has from time 
to time given to the automobile movement. We are, 
therefore, rather sorry to see appearing in its pages an 
article by the Rev. Arundell Whatton which is calculated 
to give the readers of the County Gentleman a very false 
impression of the controversy between the Automobile 
Club and the automobile Press. Mr. Arundell Whatton 
begins his article on " Motors and Motor topics" as 
follows : — " The Club and its critics — one cannot help 
saying a word about the matter, though it is not, perhaps, 
a very safe wasp-nest to stir up." He goes on to suggest 
that the automobile Press has carefully selected a time to 
make an attack when the Automobile Club is struggling 
in the grasp of three secretaries who, he says, cannot be 
quite equal to the one they have replaced, and is 
suffering, in addition, from the resignation of Mr. 
Wallace. Those who have followed the controversy 
which has been conducted in the automobile Press in 
regard to the club will recognise at once that this state- 
ment of the case is a misstatement of facts which is 
calculated to convey a very false impression of what has 
actually taken place. What the automobile Press has 
felt called upon to say in regard to the policy of the club 
has been entirely dictated by an interest for the welfare 
of the club and the future of the automobile movement. 
The necessity for enforcing the protests which have been 
made has arisen from the adoption of unwise and 
disastrous courses of action. The present three secretaries 
have been managing the affairs of the club for practically 
a year. We do not know how long Mr. Whatton thinks 
their management ought to be regarded as above, or at 
any rate remote from, criticism on the ground of their 
inexperience. Mr. Wallace has only just signified his 
resignation. If criticism of the proceedings and policy 
of a body like the Automobile Club is always to be set 
down as illegitimate whenever there are changes in the 
personnel of its staff, it would be quite impossible to 
criticise its proceedings at all. When the Automobile 
Club or any other body prominently connected with 
automobilism makes, what we consider, mistakes, we 
shall point out those mistakes, and we have no doubt 



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FbbruarV 13, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



163* 



that our colleagues will do the same. We have never 
made a personal attack, so that arguments which would 
be relevant, if we had done so, have consequently no 
bearing at all on the controversy which we, and other 
members of the automobile Press, have raised. In 
•conclusion one cannot avoid a certain mild amusement 
at Mr. Whatton's opening sentence which we have 
•quoted above. He suggests that though the particular 
wasps' nest to which he refers is not a safe one to stir 
tip with impunity, there are others which can be 
u stirred up " without danger. Would Mr. Whatton tell 
us what and where they are ? 

«•►♦«•» 
Official Encouragement Across the Channel. 

The French authorities still continue to encourage the 
automobile on a very extensive scale. There are a 
large number of country districts in France which 
are not served by railways, and in which the post 
both for letters and parcels has to be conveyed 
by the time-honoured " diligence." The French 
Post Office has now decided to open twenty of 
these lines to automobile competition, and is pre- 
pared to receive tenders from automobile firms for 
tunning these twenty different services, together with an 
estimate of what they will charge for doing so. Should 
automobile transport be adopted as the result of the 
tenders, which will, no doubt, be sent in (and this is to 
be looked upon as probable), the adoption of motor 
vehicles for public service on so extended a scale cannot 
fail to have the most beneficial results on the French 
industry. We would like to see our own postal 
authorities extending their experimental encouragement 
of automobilism on a similar scale. They need have 
practically no fears as to the outcome of any such action 
on their part. The great railway companies have shown 
initiative in this respect,- having established a nurriber of 
motor car services for feeding their out-of-the-way 
stations, which have in most cases proved remunerative 
and successful, so that there can be little doubt that 
similar results will be obtained in connection with postal 
delivery. 

•* ♦ ♦ 

A Jobmaster Among Ithe Prophets. 

That the mantle of prophesy, should have descended 
upon the shoulders of a jobmaster provides a situation 
at which the most serious could hardly avoid a smile. 
It is, of course, in reference to the growing popularity 
of the new locomotion that the jobmaster in question 
has taken up his parable. He has informed a repre- 
sentative of a daily paper that he is not uneasy about 
the future. The horse market, he admits, is very much 
depressed at present, and has been depressed owing to 
the fashionable craze for the motor car, but the job- 
master looks upon all fashionable crazes as temporary, 
and is convinced that the predilections of the wealthier 
members of society will surely return to the horse in 
preference to the automobile, and that British horses 
will consequently in the near future cease to be ex- 
ported to Paris, Vienna, and Buda-Pest. Well, no doubt 
the jobmaster is right, that fashionable crazes are often 
temporary, but they are not temporary when they are 
supported by a sub-stratum of real utility. Fashionable 
prejudice often opposes the introduction of a new 
appliance, as in the case of the bicycle, but having once 
admitted it, fashionable society generally continues to 
tolerate it even if the new amusement ceases to be a 



craze. As it has been with the bicycle, so it will un- 
questionably be with the automobile. When it ceases 
to be an amusement and a plaything it will have all the 
greater popularity as a useful everyday necessity of 
existence. Of course for riding the horse will always 
command a market, and will probably be more generally 
let out for that purpose in the future than in the past, 
and we should like to see this among other results pro- 
duced by automobilism. Riding is much pleasanter 
work for the horse than traction, and he is far more 
supreme in that field. He will be happier and his 
employers more satisfied. 

♦ «•»«•► 
Further Encouragement for Aviation. 

Messrs. Archdeacon, Leon Serpollet, and Henri 
de Rothschild, recently met at dinner, and very 
naturally the conversation turned to aeronautics. After 
the subject of flight, with gravity as a propulsive 
force, had been discussed in many of its bearings, 
M. Henri de Rothschild, who is a sportsman au bout 
des ongles, at once recognised that flight with an 
aeroplane on these principles might be developed into 
a new sport, which, when people become expert at it, 
might compete very successfully with tobogganing, 
which it will probably most resemble. He at once 
undertook to offer a prize to encourage the pastime. 
We refer, of course, to free flight from the top of a 
moderate incline as practised by Lilienthal, Chanute, 
and the Brothers Wright, and it has been suggested 
that the neighbourhood of Berck or Merliraont might 
provide an admirable site for the development of 
the new recreation. It is just the thing, at any rate, 
to suit the Anglo-Saxon race, and it will have 
the advantage over tobogganing of developing man's 
mastery over what may be regarded as a new element 
Free flight may quite possibly develop into a very fine 
sport. Riskier than tobogganing as practised at St. . 
Moritz and Davos-Platz it can hardly be, and it would 
probably appeal with particular force to Englishmen and 
Americans. The men who tear down the Klooster- 
Gang at Davos-Platz will probably have all the nerve 
and pluck required for the amusement. They will have 
the added satisfaction, if the pursuit becomes general, 
of knowing that they are really contributing to man's . 
mastery over Nature. So far the number of people who 
have successfully practised gliding flight are few. The ; 
names of Lilienthal, Pilcher, Cbanute, and the Brothers 
Wright practically exhaust the list The first two were 
killed, alter making a moderate number of successful 
glides. Chanute is still alive, having abandoned practical 
experiment, and the Wright Brothers, who have adopted 
a different principle from all their predecessors, alone 
remain. So the new sport, if ever carried out on a large 
scale, will provide; all the risk, that the most daring, 
tobogganist could possibly desire — and more. The . 
institution of a prize for any pursuit always stimulates 
competition quite out of all proportion to the value of 
the prize- offered. It seems to focus effort, like the 
crown of wild olive of ancient days, which was worth 
practically nothing in itself. So let us hope that the 
prize which M. Henri de Rothschild has offered for 
gliding flight will have a distinct effect in concentrat- 
ing attention on the new sport, and inducing a number 
of plucky dilettantes^ who now more or less waste their 
time, to adopt an amusement which cannot fail to 
provide valuable data for developing the science and 
art of aeronautics in the future. 



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THE AUTO MOTOR JOURNAL, 



[February 13, 1904. 



THE 1904 GERMAIN PETROL CARS. 



Fig. 1. — A 16-h.p. Germain Petrol Car. 



The Germain Company, who are one of the most pro- 
gressive automobile manufacturers in Belgium, have not 
only considerably modified and improved their standard 
cars this year, but are also introducing a vehicle fitted 
with a two-stroke motor developed by them. Their 
ordinary standard vehicles, with 4-cylinder engines, are 
now made in three sizes, nominally of 16, 24, and 35-h.p. 
respectively. They are all of similar general construc- 
tion, and we have recently had an opportunity of examin- 
ing a 16-h.p. vehicle, from which our photographs were 
taken, and of which the following is a description : — 

The special features of the Germain standard cars are 
that the engines have steel cylinders which are turned 
out of the solid, that brass water jackets are fitted to 
them in such a way that tight joints are ensured without 
recourse to soldering, that the crank-shaft, which is made 
of nickel-steel, has hollow crank-pins, through which the 
oil is forced into the connecting-rod bearings, that the 
mechanically-operated inlet- valves are arranged in such 
a manner that they can be allowed to close earlier or 
later during the suction stroke, that two forms of high- 
tension ignition are employed, and that the gear-box has 
a three-point suspension, and is self-aligning. The cars 
are also fitted with the Company's automatic carburettor, 
to which previous reference has been made in our 
columns, and the fan for drawing the air through the 
hone> comb radiator in front is arranged inside the clutch 
and the flywheel. 

We were particularly struck with the silent working 
and smooth running of the car which we examined, and 
have no hesitation in saying that it is extremely difficult 
for the casual observer to determine whether the engine 
is running or not, when the car is standing still. Under 
such circumstances, and when the engine is running at a 
comparatively low speed, hardly any sound can be 
detected, and apparently there is no motion or vibration 



01 any kind. Not only is the exhaust unusually well- 
silenced, but the closely-fitting bonnet, and the casing 
beneath the engine and the gear-box, effectually muffle 
what clicking sounds there may be from the operation 
of the valves. When travelling, too, the long springs 
and long wheel-base ensure a very easy movement, and 
the mechanism giving a variable lift to the inlet-valves 
allows the speed of the car to be varied with great 
rapidity. 

This vehicle, which is shown in Fig. 1, has an 
armoured wood frame, which is reinforced by steel 
girders. The engine is carried on an under frame, 
having an angle section, and the gear box is attached 
direct to the main-frame. The axles are solid forgings, 
having an H cross-section, and the road wheels, which 
are shod with 915 by 105 m m. pneumatic tyres, are 
mounted upon plain bearings. The rear-wheels on this 
particular vehicle are provided with Samson non-skid 
leather bands, for which the English representative of 
the Germain Co., Capt. Masui, has the sole agency in this- 
country. The frame is carried on long Lemoine side- 
springs, and is built low, this being permitted by 
arranging the second-motion-shaft in the gear-box 
slightly to one side of— instead of immediately above — 
the first-motion-shaft. The wheel-base of the standard 
car is 7 ft. 9^ in., though this is increased to 9 ft. 3 in. 
on chassis built to suit bodies having side entrances to 
the rear seats. The track is 4 ft. 6 in., the front axle is 
bifurcated at each end to carry the steering heads, and 
the standard body has a tonneau with seats for three 
passengers. 

The engine, which is entirely enclosed beneath a flexible 
bonnet, connecting the honeycomb radiator with the 
dash, and by a sheet metal casing extending back 
below the gear-box underneath, is shown in Figs. 2, 3, 
and 4, Fig. 2 being taken from the right side and Figs. 



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Fig. 2. — The Engine on the 16-h.p. Germain Car from the right-hand side. 



3 and 4 from the left ; it is also shown sectionally in 
Fig. 5. The four cylinders, A, are made of a special 
steel, and are each turned out of a solid bar ; they are 
bored out to a slight taper inside, being one hundredth 
of a millimeter larger at the mouth than at the other 
end. The heads, A 2 , are water-jacketed castings, which 
are held in place by four studs, and make a watertight 
joint between the brass jackets, A 1 , around the 
cylinders and themselves. The lower ends of the 
jackets, A 1 , are securely fixed to the cylinders by 
rings, which are shrunk on in place about them in a 
special manner. These rings have to be heated 



while they are round the cylinder, and the cylinder 
itself is, during the operation, kept cool by water 
inside it. The cylinder-head provides a common 
valve-chamber for the inlet and exhaust valves which lie 
alongside one another, and are operated in much 
the usual way from a single cam-shaft enclosed in the 
aluminium crank-chamber. High tension ignition 
plugs, C, are fitted centrally into the heads, A 2 , and 
similar plugs, D, are also provided in the inspection 
covers which lie immediately above the inlet-valves. 
The inspection covers above the two valves of I each 
cylinder are held down by a single nut and a yoke, jB, so 



Fig. 3. — A view of the 16-h.p. Germain Engine from the left side. 



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Fig. 4. — Another view of the 16-h.p. Germain Engine from the left. 



that they are easily removed when it is necessary to 
attain access to the valves. The pistons are made of cast 
steel, which are fitted with cast-iron rings, and the valves 
are made of nickel steel. The cylinders have flanges 
formed at their lower ends by which they are bolted to 
the upper half of the aluminium crank chamber. The 
nickel steel crank-shafc is made from a solid forging, and 
is carried in three long bearings. The hollow crank-pins 
are arranged in conjunction with oil scoops in such a way 
that the oil is caught up by the scoops and is thrown by 
centrifugal force into the pins, through which holes are 
drilled for the oil to find its way to the big- end bearings 
of the connecting rods. 

The gear-wheels driving the cam-shaft are entirely 
enclosed, and that on the front end of the cam-shaft is 
fitted with a centrifugal governor, which acts upon the 
throttle-valve, maintaining a normal engine-speed of 




800 revolutions per minute, unless cut out of action by 
the driver depressing the accelerator pedal. The cam- 
shaft is fitted centrally with a gear-wheel which, meshing 
with a similar wheel on a shaft passing across the crank- 
chamber, drives the commutator, D 1 , of the ordinary high- 
tension electric ignition on the opposite of the engine. 
The commutator is mounted on the extreme end of the 
shaft, and the same shaft drives the Eisemann high- 
tension magneto, C 1 , which is fixed to the crank-chamber 
near the commutator. The magneto is driven by gearing 
off this transverse shaft, the gear being inside the casing, 
(7, which is clearly visible in Fig. 2. The commutator, 
D', is employed in conjunction with the usual ac< umu- 
lators and trembler-coils, which are connected with the 
ignition plugs, D, the high-tension wires from the coils 
Joeing led to the plugs through the wooden casing, D*. 



Fig. 5. 



-Cross section through one of the Cylinders on the 16-h.p. 
Germain Engine. 




Fig. 6. — The Germain Change-speed -gear. 



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The Eisemann magneto, C\ in conjunction with its coils, 
C*, supplies the necessary high-tension current for the 
ignition plug C, the wires to which are laid in the casing, 
C 5 . The time of ignition is simultaneously varied for both 
systems from a hand-lever placed above the steering- 
wheel, this lever being connected, by the steel cable, E 1 , 
with a rocking-shaft, E, seen in Fig. 2. The. rocking- 
shaft, E, is connected by the chain, C 2 , with a magneto, 
and by the cable, D 2 , with the commutator, so that the 
ignition is advanced or retarded at the same time for 
each ; the spring, D 3 , normally holds the commutator in 
its late firing position, and similar springs act in the 
same way for the magneto. 

The lift of the inlet-valves is varied by a similar hand- 
lever above the steering wheel to that which times the 
ignition, a steel cable, F l , running over pulleys on the 
radiator, G, connecting it with a steel bar, F, which en- 
gages with four collars, F 2 , forming a part of the push- 
rods which operate these valves. The collars, F 2 , screw 
over the ends of the push-rods, so that as they are 



carburettor is automatically controlled by a plunger, 
which is drawn down against the action of a spring by 
the suction in the mixing-chamber, and the explosive 
mixture is led to all four cylinders by the branched pipe, 
H 2 . 

The water is circulated through the jackets and the 
carburettor by a centrifugal pump, which is driven by 
gearing from the engine, the gear-wheel on its spindle 
being enclosed in the crank-chamber. It forces the 
water into the bottom of each of the brass jackets, A 1 , 
through the pipe, G\ and the water returns to the top of 
the radiator through the carburettor, as we have already 
said. In the event of the pump failing to work, the 
water would still circulate through the jackets on the 
thermo-syphon system, to ensure which a steam vent- 
pipe, G\ is fitted between the large pipe, G 2 , and the 
top of the radiator, as seen. The radiator has a capacity 
of about two gallons, and the pump runs at a speed of 
1,800 revs, per min. when the engine is running at 800 
revs, per min. We understand that a new form ^of 



Fig. 7. — A Two-stroke Hardt Petrol Fngine fixed in place on a Germain Car. 



caused to rotate through the arc of a circle, in one 
direction or the other, they elongate or shorten the 
effective length of the push-rod, and consequently allow 
for more or less free play between it and the valve- 
spindle. The collars, F 2 , engage with the rod, F, by bent 
arms, which pass through holes in it and allow for the 
reciprocating movement of the push-rods. This me- 
chanism is well seen in Figs. 3 and 4. 

The carburettor is mounted on the left side of the 
engine, and is constructed on somewhat the same lines 
as the Krebs carburettor. The mixing-chamber, H l , 
which is connected with the float-feed-chamber, H, is 
water-jacketed, the whole of the cooling water being led 
to it, from the jackets around the cylinder heads, by the 
pipe, G 2 , and back from it to the radiator, G, by the 
pipe, G 3 . The mixing-chamber contains the throttle- 
valve, the rod, H 3 , of which is clearly seen in the illus- 
trations, and is connected by the pivoted-lever, H\ with 
the governor. The admission of auxiliary air to the 



radiator is now being fitted by the makers on the latest 
models, and that in it zig-zag baffles are arranged, so that 
the water, after entering at the bottom, travels up around 
the baffles to the top, and then returns down on 
the other side of them to the bottom ; the externa) 
pipe fittings are in consequence rendered shorter 
and more direct ;a slight alteration, too, is being made in 
the position of the pump to render it even more accessible 
than it is, and the position of the coil, C*, is being 
changed for this purpose. The exhaust gases are led 
from all four cylinders into the pipe fitting, J, from 
which a single pipe, J 1 , passes to the exhaust-box. The 
engine is fed with oil through pipes from a mechanical 
lubricator on the dash, this lubricator being driven by a 
belt, K, from a pulley on the rear end of the cam-shaft. 
One of the feed-pipes leads to all four cylinders, and the 
others pass to the various portions of the crank-chamber. 
A hand-pump is also provided for forcing oil to the 
engine when necessary. 



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The cylinders have a bore of 95 mm., and the stroke 
is 130 mm. At a speed of 850 revs, per min. the engine 
develops about iS-b.h.p. ; its useful range of speed is 
from 100 to 1,200 revs, per min., and each engine is 
tested on the bench, running regularly under load, at a 
speed of about 90 revs, per min. The speed of the 
engine is, in practice, controlled by the two hand-levers 
above the steering wheel, for regulating the lift of the 
inlet-valves and varying the time of ignitidn respectively ; 
when a greater speed than that allowed by the governor 
is required, the accelerator pedal is depressed. 

The main clutch is of the cone type, and the arms 
of the internal cone member form fan blades in addition 
to those constituting the spokes of the fly-wheel. We 
are told that this was found necessary in practice, and 
that when the fan was formed in the fly- wheel only, a 
very ineffective draught was induced by it. 

The arrangement of the change-speed-gear is shown in 
Fig. 6, where it will be noticed that the first-motion- 
shaft, M, carries four sliding spur-wheels, M 1 , M 2 , M 3 , and 
M 4 , which correspond with the wheels, N 1 , N 2 , N 3 , N 1 , 
on the second-motion-shaft, N, and that a pair of 
intermediate gear-weeels, M 4 , are provided for giving the 
' reverse." The gear-box is fixed, in front, to a transverse 
member of the main frame, and the rear portion of the 
box is carried by self-aligning bearings beneath the side 
members of the frame. A universal joint is fitted 
between the first-motion-shaft and the main clutch, 
and a brake drum, P 1 , is fixed in the usual way to the 
shell of the differential gear, P, close up to the gear box. 
The shafts in the gear box are mounted in plain bearings, 
but ball-bearings are fitted to take the end thrust of the 
bevel wheel. The gear wheels are made of nickel steel 
and are case-hardened. The entire mechanism runs in 
oil, and the bearings are fed with grease, through two 
pipes leading from a lubricator on the dash. Three 
large inspection covers are fitted, all of which are very 
easily removed. A single side-lever gives all four 
forward speeds and the " reverse." 

The usual brakes are provided, all of them having 
metal-to-metal friction surfaces ; the side - brakes in 
future models are to be of the internal type. Both the 
hand and the foot-brakes are connected with the main 
clutch, and an ordinary sprag is provided. 

The TwO'Stroke Engines. 
The two-stroke motors made by the Germain Company, 
a two-cylinder model of which is seen fitted to a car in 
Fig. 7, are known in Belgium as the Hardt engine. 
Their construction is clearly shown in Fig. 8, the special 
feature being that a scavenging charge of air is 
admitted to the cylinder before the fresh charge of com- 
bustible mixture is forced in. The cylinder, Q, has its 
upper portion water-jacketed, and it is constructed with 
four ports in addition to the ordinary exhaust ports, 
which are not shown in the sections but are uncovered 
by the piston just before it reaches the end of its down- 
stroke, as in most engines of this kind. The explosive 
charge is drawn into the crank-chamber, R, when the 
piston has nearly completed its upward stroke, after 
it has created a vacuum in the crank-chamber. At the 
same time that communication is established between 
the carburettor, R 1 , and the crank-chamber, R, a pocket, 
T~, in the pistcn connects the ports, Q l and Q 2 , in the 
cylinder together, allowing air to flow into the pipe- 
fitting, S, which connects the port, Q l , with the lower 
port, Q 2 ; the result is that, at the same time that 
the fresh charge is entering the crank-chamber, 



the pipe-fitting, S, is being filled with fresh air. 
As the piston, T, descends, it first covers the ports y 
Q* and Q 3 , and then compresses the charge in the 
crank-chamber, R, and the air in the pipe-fitting, S. 
When nearing the bottom of its stroke it uncovers the 
exhaust-ports, and a . moment later it uncovers the 
port, Q 1 , opening communication between the crank- 
chamber and the upper part of the cylinder. The air in 
the pipe-fitting, S, is first forced into the cylinder, sweep- 
ing out the products of combustion before the com- 
bustible mixture finds its way into the cylinder, the 
baffle-plate, T 1 , being fitted above the piston to assist 
the scavenging action as usual. Anything following 




Fig. 8. — Two diagrammatic views of the Hardt Two-stroke Engine, 
showing the Piston at each end of its stroke. 

the burnt gases out through the exhaust-ports will 
be pure air instead of combustible mixture, and con- 
sequently the engine is rendered more economical than 
are most two-cycle machines. During the upward stroke 
of the piston the combustible mixture is compressed »as 
in other engines, and is ignited by the high-tension spark- 
plugs, U. Another advantage which is claimed for the 
engine is that there is very little chance of the fresh 
charge becoming ignited by the remaining hot gases in 
the cylinder. 

The power of the Hardt engine is regulated by a 
throttle valve, S 1 , in the pipe fitting, S, this valve 
regulating the volume of the charge forced into the 
working cylinder. The two-cylinder engine, shown in 
Fig. 7> which has a bore of 105 mm. and a stroke of 120 
mm., develops about 15-b.h.p. at 1,500 revs, per min. It 
is not fitted with an automatic governor, but its normal 
speed is 900 revs, per min., and it is capable of doing 
useful work at any speed between 250 and 1,500 revs, 
per min. The exhaust gases escape through a series 
of holes passing through the walls of the cylinder into a 
port formed in the casting, and are led by the pipe- 
fitting, V (Fig. 7), into the central exhaust pipe, V. 



A public service of automobiles is to be instituted in 
New Caledonia by the General Council of this French 
Colony. The route which will be covered is between 
Noumea and Bourail, a distance of 172 kiloms., and 
three 24-h.p. Turgan-Foy petrol omnibuses will be em- 
ployed for the purpose. These have been specially con- 
structed with a view to the peculiar nature ol the country 
to be traversed. 



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THE 1904 ACHILLES PETROL CARS, 



There is nothing of startling novelty about the cars 
which are being built by the firm of B. Thompson and 
Co., Limited, in the extremely ancient, though unusually 
busy and progressive little town of Frome, in Somerset- 
shire, but they have the merit of being constructed 
entirely in English works, and in a very substantial 
manner. The Achilles cars are intended for the much- 
talked-of " man of moderate means," and the models 
already introduced vary in price between ^145 and 
^300, which includes all such necessary accessories as 
lamps, horns, and a kit of tools. Although the Com- 
pany have comparatively small works, they are very well 
equipped with thoroughly up-to-date machinery, and are 
laid out in such a manner that, with but few exceptions, 
every part is made throughout the premises. Their 
foundry enables them to make their own iron, brass, 
and aluminium castings, so that they only have to go 
outside for the steel castings, which figure somewhat 
prominently on the cars. They build their own frames, 
make their own engines, gear-boxes, axles, and steering 
gear ; and the bodies, complete with the necessary 



respects follows the same type of construction as the 
smaller cars. 

The accompanying illustrations refer more par- 
ticularly to the 8 and o-h.p. Achilles vehicles, Fig. 1 
being a side view of an 8-h.p. car, which we have 
recently had an opportunity of giving a short practical 
trial at Frome, and Figs. 2 and 3 being views from 
above and beneath respectively of a complete 9-h.p. 
chassis. The car proved itself to be an uncommonly 
good hill-climber, and is apparently thoroughly well 
suited for those requiring a substantial little machine 
for general all-round work. We understand that it had 
already run many hundreds of miles without giving 
any trouble whatever, and it certainly did not show any 
signs of suffering in any way from wear or tear. 

In general respects the arrangement of parts is the 
same as in the majority of up-to-date European 
voiturettes, but the cars possess the following special 
features, apart from their substantial nature, already 
alluded to. The engine and the gear-box are carried 
upon a detachable underframe which is interchangeable 



Fig. i.— An 8-h.p. Achilles Petrol Car. 



upholstery, are constructed in their own shops ; in fact, 
the only important portions of the car which they buy 
are the artillery wheels, and, of course, the tyres and 
minor accessories. 

The present types consist of four single-cylinder 
models, the engines on which are of the De Dion high- 
speed pattern. The 6-h.p. car has two speeds and a 
reverse, the bore and stroke of the engine being 90 by 
no mm. The 8-h.p. vehicles, built either with long 
or short chassis, are provided with three speeds and a 
reverse, and the size of the cylinder is 100 by no mm. 
This model is supplied as a two-seater, a three-seater 
with a spider at the back, or a four-seater with ton- 
neau. The 9-h.p. car is fitted either as a tonneau or as 
a double phaeton ; it, too, has three forward speeds and 
a reverse, and the dimensions of the cylinder are 100 
by 120 mm. The 12-h.p. model has a twin-cylinder 
engine, is also of the live-axle type, and in general 



in cars of the same type, so that these two portions of 
the mechanism can be removed bodily. The main 
clutch is of the internal cone type, and has small flat 
springs introduced between the inner cone and its 
leather face, thus rendering it " soft " in its action. The 
change-speed-gear gives a direct-through-drive to the 
bevel on the back-axle, when the top speed is in use, 
and none of the meshing gear-wheels in the box are then 
in motion. The shafts in the gear-box run in hardened 
steel bearings, and the wheels with which they are fitted 
are made of forged steel, and are hardened after the 
teeth are cut. Very simple universal joints are employed 
for the propeller shaft, and the short shaft, on which the 
smaller bevel is mounted on the live axle, is supported in 
bearings on both sides of the wheel. The rear axle itself 
has a differential gear of the spur-wheel type, and although 
it runs on ball-bearings which are adjustable, plain bearings 
are also fitted to prevent any serious damage being done 



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Fig. 2. — View of a 9-h.p. Achilles Chassis from above. 



should a ball break. All the brackets on the frame are 
made of cast steel, and these are, for the most part, held 
in place by being pinned and brazed, others being self- 
aligning and clipped securely to the tubes. The engine 
is controlled entirely by hand, and its power is chiefly 
regulated by allowing the exhaust-valve to remain closed 
for a greater or longer period daring the cycle. The 
time of ignition is also varied in the usual way, and a 
trembler-coil is employed to render easier the starting of 
the engine. A large double exhaust-box is fitted, the 
gases first passing into an expansion-chamber before they 
are led into the silencer proper. It should also be added 
that the brakes have metal-to-metal friction surfaces, and 
are all double-acting. 

Very thick tubes are used for constructing the main- 
frame, the shape of which is well seen in Figs. 2 and 3. 
The underframe is formed of two similar tubes, to which 
the engine and the gear-box are attached by clipped 
drop-brackets. - Steel rods, threaded at each end, pass 
through these tubes, and are fitted with nuts and collars 



at each end, by which the underframe is fixed to 
brackets on the front and central cross members of the 
main-frame ; the brackets are slotted on the underside, 
as seen in Fig. 3, for facilitating the removal of the 
underframe when necessary. In the chassis illustrated, 
the side members of the frame are stiffened by rods 
and struts on the underside, but this additional stiffening 
is only employed when specially ordered. The frame is 
carried on the usual side springs above the tubular 
axles, and the rear axle is tied to the frame centrally by 
rods passing, fore and aft, from the casing surrounding 
the differential gear ;• short helical cushion springs are 
introduced between these rods and the cross members 
of the frame to which they are attached. The front axle 
is slightly bent, the steering heads at each end have 
plain-bearing surfaces lubricated by small helmet lubrica- 
tors through the hollow pins, and the front wheels run 
on plain bearings. 

The standard steering-gear is of the rack and pinion 
type, although an irreversible worm and worm-wheel 



Fig. 3.— View of a 9-h.p. Achilles Chassis from beneath. 



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Fig. 4. — The Change-speed -gear on the Achilles 8-h.p. Cars. Shown with Cover removed, and also with Driving and Lay Shafts removed. 



gear can be substituted (as seen in Fig. 3), if desired. 
In either case, an adjustment is provided for taking 
up back-lash, and the tubes connecting the gear with 
the steering heads are amply strong for their work. 
The road wheels are of the artillery type, and alh four 
have twelve spokes. They are adapted for taking 
Michelin pneumatic tyres of the following sizes on 
the different types : — For the 6-h.p., 700 by 65 mm. ; 
for the short chassis 8-h.p., 700 by 85 mm.; for the 
longer 8-h.p. chassis, and the 9-h.p. model, 750 by 
85 mm.; and for the 12-h.p. car, 800 by 85 mm. 

The engines do not call for any special description, 
as they closely resemble the well-known De Dion 
design ; in fact, the actual engine seen in Figs. 2 and 
3 is a genuine De Dion. The Company use nickel 
steel for their crankshafts, and are now building the 
crank-chamber in such a way that it also forms the body 
for the carburettor and the casing for the centrifugal 
pump. Uhe half-speed gear, operating the exhaust- 
valve, is connected with one of four small levers on 
the steering-pillar, or in some cases with a foot-pedal 
instead, so that the length of time during which the 
valve remains open can be varied at will. This 
mechanism is also attached to the clutch and the brake- 
pedals, so that the engine is automatically slowed down 



when either of them is depressed. The other three 
levers on the pillar vary the time of ignition, and act 
upon the carburettor in the usual way. The carburettor 
is of the well-known Longuemare type, but is slightly 
modified ; the needle, which cuts off the petrol-feed, 
is fixed direct to the float, so that as the float rises the 
needle is carried with it into the valve. 

The cooling water is circulated through the cylinder- 
jacket by a pump, and is contained in a tank in front of 
the dash and in a radiator, which either forms the front 
of the bonnet (as in Figs. 2 and 3) or is arranged on a 
lower level as in Fig. 1. On the chassis, from which our 
photo is taken, the pump is fixed to the front of the 
frame, and is driven flexibly from the cam-shaft, but, as 
already indicated, it is to form a part of the crank- 
chamber, and will be gear-driven. The engine is 
lubricated by a small hand-pump on the dash, and the 
oil is carried in a small compartment of the large tank 
fixed behind the dashboard ; the larger portion of this 
tank contains the petrol, of which about three gallons is 
carried on the smaller cars and four gallons on the larger. 

The position of the double exhaust-box is well seen in 
our illustrations, and on this particular chassis the ex- 
pansion chamber is connected by a short length of pipe 
with the silencer itself. In the boxes now being made, 



Fig. 5. — Sectional Drawing showing construction of the Achilles Change-speed -gear. 



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however, these two chambers are constructed in one, and 
are therefore more compact. 

The internal cone clutch is visible in Fig. 3, and is 
comparatively small, because the flywheels are contained 
inside the crank-chamber. As already said, the inner 
member has a leather face, with small flat steel springs 
fitted beneath the leather. No end thrust is imposed on 
either of the shafts by the clutch, and the spring which 
holds it in engagement is arranged inside it ; the foot- 
pedal operating it lies alongside the brake-pedal, and 
both of them are mounted upon the bracket carrying the 
steering gear. The internal cone member is free to 
slide on a square formed on the projecting end of the 
first-motion shaft, A, of the change-speed gear. 

The change-speed gear is clearly shown in Figs. 4 and 
5, where it will be noticed that the first-motion-shaft, A, 
terminates inside the short shaft, C, from which the 
propeller shaft passes to the live axle, and on which the 
brake-drum, F, is mounted. The shaft, A, is square 
inside the box, and carries the sliding spur-wheels, A 1 
and A 2 , together with the jaw-clutch members, A 3 . The 
lay shaft, B, is fitted with three spur wheels, B 1 , B 2 , and 
B 3 , either of which can separately be removed and 



side of the car.- The fork, E 1 , is fitted with a project- 
ing pin, E 2 , which engages with another fork. E 3 , when 
the rod, E, is moved rearwardly beyond the second 
speed position, in which the wheels, A 2 and B-, 
mesh with one another. The fork, E 3 , rides in a groove 
in the jaw-clutch member, C 3 , so that when it is forced 
rearwardly by the action of the pin, E 2 , upon it, it with- 
draws the jaw, C 3 , from the wheel. C\ rendering that 
wheel idle at the same time that the jaws, A 3 , engage 
with similar jaws on the front end of the shaft, C. By 
this arrangement the lay-shaft, B, and the wheel, C l , can 
remain stationary when the top-speed is in use. The 
fork, E 3 , is fixed to a sleeve, E 4 , which slides on the 
rod, E, and an additional spring, E 5 , is introduced 
between it and the end of the gear-box, to assist the 
spiral spring, C\ The reverse gear is provided by a pair 
of wheels, D 1 and D 2 , fixed to a sleeve, D, which is free 
to revolve upon a stationary pin. The first of these 
wheels at all times meshes with the wheel, B l , and the 
other is engaged by the wheel, A 1 , when that wheel is 
moved to its most forward position by the hand-lever. 
The gear-box is usually made of brass, but aluminium is 
substituted if specified. 



Fig. 6. — Sectional Drawing of the Achilles Back- Axle, showing the Plain Bearings and the Adjustable Ball Bearings. 



replaced without difficulty. The wheel, B : , is pinned to 
the shaft, B, by the pin, B 6 , and the other wheels slide 
in place over the shaft, with the sleeves, B 5 , between 
them. These sleeves have jaw-clutch members so that 
they connect the wheels, B 2 and B 3 , rigidly with the 
wheel, B 1 . The lay shaft, B, is carried at each end 
in hardened steel bushes, having solid ends, and the 
bearings for the shafts, A and, C, are also made of 
similar material. The wheels, A 1 and A 2 , can be made to 
mesh respectively with the wheels, B 1 and B 3 , to give 
the first and second forward speeds, and at this time, 
the wheel C 1 , is rendered rigid with the shaft, C, by the 
sliding jaw clutch members, C 3 , on the latter, which are 
pressed up in place by the spiral spring, C 4 , lying inside 
the cap, C 2 . The power is therefore transmitted from 
the lay shaft, B, to the shaft, C, through the gear wheels, 
B 3 and C 1 . The sliding sleeve carrying the wheels, A 1 
and A 2 , is controlled by the fork, E 1 , from the sliding rod, 
E, which is connected with the change-speed lever at the 



The power is transmitted from the shaft, C (Figs. 
4 and 5), by a propeller shaft to the short shaft, G, 
shown in Fig. 6. The propeller shaft is provided with 
universal joints at either end, and the short shafts have 
a square section for receiving them. The universal 
joints themselves consist of small square blocks, which 
are rounded off and fit inside corresponding square 
sockets on the propeller shaft. The back axle, Fig. 6, 
is built up with two stationary tubes, K, which are 
screwed into and pinned to an oil-tight casing, J, 
surrounding the differential gear and the bevel wheels 
driving it. The casing, J, is made of two steel castings, 
but aluminium is substituted if desired. The inner 
ends of the tubes, K, are also screwed into the adjust- 
able nuts, K 2 , which serve to tighten up the ball 
bearings, J 1 , inside the casing, J. The nuts, K 2 , can be 
got at from outside by removing the small caps, J 2 , and 
introducing a tommy through the slots in which they 
fit. The nut can thus be screwed up to the required 



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extent, and the caps, J 2 f themselves act as locking pins 
for the nuts. Sufficient adjustment is provided for 
these nuts to allow the size of the large bevel wheel, H, 
to be varied by one tooth, to alter the gear ratio, if 
necessary. The two halves of the live axle are carried 
in the plain bearings, K 1 , inside the tubes, K, but the 
bushes are bored out with a slight clearance, so that 
they do not come into play unless the ball bearings fail. 
The ends of these shafts are carried in double ball bear- 
ings, which can be adjusted by the caps, K 3 , and locked 
when adjusted. 

The foot-brake operates the brake-band which is 
carried by the pin, F 5 , on the gear-box, and is arranged 
so as to act equally well forwards as backwards. Similar 
brakes are fitted to the hubs of each of the rear wheels, 



and these are usually operated by a hand-lever, which' 
lies outside the body beside the driver. In some cases r 
however, when so ordered, internal brakes can be 
fitted instead, and, if desired, the hand-lever can be 
placed alongside the change-speed-lever, instead of behind 
it. The friction surfaces are in all cases metal-to-metal, 
usually phosphor bronze on cast steel. 

The bodies are made of specially selected wood, with 
aluminium panels, and will doubtless be examined by 
many of our readers at the forthcoming show at the 
Cr>stal Palace. They are tastefully finished, and the 
upholstery, which is for the most part carried out with 
the high-class leather prepared locally in Frome, is 
well calculated to prove extremely durable in ordinary 
use. 



THE CROSSLEY PETROL ENGINE. 



We have already given a brief general description of the 
engine — in our first article dealing with the Crossley car, 
but are now able to enter into details concerning its 
construction, with the assistance of the very complete 
illustrations which we have prepared. Figs. 1 to 4 are 
reproduced from photographs taken from each side, 
and from each end of the complete engine, whilst in 
Figs. 5 to 8, inclusive, transverse and longitudinal 
sections, together with an end elevation and a plan, are 
shown. 

One of the complete cylinder castings is seen in Fig. 
9, and a similar casting, cut open, in Figs. 10 and 11, 
so as to allow the size of the water-jacket, and the un- 
usual distance to which it extends down the cylinder- 
wall, to be seen at a glance. Each of these castings, 
after having its external faces planed, is bolted down on 
the bed of a horizontal boring machine, in which one 
cylinder after the other is turned at a single setting — 
thus ensuring absolute parallelism of the two cylinders. 
The casting is then slid into a box jig, over projecting 
bosses in the base of which the mouths of the cylinder 
are bound to fit exactly, and all the further operations 
are performed upon the casting, through the steel-bushed 
holes in the jig itself which ensure accuracy of machining 
and interchangeability of each cylinder casting. It will be 
understood that the bosses in the base of the jig act as 
absolute templates, and prevent any casting in which the 
two cylinders are not at the correct distance away from 
one another from being fitted into the jig at all. 

It will be noticed in Fig. 5 that the inlet-valves, A, and 
the exhaust-valves, A 1 , have their seats arranged on a 
somewhat lower level than the port leading from them 
into the working cylinder, and that the gases therefore 
tend to pass more equally around them, instead of on 
the cylinder side only, this being particularly important 
for the exhaust- valves, because it reduces the tendency 
for the valve to be heated to a greater extent on the one 
side than the other. The inlet-valves are made of 
nickel-steel, and the exhaust-valves of the special bronze 
alloy to which we have previously referred. The induc- 
tion pipes, F 2 and F 3 , as also the exhaust-pipe fitting, L, 
are fixed in place to the cylinder casting by studs and 
castle-nuts, and small rings, A 2 , are inserted as liners to 
" break" the joints, and to act as register rings, which 
are more easy to renew than if they were formed 
by projections on either of the parts between which 
they lie. Each inlet-valve is rendered easily acces- 
sible for grinding in by removing the low-tension igniter, 



B*, which is fitted immediately above it, and a similarly- 
shaped inspection cover, C 2 , lies above each exhaust- 
valve. These plugs are secured in place by a pair of 
studs passing through their flanges, but the actual joint 
between them and the cylinder-casting is not made on 
the surface of the latter, but by conical valve-like seat- 
ings on a lower level, as seen in Fig. 5. In the engine 
shown, high-tension ignition plugs, C, are screwed into 
the inspection covers, C 2 , but this is not a standard 
practice, because it is not intended to fit a high-tension 
ignition system at all, unless specially ordered ; an alter- 
native position for the plugs is provided at A 3 , in the 
neighbourhood of the low-tension igniters, B 4 , and the 
inlet-valves, A. The water is led in at the bottom of 
the jackets on the right side, as seen in Fig. 1, by the 
branched pipe, M 2 , and is forced out at the top into the 
pipe, M s , which passes across just above them. The 
chopper switches, B 2 , which make contact with the 
insulated terminals of the igniters, B*, are carried upon 
an insulated rod, B 1 , which is in turn supported by 
brackets projecting from the water pipe, M\ The 
igniters themselves do not call for any special comment, 
for their construction is well seen in Figs. 5 and 8. 
Half-compression cocks, C 3 , by which paraffin can be 
introduced into the cylinders to clean the rings, are 
mounted in much the usual way centrally in the cylinder 
heads. The cylinders and their pistons are made of 
very hard cast iron, and their exact shape is clearly 
shown in Figs. 5 and 6, where also the hollow gudgeon 
pins and the connecting rods are shown sectionally and 
in elevation. Mention has already been made of the 
special, concentric, hammered piston rings; these are 
indicated in Fig. 5, although we understand that four 
only are being actually used. The branched pipe, which 
feeds all four cylinders with oil through small, non-return 
ball-valves from the water-jacketed pressure lubricator 
on the dashboard, enters each cylinder at A*. 

The aluminium crank-chamber is formed by two large 
castings, D 1 and D 2 , the horizontal joint between which 
passes through the centre of the main bearings of the 
crank-shaft, D. The upper portion has four projecting 
feet by which the engine is securely bolted to the side 
members of the main frame, and the lower halves of the 
bearings for the cam-shaft are also formed in it. Separate 
castings, D 7 , constitute the upper halves of the cam-shaft 
bearings, and they also provide guides for the push-rods 
to slide in. These rods having unusually wide nickel-steel 
rollers resting against cams of equal width ; the cams 



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|[February 13, 1904 



are not only keyed to their shafts, but are driven home 
in place with tapered surfaces between them and the 
shafts. The crank-chamber is so shaped that it encloses 
the lower portions of the gear-wheels driving the cam- 
shafts, and a separate casting, D 3 , completes this casing. 



tion covers, D 6 , are arranged for getting at the big ends 
of the connecting rods. 

The crank-chamber provides three long bearings for 
the shaft, D, these having split brasses of a special alloy. 
Each of the bearings is lubricated by a ring, E\ which 



Four Views of the Crossley Petrol Engine. 



^Fig. 1. — The left side, showing Pump, Carburettor, Exhaust- 
Valves, and High-tension Igniters. 

Fig. 3. — The right side, showing Commutator, Low-tension 
Igniters, Cut-off Valve, and Magneto. 



Each half of the base, D 2 , of the crank-chamber receives 
small overflow pipes, I) 4 , which project up to the required 
level inside the chamber, and allow any surplus oil to be 
drained off; ordinary drain-cocks are also fitted at D 5 
for completely emptying it when necessary, and inspec- 



Fig. 2. — The front end, showing Exhaust -Valves on the right 

and Inlet -Valves on the left. 

Fig. 4. — The back end, showing Low-tension Igniters above the 

Inlet- Valves on the right, High-tension Ignition Plugs above 

the Exhaust- Valves on the left and the Flywheel fitted 

with Expanding Clutch. 

circulates the oil over them from a trough in the base. 
The oil is led from the lubricator on the dash by two 
pipes to the end bearings, the pipes entering them at E. 
The oil finds its way from the bearings through holes, 
E 2 , into each half of the base casting, and is caught up 



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by the connecting rods when the engine is running, and 
is splashed up in the usual way. The splashed oil is 
caught in the ducts, E 3 (Figs. 5 and 6), which lead it 
back again to the main bearings, and also conduct it 
into the chambers surrounding the cam-shafts and the 
cams. The main bearing near the flywheel has an oil- 
catching ring arranged outside it, and this ring communi- 
cates with a drain-pipe as shown in Fig. 6, so that any 
oil which may find its way out along the shaft is pre- 
vented from creeping on to the flywheel, and being 
scattered promiscuously by it. Air-vents are provided 



the lathe can possibly spring it, and thus render it out of 
truth during the operation. Messrs. Crossley have 
adopted a special system, developed by them for their 
ordinary gas-engine crank-shafts, for this four-throw 
crank-shaft. The main feature of their system is that, 
whilst the crank-pins are being turned, the shaft is sup- 
ported between the centres on the lathe by floating pins, 
which pass through the carriers at each end and there- 
fore press direct upon the outer cheeks of the crank 
instead of tending to bend the shaft. Special distance 
pieces, which also act as accurate templates, are intro- 



Four Drawings of the Crossley Petrol Engine. 



Fig. 5. — Vertical Cross Section through one of the Cylinders, with 
Exhaust- Valve on the right and Inlet- Valve on the left (as in Fig. 2). 

Fig. 7. — Front elevation (corresponding with Figs. 2 and 5). 

for at D g , at each end of the crank-chamber, and the oil 
is prevented from being thrown up too freely into the 
cylinder by the baffle plates, A 4 , which also act as regis- 
tering liners between the crank-chamber and the mouths 
of the cylinders, as shown. 

The crank-shaft, D, which, like several other parts of 
the engine, is made of nickel steel, is machined all over 
from a forging. The shaft itself and the crank-pins are 
turned in such a way that no want of care whilst it is in 



Fig. 6. — Vertical Longitudinal Section through centre of Engine 
(corresponding with Fig. 3). 

Fig. 8. — Part Plan and part Horizontal Section through Cam-shaft. 

duced between crank-cheek and crank-cheek in the line 
of thrust, so that during the whole operation the shaft 
is as free from bending strains as it is when it ultimately 
lies in its own bearings in the crank- chamber. This 
method of machining crank-shafts is so satisfactory that, 
even on the largest shafts made by this firm, they can 
guarantee absolute truth in every respect to about a 
thousandth of an inch. The flywheel, N, is fixed to the 
crank-shaft by bolts passing through a registering flange 



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[February 13, 1904. 



which forms a part of the solid forging ; the wheel is 
about 18 inches in diameter, and the rim is about 
5 1 inches wide. 

The magneto, B, is bolted down to a bracket forming 
part of the crank-chamber casting, D 1 , and it is driven 
at the same speed as the engine by a small spur-wheel, 
meshing with the larger wheel on the front end of the 
inlet cam-shaft ; the upper portion of the small wheel is 
closed in by the cover, D B . The igniters, B 4 , are operated 
by the disc-cams, two of which are seen on the inlet cam- 
shaft in Fig. 8, these cams engaging with projecting 
arms mounted on the lower ends of the vertical rock- 
shafts, B 3 . The arms on each pair of rocking-shafts, B 3 , 
are held in contact with their cams by a helical spring 
connecting them together, these springs giving the quick 
" break " action required, the electrical circuit being 
completed by weaker springs on the igniters themselves. 
The time of ignition is varied by raising or lowering the 
rock-shafts, B 3 , so that the cams actuate them earlier or 



the working cylinders ; in Fig. 3 it will be noticed that 
the weight of the valve itself is counterbalanced by an 
adjustable weight, G 2 . 

The circulating pump, M, which is of the centrifugal 
type and unusually large, is fixed to the crank- chamber on 
the opposite side of the magneto. It is driven somewhat 
faster than the engine by a spur-wheel meshing with the 
large wheel on the exhaust cam-shaft, and enclosed in 
the same casing with it. The pump is mounted 
sufficiently far behind the gear-case to allow the gland 
through which its spindle passes to be readily got at 
for packing, and the spindle projects forward through 
the gear-case carrying a grooved pulley, M 5 , for driving 
the fan behind the radiator. Three studs project from 
the front cylinder-casting for carrying the fan, and it is 
so mounted that the tightness of the belt can be adjusted. 

The bore of the cylinders is 4^ in., and the stroke of 
the pistons is 5^ in. A compression of approximately 75 lbs. 
per sq. in. is arranged for, and the engine develops about 



Fig. 9. — A complete Cylinder Casting. 



Fig. 10. — A similar Casting cut vertically 

through the centre of one Cylinder and its 

Valve Chamber. 



Fig. 11. — The same Casting cut horizontally 

through the Combustion and Valve 

Chambers. 



later in the cycle of operations. The " timing " is 
actually effected by rocking the small horizontal shaft, 
B 5 (shown in Fig. 7), forked arms on which engage with 
small collars on the shafts, B 3 . 

When the ordinary high-tension system of ignition is 
also fitted, the commutator, C 1 , is mounted on a vertical 
shaft, as shown, and is driven by a pair of bevel wheels 
from the rear end of the inlet cam-shaft ; it is mounted in 
the usual way, so that the time of ignition can be varied, 
and it is used in conjunction with four coils and a 
battery of accumulators. 

The governor, G, is shown in Fig. 8 ; it is fitted 
inside the large spur-wheel which drives the inlet cam- 
shaft. It is of the ordinary centrifugal type, and is, in 
the engine from which our photographs were taken, con- 
nected with the variable cut-off valve, F, so that it 
controls the volume of the explosive charges drawn into 



28-b.h.p. at its normal speed of 900 revs, per min. It is 
capable of doing useful work at any speed between 80 
and 1,200 revs, per min., this wide range being largely 
due to the special carburettor with which it is fitted, 
and to the employment of mechanically-operated inlet- 
valves. The studs, by which the various detachable 
parts are held in place, have a square cross-section, 
except at their threaded ends, and as the flanges which 
fit over them have corresponding square holes through 
them, it is impossible for a stud to be broken off in 
the casting, or to be screwed out of it, when tightening 
up or slackening the nut ; a specially strong screw thread 
has also been adopted for all the studs, so that they are 
less likely than usual to have their threads stripped. The 
nuts employed are of the " castle " type, which permit 
split pins to be introduced for locking them, whatever 
their position may be, when they are tightened up. 



A Society of Automobile Engineers has been founded 
in New York, the chief mission of the Society being the 
interchange of technical automobile knowledge among 
the members. At first, quarterly meetings are to be held, 
when papers will be read. Mr. A. L. Riker, of the 
Locomobile Company of America, has been elected 
President, the Vice-Presidents being Messrs. Henry Ford 



(Ford Motor Car Company) and John Wilkinson 
(Franklin Motor Car Company). Mr. E. T. Birdsall, of 
the Standard Automobile Company, will act as Secretary 
and Treasurer. There are to be two classes of members, 
viz., an active class for registered engineers and an 
associate class for members interested in automobile 
sale or construction who are not engineers. 



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THE AUTOMATIC CARBURETTOR ON THE CROSSLEY CAR. 



As already briefly explained, the special feature of this 
carburettor is that a column of mercury is employed to 
enable a more accurate and positive action to be ob- 
tained, from the suction in the mixing chamber, upon the 
valve which controls the admission of the auxiliary air, 
and to thus regulate the richness of the explosive 
mixture supplied to the engine. The principle adopted 
for ensuring a constant richness of mixture (in spite of 
variations of engine speed and of the quantity of mixture 



this chamber, is therefore arranged so as to be automa- 
tically controlled in accordance with the degree of 
suction, and to thus compensate automatically for such 
variations in richness. 

In the previous automatic carburettors referred to, 
the auxiliary air-valve is connected with, or is formed 
by, a diaphragm or a piston, which is mounted 
in a portion of the mixing chamber itself, or in another 
chamber which is in open communication with it. The 



Fig. 1. — Rear view of the Automatic Carburettor, showing the 

Water-jacketted Mixing- chamber, the Auxiliary Air-valve, 

the Throttle-valve, and the Mercury Chamber. 

Fig. 3. — View of the Automatic Carburettor from above. 

drawn by the engine) is similar to that made use of in 
several other automatic carburettors described by us, 
amongst which the Krebs is, perhaps, the best known. 
It is unnecessary therefore to explain this principle at 
any length, and we need only remind our readers that it 
is the increased suction in the mixing chamber which 
tends, in an ordinary carburettor, to give too rich a mix- 
ture, and that in these automatic carburettors a valve, 
admitting diluting auxiliary air to the mixture formed in 



Fig. 2. — Diagonal View ot the Automatic Carburettor in which the 

Cover Plate, J 2 , and the Float-feed Chamber, H, are visible. 

Fig. 4. — End view of the Automatic Carburettor in which the Cover 

Plate, J 2 , has been removed to show the Induction Cone, J 3 , the 

Spray Jet, H 2 , the Needle Valve, H 3 , and the Suction Jet, H 4 . 

piston, or the diaphragm, as the case may be, has its one 
face open to the mixing chamber, and its other face 
exposed to the atmosphere, so that as the pressure (or, as 
the French more correctly call it, the depressure) in the 
mixing chamber is reduced below that of the atmosphere, 
the atmospheric pressure is caused to open the auxiliary 
air ports. It will be noticed that in these carburettors 
the actual degree of vacuum in the entire chamber acts 
upon the valve, and that a spring is required to hold the 



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[February 13, 1904. 



valve normally in its closed position. The richness of 
the mixture, however, does not, strictly speaking, depend 
entirely upon this degree of vacuum, for there are other 
influences at work tending to increase the flow of petrol 
through the jet. The spring, too, when used, requires 
to be properly proportioned to its work, and correctly 
adjusted for it, besides which it is necessary that the 
valve (and the piston, if there is one) should move as 
freely and with as little friction as possible. In the 
carburettor with which we are now dealing, (1) the auto- 
matic valve is operated in accordance with the suction 
produced in a pipe which resembles the petrol-jet, and 
enters the mixing chamber close to it ; (2) no spring is 
needed for normally closing the auxiliary air-ports ; and 




(3) the column of mercury which acts as a relay for the 
automatic valve renders the friction of that valve 
unimportant, since the force exerted upon it by the 
mercury is considerable. 

The carburettor is shown from four different points of 
view in Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, and its entire construction is 
clearly indicated by line drawings in Fig. 5. In rela- 
tionship to its position on the Crossley engine, Fig. 1 is 
a back view, Fig. 2 a diagonal view from behind, Fig. 3 
a view from above, and Fig. 4 a view from the front end, 
in which the cover- plate (J 2 ) has been removed to show 
the induction passage in which the main air supply is 
carburetted during its passage through it. Fig. 5 shows 
three vertical transverse sections on the corresponding 
lines, indicated by letters on the plan in the same illus- 
tration. In Fig. 6 the automatic portion of the car- 
burettor is shown taken apart, and the various portions 
constituting the chamber (K 1 ), which contains the mer- 
cury, are also seen separately. 

The float-feed chamber, H, into which the petrol 
enters through the pipe-connection, H 1 , is constructed in 



the usual way, and maintains a constant level of the 
petrol in the jet, H 2 , which projects up into the mixing- 
chamber, J. The mixing chamber is divided into two 
compartments by an induction cone, J 3 , the shape of 
which is seen in the section on the line 1 — 2 in Fig. 5. 
The air enters the casting, J, through the gauze-covered 
holes, J 1 , behind the cone, J 3 , this end of the casting 
being closed in by the removable plate, J 2 . The casting, 
J, is water-jacketed, and the pipe connections, J 6 , com- 
municate with the jacket. The air, after passing through 
the cone, J 3 , is drawn through the passage, J\ to the induc- 
tion pipe (F 1 ), its flow being controlled by the throttle- 
valve sleeve, I, which can be made to meet the cone when 
it is pushed forward to its full extent by the rod, I 1 , to 




Sce<fit4 a Liile 5-6 



FlG. 5. — Cross-sectional, and plan drawings of the Automatic 
Carburettor. 

which it is attached. The petrol jet, H 2 , projects into 
the cone, J 3 , at its narrowest point, and a needle-valve, 
H 3 , is mounted immediately above it for regulating its 
effective size. Another nozzle, H 4 , also projects through 
the side of the cone, close to the spray jet, and this 
nozzle passes to the outside of the casting, J, where it 
terminates in the union fitting, H 5 , as seen. The air, 
entering at J 1 , sweeps through the cone, J 3 , drawing the 
petrol through the jet, H 2 , and it necessarily has a pre- 
cisely similar suction effect upon the jet, H\ 

The suction jet, H*, is connected externally by a pipe, 
which is not fitted in our illustration, with the union 
fitting, H 6 , on the casting, K. This fitting, H 6 , leads 
into the lower portion of the casting, K, which is 
partitioned off from the upper part, as seen in Fig. 5. 
The casting, K, is screwed down into the flanged cover- 
plate, K n , of the mercury chamber, K 1 , and this cover- 
plate fits closely down upon the top of a sleeve, K 7 , 
which acts as a partition, inside the chamber, K 1 . The 
sleeve, K 7 , has a wooden plug inside it at the bottom, 
and its lower edge is slotted so as to render the interior 
of the sleeve in open communication with its exterior at 
the bottom of the chamber, K 1 . The wooden plug has 
a hole drilled through its centre to let the mercury 
pass through and to act as a guide for a vertical 
spindle, K 5 , which carries a wooden float, K 6 , inside 
the sleeve, K 7 , and at its upper end, carries a piston- 
valve, K 4 , in the cap, K :J , above the chamber, K. 
The shape of the mercury chamber, K 1 , is clearly seen 
in Fig. 6 ; the chamber is filled with mercury, K 8 , up 
to about the level shown in Fig. 5. Under ordinary 
circumstances the level of the mercury inside and 
outside the sleeve, K 7 , is, of course, the same, since it is 



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continuous beneath the partition formed by the sleeve. 
Above the level of the mercury, however, there is no 
open communication through the partition, K 1 , and the 
space immediately above the float is connected, as 
we have already said, with the jet, H 4 , whilst the space 
outside the partition is in open communication, through 
a vent-fitting, K 10 . with the atmosphere. Inside the 
sleeve the wooden float, K 6 , rests upon the surface of the 
mercury, and outside the sleeve four steel balls, K 9 , 
rest upon it to prevent splashing. The surface of the 
mercury is also covered with a thin film of glycerine 
to prevent it from creeping and from oxidising. By 
this arrangement, it will be seen that when the suc- 
tion in the jet, H 4 , reduces the pressure inside the 
sleeve, K 7 , below that of the atmosphere, then the 
mercury inside it will rise to a higher level, carrying 
the float, K 8 , with it, and the mercury outside the sleeve 
will sink to a lower level, carrying the balls, K 9 , down 
with it. This occurs, of course, at the same time that 
the richness of the mixture formed in the induction cone, 
J 3 , increases, and at a time when more auxiliary air is 
consequently required for diluting it The float, K 6 , 
being connected by the spindle, K 5 , with the valve, K 4 , 
gives the desired effect, because it then causes this valve 
to open the air ports, K 2 , admitting air into the 
central portion of the chamber, K, whence it is free to 
pass through the throttle-valve sleeve, I, to mix with the 
over-rich charge in the induction pipe, F 1 . The air-holes, 
K 2 , are formed in. the cap, K 3 , in the top of which is 
another guide for the rod, K 5 , over and above the inter- 
mediate guide in the chamber, K, and that in the 
wooden plug at the base of the sleeve, K 7 . The level 
of the mercury inside the sleeve, K 7 , depends at all times 
upon the degree of suction on the jet, H 4 , so that 
the position of the auxiliary air valve, K 4 , is 
automatically controlled to give the required opening to 
maintain a constant richness of the mixture. The adjust- 
ments provided for enabling the carburettor to be set to 
suit the engine to which it may be fitted, consist of the 
needle-valve, H 3 , which regulates the effective size of the 
spray jet, H 2 , and of means for .changing the position of 
the valve, K 4 , relatively to the spindle, K 5 . The power and 
speed of the engine can, of course, be controlled by the 
throttle-valve, I, which intercepts both the carburetted 
air and also the auxiliary air supplies, and regulates the 
quantity from the maximum to zero. This throttle- valve, 
is intended either to be operated by hand or by an 






i 



o 

.- K3 



Fig. 6. — The Automatic Portions or the Carburettor showing the 
Auxiliary Air-valve, the Chamber containing the Throttle-valve, and 
the Mercury Float-chamber, separated from one another, and also 
showing the various portions of the Mercury Chamber, dismantled. 

automatic governor, in conjunction with the usual ac- 
celerator lever or pedal. The characteristic feature of 
the patent controlling this carburettor is the employ- 
ment of mercury to give the advantages which we have 
above enumerated, but we understand that it has also in 
certain cases been applied to render carburettors 
automatic in a somewhat different way, the changing 
level of the mercury being caused to vary the level of 
the petrol in the jet instead of to control the admission 
of auxiliary air ; the same effect, however, is obtained, 
and the nozzle connection with the mercury chamber is 
fitted close up to % the spray-jet, as shown in our 
illustrations. 



Almost every week sees a fresh proposal for dealing 
with the perennial problem of the congestion of London 
traffic. At the last meeting of the London Traffic Com- 
mission Mr. Meik, M.I.C.E., advocated the use of 
double-decked main streets to relieve the congestion. 
His suggestion is that the main streets within the four- 
mile radius should be provided with what would prac- 
tically be a roof throughout their whole length, and a 
road surface be provided on this for the more rapid 
traffic. When asked how vehicles were to get up to 
and down from the roof, Mr. Meik stated that he would 
have inclines up to it from a number of secondary 
streets. Somewhat similar proposals have been made 
before, but naturally the main objection to them is to be 
found in the fact that the lower storeys of houses on the 
thoroughfares where the double-decked streets were 
constructed would be practically deprived of light, and 
that, we fear, would be an almost insurmountable objec- 



tion to the introduction of the decked street. There 
seems, unfortunately, to be very little consensus of 
opinion as to what ought to be done in this important 
question. Perhaps when the Commission issues its 
report something like unanimity will be reached. It is 
to be hoped that this will be the case, for it will not be 
till long after that stage that our public bodies are likely 
to be induced to inaugurate any really satisfactory and 
drastic measures. 



For the purpose of running a service of electric motor 
vehicles, taking their current from overhead conductors, 
between Kirchveischede and Gravenbriick in Germany, 
a company has been formed at Pilstein. In Switzer- 
land it is sought to extablish a public service of electric 
motor vehicles upon the same principle between Locarno 
and Gravel lona. 



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[February 13, 1904.. 



SOCIETY OF MOTOR MANUFACTURERS' 

EXHIBITION AT THE CRYSTAL PALACE. 



Quite a large number of entirely new vehicles are to be 
on view at this very important show, which will be in full 
swing by the time these lines reach the majority of 
our readers, and will remain open until the 24th inst. 
A large proportion of these cars are of entirely British 
manufacture — a fact which will considerably increase 
the attractiveness of what bids fair to prove the 
most successful and comprehensive automobile exhibi- 
tion that has ever been held. From reports received 
from the numerous exhibitors we notice, too, that almost 
every branch of the industry will be strongly represented, 
and it is evident that those interested in vehicles and 
'buses of all types for commercial purposes, and those 
who are contemplating the purchase of motor launches 
(to say nothing of those requiring private cars of various 



Wilson and Pilcher 18-24-h.p. engine has its cylinders 
placed horizontally, three on each side of the central crank- 
chamber, and the vehicle is of the same special design, 
in general respects, as this firm's smaller model, except 
that many important minor improvements have recently 
been made. They are exhibiting a complete car and a 
chassis, both of this 6-cylinder type and of the 4-cyiinder 
12-16-h.p. model, the smaller chassis being shown in 
motion to demonstrate the action of their special form of 
epicyclic change-speed -gear. The Ariel Motor Company's 
6-cylinder engine is of 30-h.p., and is being shown fitted 
to a complete chassis. A 4-cylinder 15-h.p. chassis 
is also exhibited by them, as also samples of their 
15-h.p. and 20-h.p. touring cars — some of which have 
"side entrance" bodies of novel construction. The 



A 25-h.p. Maudslay Convertible Wagonette Omnibus. 



kinds), will have an admirable opportunity or inspecting 
the most up-to-date models now available, and will 
find a very varied assortment from which to make a 
choice. 

Amongst the new private vehicles, we propose dealing 
more especially in this brief forecast with the British cars, 
partly because they form such a prominent feature of the 
show, and partly because most of the Continental models 
have already been described by us in connection with 
the recent Paris Salon; there are, however, many 
new foreign machines, and these will be noticed in 
a subsequent issue. Cars, fitted with 6-cylinder 
engines, are being exhibited by the Napier Company, 
Wilson and Pilcher Limited (Sir W. G. Armstrong, 
Whitworth and Co.), the Ariel Motor Company, 
John Marston, Limited, and the Maudslay Motor 
Company. Full particulars, with illustrations, of the 
18-h.p. Napier car are given in another column. The 



6-cylinder engine on the John Marston Company's car is 
of 16-h.p. and has its cylinders cast in pairs. The inlet- 
valves are arranged on the opposite side to the exhaust- 
valves, and the cylinders are identical with those used on 
the 4-cylinder 12-h.p. model. The inlet-valves are 
not only mechanically operated, but their lift can be 
varied by sliding the cam-shaft, which operates them, 
longitudinally ; the cams have for this purpose a tapering 
profile as on the Chenard and Walcker engine. A metal 
to metal clutch has been adopted, and an automatic 
carburettor is employed. Only two forward speeds, and 
a " reverse," are provided by the change-speed-gear ; the 
car has a side-chain form of transmission, and a direct- 
through drive to the countershaft is obtained on the top 
speed, the lay shaft being then stationary. A 
Maudslay Company's 6-cylinder model consists of the 
40-h.p. chassis, and another new vehicle of theirs is a 
3-cylinder 18-h.p. car constructed on the same general 



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1S1 



A 20-h.p. Thornycroft Tonneau, with Canopy Top ar.d Glass Windows. 



lines as their 25-h.p. vehicles ; improvements have been 
made in the throttle device, and steadier running is 
ensured by rendering the carburettor automatic. 

Amongst other new English petrol vehicles, the 
Crossley car, which has been very fully dealt with by us 
recently, should be examined on the stall of Messrs. 
Jarrott and Letts. The 20-h.p. Hutton chassis is of very 
novel design throughout, and comprises the various 
patents of Mr. T. W. Barber. Messrs. Hutton also 
represent the well-known Brooke cars, built at Lowestoft, 
and are showing the 1904 standard vehicle, which has a 
3-cylinder 14-h.p. engine, and the maker's type of gear- 
box in which chains and jaw-clutches are substituted for 
sliding spur-wheels. The 12 and 18-h.p. Siddeley cars, 
which are built for the Siddeley Co. by the Wolseley 



Co., and are described in another column, are also 
worthy of close attention, whilst it is unnecessary to 
mention that a very complete show is being made 
by the Wolseley Company themselves with their 
own 1904 models. The special features of the 
Daimler exhibit are the cars fitted with the latest slow- 
running engines, having mechanically-operated inlet- 
valves, single-trembler coil-ignition system (and magneto 
when desired), automatic carburettor, and new form of 
radiator; the 28-36-h.p. engine has cylinders of no mm. 
bore, the stroke is 150 mm., and the speeds over which 
the range of power, mentioned, is obtained are from 750 
to 1,000 revs, per min. ; the cylinders of the 18-22-h.p. 
engine have a bore of 95 mm., and the stroke is 130 mm. 
A 7-h.p. twin cylinder vehicle is another attractive model 



A 20-h.p. Thornycroft Double Phaeton, with Side Entrance and Hood to the Rear Seat. 



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[February 13, 1904- 



A 10-h.p. twin-cylinder Ryknield Tonneau. 



made by them. The latest Thornycroft vehicles 
are shown. An interesting 12-h.p. car, having several 
points about it which are well worth attention, is the 
chief attraction shown by the New Orleans Company, 
whilst amongst British-built petrol vehicles, which 
are entirely new to our readers, mention should be 
made of those exhibited by the Ryknield Engine 
Company, the Albany Manufacturing Company, 
and Messrs. Lamb Brothers. The New Orleans 
vehicle has the engine and the gear-box constructed so 
as practically to form one piece, and the main clutch 
between them is of very novel construction. It is of the 
internal cone type, with leather friction surface on the 
inner member, and this cone is made in two pieces, so 
that either half can be removed separately and with 
very little difficulty. The three speeds and reverse are 
operated by one lever, the main frame is con- 
structed of armoured wood, and the four cylinders 



have atmospheric inlet-valves ; the bore and stroke 
are 85 and no mm. respectively, and the normal 
speed is 900 revs, per min. The Ryknield cars 
have 10-h.p. twin-cylinder engines, and are fitted 
with touring bodies, as delivery vans, and as station 
carts. The touring chassis has a pressed steel frame, 
adjustable steering gear, a duplex clutch, and is being 
shown in motion on the stand, driven by an electric 
motor, to demonstrate the action of the various parts. 
The Albany Manufacturing Company make a special 
feature of their 10-h.p. "Silent safety" car, and of a 
16-h.p. 4-cylinder vehicle. The 15-h.p. Rose car, the 
chassis for which is exhibited by Messrs. Lamb Bros., 
has a pressed steel frame fitted with an underframe for 
supporting the engine and the gear-box. The engine 
has three cylinders, each of which is a separate casting ; 
they have a bore of 102 mm., the stroke is 127 mm., 
and the normal speed is 850 revs, per min. The inlet- 



The 15-h.p. Rose Car, which has a 3-cvlinder Engine. 



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183 



One of the 4-cylinder 12 to 14-h.p. James and Browne Landaulettes. 



valves are mechanically operated, and have a variable 
lift ; the lower portion of the crank-chamber is detach- 
able without disturbing the four crank-shaft bearings. 
The gear gives three speeds and a- reverse, with a direct 
drive on the top speed to the live-rear-axle. Messrs. 
Rose Bros., of Gainsborough, are the manufacturers. 

The Lsjigdon-Davies vehicles are, this year, fitted 
with an entirely new change-speed-gear, in which the 
gear-wheels are at all times in mesh with one another. 
The mechanism operating the gear is arranged in con- 



junction with the clutch pedal so that an automatic 
action is obtained between them. One of these gears is 
shown in operation on the maker's stall. The Swift 
Motor Company are introducing light cars of 7-h.p. 
and of 10-h.p., in which a Panhard type of change-speed- 
gear is employed. Both models have live rear-axles; 
the engine on the smaller is of the De Dion single- 
cylinder type, and that on the larger is a twin-cylinder 
Aster with mechanical inlet-valves. The Company are 
also showing their new motor bicycle, in which a worm 



The Electromobile Company's Car de Luxe, on which the hooded seat is suspended on cec-springs. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[February 13, 1904. 



drive is employed for the transmission. A somewhat 
novel feature for cars of the usual live axle type has 
been adopted by Dennis Brothers, Limited. This 
consists of a worm and worm wheel instead of bevel 
wheels for transmitting the power from the longitudinal 
shaft to the differential gear. The larger, 1904, cars are 



The Dennis Double Artillery Wheel, and the Worm-driven 
Live-rear-axle. 

also fitted with the double-artillery wheel, seen in our 
illustration, and the wheels are mounted so that they 
take a bearing upon the ends of the tubes surrounding 
the live axle, and thus take the weight of the car off the 
revolving shafts. A new gear-box is also fitted and the 
carburettor is rendered automatic ; the Dennis spring- 
cushion-drive is retained. 

Messrs. Pritchetts and Gold are showing their new 
30-h.p. " Meteor" chassis, in addition to 12-h.p. cars both 
of the live-axle and of the side-chain types. The larger 
vehicle has four speeds and a reverse, the motor has four 
cylinders, the main frame is made of pressed steel, and 
the wheel-base is 8 ft. 9 ins. Messrs. James and 
Browne are introducing a new 4-cylinder 12-14-h.p. 
vehicle, having cylinders with a 3^-in. bore, and a stroke 
of 4^ in. Either mechanical or atmospheric inlet-valves 
can be fitted, an automatic carburettor is employed, and 
all the valves can be removed in an extremely short time. 



The chassis has been specially designed to suit a 
landaulet class of body, but the general arrangement of 
the mechanism remains the same as on the 18-h.p. car. 
The chief improvements introduced by the Brush Com- 
pany on their 1904 vehicles are dealt with in another 
column. The Belsize Motor Company are showing two 
of their new 15-20-h.p. cars, which are fitted with 
3-cylinder engines, having mechanically-operated inlet- 
valves and nickel steel crank-shafts. They also have a 
light two-seated model of 7-h.p. 

The Lanchester Engine Company exhibit one of their 
new 18-h.p. touring cars, in which the engine is water- 
cooled instead of air-cooled, as on their 10 and 16-h.p. 
models. They also show a 1 2-h.p. vehicle having a water- 
cooled engine, but otherwise, except in minor details, 
no departures have been made in the unique design 
of their machines. Other all-English vehicles of more 
or less novel design are shown by Messrs. Alldays, the 
Century Motor Company, Humber (Limited), and Messrs. 
Thompson and Co. (the " Achilles "). Pressure on our 
space this week, however, prevents us from giving them 
more than passing mention here, and we are compelled 
to hold over all reference to the many excellent Con- 
tinental and American cars which are on view. 

An interesting electric vehicle, in which the comfort- 
able body is suspended on Cee springs — as seen in our 
illustration — is exhibited by the Electromobile Company. 

Most of the well known makers of steam lurries are 
well represented, and many of them show improvements 
of a more or less detail character. Messrs. Thorny- 
croft, Straker, and Coulthard may be mentioned amongst 
earlier established firms building them, and the Rectory 
Engineering Company and the Bristol Wagon and 
Carriage Company amongst those who have more 
recently taken up this work. Comparatively few really 
heavy vehicles fitted with petrol engines are exhibited, 
those of the Milnes-Daimler Company again being 
about the only examples. 

Motor launches, or petrol engines specially designed 
for this work — several of them fitted with the necessary 
reversing gear and propellers — are shown by the Napier 
Company (S. F. Edge, Limited), Messrs. Thornycroft, 
Messrs. Hutton, the Ariel Motor Company, the Maudslay 
Motor Company, Messrs. Brooke and Co., theGrosvenor 
Engineering Company, the Simms Manufacturing Com- 
pany, the Milnes-Daimler Company, and the De Dion 
Company. 



The Albany " Silent Safety" Petrol Car. 



The Langdon-Davies Petrol Van. 



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February 13, 1904.] THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL 185 



THE NAPIER 6.CYLINDER i&H.P. CAR. 



Yic. 1. —View of the 6-Cylinder 18-h.p. Napier Chassis from the right side. 



Fig. 2. — The 6-Cylinder Napier Chassis from the left. 



Fig. 3.— View of the New 18-h.p. Napier Chassis from above. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[February 13, 1904* 



This vehicle, which will undoubtedly form one of the 
chief attractions at the Exhibition, has many ex- 
tremely interesting features, the chief amongst which 
is the employment of a 6-cylinder engine of sufficient 
power to enable the car to be driven on the top 
speed under all ordinary conditions; further charac- 
teristics facilitating this object of the designers are to be 
found in the main clutch and in the change-speed gear, 
the former of which is designed so as to allow for slip- 
ping when desired, and the latter is constructed so 
that a direct-through-drive is obtained to the differential 
countershaft, and none of the other wheels in the gear- 
box revolve (even idly) when the top speed is in 
use. 

The weight, too, of the vehicle has been kept low, for 
the chassis only weighs about 17 cwt., although the 
engine, which is nominally 
of 18-h.p., develops about 
30-b.h.p. 

Three views of the com- 
plete chassis, without its bon- 
net, are given in Figs. 1, 2, 
and 3, these being taken from 
each side and from above re- 
spectively. The main-frame is 
constructed of pressed steel, 
and its side members have 
a tapering section, besides 
being brought nearer together 
in front of the dash than 
behind it. The engine is 
fixed rigidly by six feet 
projecting from the upper 
portion of the crank-cham- 
ber, to the sides of the main- 
frame, and it and the clutch 
are completely enclosed by 
an aluminium casing on 
the underside, which extends 
back to meet the gear-box, 
and narrows off between the 
clutch and this box. The 
gear-box is held in place by a 
3-point suspension, its weight 
at the rear being taken by 
the countershaft. It there- 
fore floats, and is self-aligning. 

The main-frame is carried on very long semi-elliptic 
springs lying beneath the side-members of the frame, 
and those at the rear are fixed, as seen in Fig. 4, 
beneath the back axle, so that the axle itself 
may be perfectly straight, although the frame lies 
on a low level. Both axles have an H cross- 
section and are made of nickel steel, the front axle 
is bent downwards centrally and the spring is attached to 
it from above in the usual way. The projecting horns 
for the front springs are formed by the frame itself, 
whilst those at the rear are separate forgings. Special 
side brackets are fitted on each side, in front, to receive 
the lamp brackets, which are turned with a taper at their 
lower ends, and slope diagonally upwards. The wheel- 
base is 9 ft., so that in conjunction with the long springs, 
and the smooth-running engine, very easy travelling is 
ensured. The wheels are intended to take 36-in. t>res, 
those at the back being 4| ins. wide, and those in front 
4 ins. Although the frame is built low, there is a 
minimum clearance of 10 ins. between the mechanism 
and the road. 



Fig. 4. — View showing the arrangement of the Rear Springs 
beneath the Straight Back Axle on the latest Napier Car. 



The engine is seen in place on the car, both from the 
right-hand side and from the left, in Figs. 5 and 6 respec- 
tively. 

The cylinders are cast in pairs, and have their 
inlet-valves arranged immediately above the exhaust- 
valves on the right side. All the valves are operated 
from a single cam-shaft, which is enclosed in the crank- 
chamber, the inlet-valves being actuated by vertical rods 
and rocking levers as seen in Fig. 5. The inlet-valves 
for each pair of cylinders are held down in place by 
three nuts, and a separate induction pipe passes across 
from the carburettor, on the left, for each pair. These 
valves are of the Napier multi-seated type, giving a very 
large opening. Separate exhaust pipes are led from 
each cylinder to a large expansion box beside and 
beneath the engine, from which the gases are conducted 

consecutively through two 
other silencers placed longi- 
tudinally, as seen in Fig. 
3. High - tension ignition 
plugs are fitted horizontally 
into the valve - chambers 
between the valves, and the 
wires are led to them from 
a box containing the ig- 
nition apparatus, including 
the commutator, placed cen- 
trally behind the dash. The 
commutator is driven by a 
chain from the engine, and 
the time of ignition can be 
varied by a hand-lever fixed 
to the steering pillar beneath 
the wheel, the horizontal 
shaft from which passes 
across to the top of the 
dash. 

A single coil is em- 
ployed for all six cylinders, 
and absolute synchronism is 
ensured by the distributor. 
The revolving parts inside 
the case are led with oil 
from a lubricator on the 
dash, fixed to the left 
of the case, as seen in Fig. 

7. 

The carburettor is of the Napier type, and is fitted 
with the hydraulic air-regulator described by us on 
Oct. 24th last. It is visible in Fig. 6, where it will be 
noticed that a rubber pipe, through which auxiliary air 
can be admitted through a shutter, passes from it to the 
dash. 

The throttle valve is controlled by a centrifugal 
governor, a part of which is seen in Fig. 6, the connec- 
tion between these two mechanisms being very 
direct. 

The governor is mounted upon the rear end of the 
pump spindle, and this spindle runs in ballbearings. The 
pump is driven by a chain from the cam-shaft, and the 
drive from the sprocket to the pump spindle is taken 
through a two-pronged fork, so that in the event of any 
foreign matter finding its way into the pump to stop it, 
no serious damage would be done, but the easily- 
replaced prongs only would be broken. The water is 
circulated through each of the three jackets entering at 
the bottom, and returning to the radiator from the 
highest point. The radiator is fitted sufficiently high 



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187 



Fig. 5. — The 6-Cylinder Napier Engine from the right side, showing the position of the mechanically-operated Inlet- Valves, above the 

Exhaust- Valves, and of the Ignition Plugs between the Valves. 



up to ensure natural circulation in the event of the pump 
failing to work, and it is of very compact design, being 
narrower than usual. The tubes of which it is built up 
are corrugated with four deep flutes, and as they are 
also very thin, they offer very effective cooling surfaces. 
An aluminium fan is fitted behind the radiator, and this 
is driven by a belt from a pulley on the front end of 
the cam-shaft. A "manometer" on the dashboard is 
connected with the water system. 

The engine is fed with oil from a mechanical lubricator 



on the right side of the dash, and a small hand-pump is 
also provided in the same fitting. The lubricator is 
driven through a pair of spur-wheels and a chain from 
the commutator spindle. 

The starting-handle is arranged so that it fits direct on 
the end of the crank-shaft, instead of being connected 
with it through any form of gearing. The cylinders have 
a bore of 4 in., and the stroke is 4 in. The speed of the 
engine can be varied over a very wide range, and it 
develops about 30-b.h.p. at a speed of 900 revs, per min. 



Fig. 6. -The 6-Cylinder Napier Engine from the left side, showing parts of the Circulating Pump, the (iovernor and ihe Carburettor. 



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[February 13, 1904. 



Fig. 7. — The central portion of the 6-Cylinder Napier Chassis, showing the Dash, the 
Main Clutch, and a portion of the Steering Gear. 



large size. The sliding rods which 
operate the gear are arranged on top, 
and the large inspection cover is made 
taper-shape so that it only needs a 
single screw to hold it in place. When 
the top speed is in use, the lay shaft and 
the intermediate reverse wheels are at 
rest, so that no unnecessary friction is 
introdnced into the mechanism. The 
gear-box is lubricated from greasers on 
the dash ; they are seen in Fig. 7. 

The foot-brake on the countershaft is 
water-cooled, and has metal-to-metal 
surfaces. The side-brakes are compen- 
sated by a steel cable, and are of the 
internal enclosed type, in deference to 
the wishes of customers, although the 
makers consider that the ordinary band- 
brakes hitherto employed by them are 
equally satisfactory. 

Two side-levers are fitted for opera- 
ting the change-speed gear, the smaller 
of these introducing the " reverse." The 
adoption of a second lever has been 



lis speed is for the most part con- 
trolled by the small hand-lever mounted 
inside the curiously shaped steering 
wheel, which will be noticed in our 
illustrations, this lever varying the volume 
of the charge drawn into the cylinders. 
An accelerator pedal acting against the 
governor is also provided. 

The steering gear is, in general 
respects, similar to the Napier design 
which has previously been described by 
us, and is adjustable throughout. The 
actual gear itself is, as seen in Fig, 7, 
fixed to the main frame, and is further 
stiffened by the transverse shaft by which 
the clutch is operated. 

The main-clutch has metal- to-metal 
friction surfaces, is of the internal type, 
and imposes no end thrusts upon the 
shafts. We are told that it is capable of 
transmitting as much as 40-h.p., and 
that it can be set so that a weight of 
2 lbs. on the foot-pedal is sufficient to 
cause it to slip. It is normally held in 
engagement by three easily-adjustable 
springs ; the pedal operating it, as also 
the brake pedal, which lies to the right of it, is mounted 
in bearings on the dash, and has a very large foot-plate. 
The. system of levers connecting this pedal with the 
clutch is arranged in a somewhat unusual manner, and 
the clutch is inter-connected with both brakes. 

A special universal joint formed by a square block 
with rounded ends fitting in the corresponding square 
socket is introduced between the clutch and the change- 
speed gear. It is made of hardened steel, its machined 
faces are ground true, and the socket is made in two 
parts in such a way that either the engine or the gear- 
box can be removed without disturbing the other of 
them. A general view of the gear-box from above with 
its large cover removed is given in Fig. 8, where it will 
be noticed that the direct-through-shaft, and the lay 
shaft, are very short, although the gear wheels are of 



Fig. 8. — View of the Napier Gear- Box, with its Cover removed, from above. 



determined upon because it permits the gear-box to be 
considerably reduced in size and weight. On the first 
few cars provision is made (as seen in Fig. 5) for 
varying the lift of the inlet-valves, but we understand 
that this will not be fitted in future, because the advan- 
tages of a variable lift mechanism are sufficiently 
obtained by the carburettor alone. 

One complete car, fitted with a side-entrance body and 
canopy, as also a chassis, will be on view at the 
Show, in addition to three 15-h.p. vehicles, and a large 
24-h.p. Pullman accommodating six people. 



The Automobile Club General Meeting is postponed 
one day, to March 10th. 



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189 



THE SIDDELEY PETROL CARS. 



Fig. 1. — Side view of the New 18-h.p. Siddeley Chassis. 



The latest vehicles put on the market by the Siddeley 
Autocar Company have been built for them, to their 
specification, by the Wolseley Tool and Motor Car 
Company, and have many special features of interest. 
These cars are entirely unlike the vehicles which the 
Wolseley Company manufacture for themselves, and 
more nearly resemble the majority of cars now on the 
market, having vertical engines mounted in front, from 
which the power is transmitted through the main clutch 
and a universal joint to the change-speed-gear before it 



is applied to the rear wheels by the side chains passing 
from the differential countershaft. Two models of this 
new type of vehicle are being made, the larger being of 
i8h.p., having a 4-cylinder engine, and the smaller 
being fitted with a twin-cylinder 12-h.p. engine. One of 
the larger chassis is seen from the right-hand side in 
Fig. 1, where it will be noticed that it is constructed 
with a pressed steel main frame to which the engine and 
the gear-box are fixed direct, and that these mechanisms 
are closed in on the underside. The engine itself is 



Fig. 2. — The 4-Cylinder 18-h.p. Siddeley Engine from the left side, showing the mechanism for varying the Lift of the Inlet- Valves, 

which are arranged above the Exhaust- Valves. 



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Fifi. 3. — The 18-h.p. Siddeley Engine from the right side, showing the Automatic Carburettor. 



seen in place in the car, from the left side, in Fig. 2, and 
from the right side in Fig. 3. The cylinders are 
formed by liners, which fit down into aluminium water- 
jackets forming a part of the crank-chamber, and the 
cylinder heads are separate castings, having their own 
jackets, and being bolted down in place. The inlet- 
valves are aranged above the exhaust-valves, and each 
pair of them is held down by a specially-shaped yoke 
and two nuts. The inlet valves are operated by vertical 



spindles, A 1 , from the same cam-shaft as the exhaust- 
valves, the rods, A 1 , engaging with rocking levers, which 
are pivoted in the yokes above the valves. The actual 
fulcrums are formed by pins in sliding blocks, A 2 , which 
can be moved a certain distance upwards or downwards 
by small vertical feed-screws, A 3 , the effect of which is 
to introduce more or less backlash between the cams 
and the valves, thus giving a variable lift. The feed- 
screws, A 3 , have projecting arms at their upper ends, so 



Fig. 4. —The central portion of the Siddeley 18-h.p. Chassis, showing the Clutch, the Gear-Bo* and the Universally-jointed Shaft 

connecting them together. 



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191 



that they can be connected together by the rods, A 4 , and 
operated simultaneously through the system of levers, 
A*, from a small hand-lever above the steering wheel. 

The branched induction pipe, A, leads from the 
carburettor to the four inlet-valves ; the carburettor has a 
float-feed chamber, B, a mixing-chamber, B 1 , and the air 
enters through the adjustable cap in the lower chamber, 
B 2 . A constant degree of richness is ensured by an 
automatic spring-controlled valve regulating the admission 
of auxiliary air. A throttle valve is fitted which is con- 
nected by the rod, D, with the governor, D 3 (Fig. 2), and 
with the shaft, D 1 , to which the accelerator pedal, D*, is 
fixed. The throttle-valve is normally controlled by the 
governor to maintain the desired normal speed of the 
engine, but this speed can be exceeded when the 
accelerator pedal is depressed, and the valve held open 
by it. 

High tension ignition plugs, C, are fitted between the 
valves in the valve chambers, and the commutator, C 1 , 
which is used in connection with them, is mounted in front 
of the dashboard as seen in Fig. 2. The time of ignition 
can be varied by a lever on the dash through the rod, 
C*, and the commutator is driven by a chain from the 
engine. The circulating pump, E, is fixed to the right 
of the engine in front, where it is driven by gearing, and 
takes its supply direct from the bottom of the Jboney- 
comb radiator. The water is forced by it through the 
pipe- fitting, E 1 , into the bottom of the aluminium water 
jackets, and it afterwards finds its way out into the 



jackets around the cylinder heads through the four bent 
pipes, E 2 , as seen in Fig. 3. The water is led back from 
the jackets in the neighbourhood of the valve chambers 
by the pipes, E 3 (Fig 2), which are connected together, 
and with the top of the radiator, by the pipe, E 4 . The 
engine is lubricated through a sight feed fitting on the 
dash, the oil passing to all the bearings. 

The main clutch is of the cone type and is of large 
diameter ; it has a plain leather face, and is so arranged 
as to be always perfectly in line with the flywheel. The 
thrust is taken by a ball bearing, and the spring is en- 
closed in the clutch. The clutch, together with the pedal 
operating it and the brake-pedal, are visible in Fig. 4, 
where it will also be noticed that a univefsally jointed 
shaft is introduced between the clutch and the gear-box. 
The gearing provides for four forward speeds and a 
reverse, and the side lever operating it is ingeniously 
arranged so that it is locked positively in any of its 
working positions. The shafts in the gear-box are very 
short, and are mounted in ball bearings ; the balls on 
the differential shaft are T 9 S in. in diameter. Very 
powerful brakes are fitted. Simplicity has been aimed 
at throughout, all the parts are very substantial and the 
workmanship throughout is extremely good. 

The twin-cylinder model is in general respects similar 
to that which we have just described. A chassis and a 
complete car of each type are to be on view at the 
Exhibition, and a couple of the small 6-h.p. voiturettes, 
with horizontal engines, will also be shown. 



SOME OF THE FEATURES ON THE 1904 BRUSH CARS. 



In addition to their 10 and 14-h.p. vehicles, the Brush 
Company are introducing a new 5-h.p. light car, and an 
18-h.p. vehicle having several interesting improvements 
fitted to it. Samples of all of these are to be on 
view at the Crystal Palace Exhibition this week. 
The 18-h.p. engine is seen in Fig. 1, the auxili- 
ary air valve, which is 
employed in conjunc- 
tion with it, in Fig 2, 
and the main clutch, 
together with the flexible 
coupling between it and 
the first-motion-shaft of 
change - speed - gear, in 
Fig. 3. The engine has 
mechanically - operated 
inlet- valves arranged on 
the opposite side to the 
exhaust valves, and the 
cylinders are cast in 
pairs. The carburettor 
is mounted on the 
right side of the alumi- 
nium crank - chamber, 
and the induction pipe 
from it passes up to a 
branched pipe, H 1 , with 
a second throttle valve, 
H, arranged at the junc- 
tion. The carburettor is 
of the spray type with 
float-feed chamber, G, 
mixing chamber, and 
automatically governed 
throttle valve, G 1 , the 



Fig. 1. — View of the 18-h.p. Brush Engine from the right side, 
showing the Doyle Valve, and the New Clutch. 



governor being fitted inside the gear wheel on the 
inlet cam-shaft The auxiliary valve, J, is fixed 
above the throttle valve, H, this throttle valve being 
operated by hand, and automatically slowing down the 
engine when either of the foot-pedals are depressed or when 
the hand-brake is applied. The main body of the auxiliary 

valve, which is known 
as the " Doyle " valve, is 
a, .cylindrical chamber, 
upon the top of which 
is screwed a cap, J 1 , 
having a large gauze- 
covered hole in its upper 
surface; the lower por- 
tion, J, screws over a 
threaded nipple, J 2 , 
which is also screwed 
into the top of the 
throttle - valve, H. It 
can be screwed down 
to a greater or less ex- 
tent over the nipple, 
and a lock-nut, J 3 , is 
provided for holding it 
in any position. The 
valve contains a flat 
plate, J 4 , cut away at in- 
tervals around the peri- 
phery to allow the air to 
enter when the valve is 
open, and the valve is 
normally held up against 
the cap, J 1 , by a spring, 
J*, so that it prevents any 
air irom entering. It will 



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be noticed that the extent to which it can open depends 
upon the adjustment of the valve, J, upon the nipple, J 2 , 
and thus the quantity of air which can enter when the 
valve is opened can be regulated. When the hand 
throttle, H, and automatic throttle, G 1 , are both open, 
this valve admits auxiliary diluting air, and tends to 
maintain a constant richness of the mixture. Even, 



The cone, F, is fixed to a central cast-steel boss, A, 
which is bushed internally to fit the shaft, B, projecting 
from the end of the crank shaft. The boss also re- 
ceives a spiral spring, E 1 , between it and the shaft, 
the larger hole for which extends through about two 
thirds of the length of the boss. Jaw-clutch members, 
A, are formed on the end of the boss, and these engage 
with the forked end, C 1 , of the first-motion-shaft, C, 
forming a flexible coupling with the change-speed gear. 
A ball-thrust bearing, D, is placed beneath the spring, 
E 1 , inside the clutch boss, and the spring is held in 
compression, engaging the clutch, by the pinned castle 



Fig. 2.- 



-The component parts of the Doyle Automatic Auxiliary 
Air- Valve. 



however, when these valves are closed, air can still pass 
through the smaller pipes seen in Fig. 2 from the valve, 
J, to the engine, thus tending to cool the cylinders, when 
the engine is running light. The valve, therefore, serves 
the double purpose of rendering the carburettor auto- 
matic, and of scavenging the cylinders with cold air, 
when the car is coasting. 

The main clutch is seen in position on the engine in 
Fig. 2, and is shown taken apart in Fig. 4. It is of the 
ordinary cone type, but the cone, F, which engages 
with the inner face of the fly-wheel, F 1 , is mounted in 
such a way that no end-thrust is imposed on either of 
the shafts, and that the moving parts are self-aligning. 



Fig. 3. — The various parts of the Brush Clutch, together with the 
First-motion-shaft of the Change-speed Gear. 

nut, E, which screws upon the end of the shaft, B. The 
clutch is actuated in the usual way by a pedal, and 
requires but little effort to disengage it. We under- 
stand that it has proved very satisfactory in practice, 
and that it takes up its load without any undue shock 
or slip. 

A high-tension ignition system is fitted to the engine, 
and the commutator is now mounted on the end of the 
cam shaft, instead of on the dash ; the time of ignition 
is varied by a lever on the steering pillar. All the 
bearings in the gear box and on the engine are 
lubricated and the bearings are bushed with white 
metal. 



is the stand number of the Automotor Journal at the 
Crystal Palace Show. It is near the centre of the main 
building, close to the High Level Railway entrance. 

As we go to press it is a source of great satisfaction to 
record that the Exhibition, opening on Friday of this 
week, is in a splendidly forward condition for the recep- 
tion ot visitors on that day. The enormous work involved 
in preparing an important show of this description is 
hardly realised by the general public, and it is probably a 
revelation to them to know that for weeks past practically 
the whole of the interior of the Crystal Palace has been 
given over to the hands of the workmen. We noticed 
particularly last week, that in their efforts to be up to 
time, several of the exhibitors already had their stands 
fully completed, merely waiting for the placing of their 
exhibits. Prominent amongst the earliest in this respect 
were Messrs. Charles Jarrott and Letts, Ltd., and the Olds- 
mobile stand, Messrs. S. F. Edge, Ltd., running them close. 



Every arrangement for the comfort of visitors that 
forethought can ensure has been made, and it is satisfac- 
tory to learn, from the Society of Motor Manufacturers 
and Traders, that arrangements have been made with the 
South Eastern and Chatham Railway to run special fast 
trains between Victoria Station and the Palace every 
week day during the exhibition, as follows : — Down y 
12.30 p.m. and 4.25 p.m. Up> 3.40 p.m. and 6.10 p.m. 
These trains, which are in addition to the ordinary service, 
will perform the journey in well under half-an-hour. The 
Society will have special headquarters during the Show, 
the Pompeian House having been placed entirely at their 
disposal by the Palace authorities. This has been 
luxuriously fitted up, and will form an extremely pleasant 
rendezvous for those who have business to transact con- 
nected with the general arrangements of the Exhibition. 
The telephone number for this special office of the 
Society is No. 5 Crystal Palace. 



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193 



THE CLUB AND 

THE EXHIBITIONS. 

As the result of the widespread dissatisfaction which has 
been expressed in regard to the action of the committee 
of the Automobile Club in according the patronage of 
the club to one only of the approaching Exhibitions for a 
pecuniary consideration, the following official apologia 
has been published in the club Journal, while the corres- 
pondence which took place on the subject has been 
forwarded to us by the Secretary of the Society of Motor 
Manufacturers and Traders. In a front paragraph we 
refer both to the statement published in the club organ, 
to the letters of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and 
Traders, and to the importance of the subject for the 
automobile movement generally. No one, we venture 
to think, will be able to read the correspondence pub- 
lished below without fully endorsing the views enunciated 
in our leaderette. From the Automobile Club Journal of 
February 4th : — 

On October 17th the committee was ap- 

The Club and proached by the Society of Motor Manu- 

thc Exhibition facturers and Traders asking on what terms 

Question. the club would grant its patronage to their 

second Exhibition, to be held at the Crystal 

Palace from February 12th to the 24th inclusive. The committee 

took the matter into consideration, and after two interviews between 

the club secretary and the secretary of the Society, which were 

reported to the club committee, certain terms were put forward to 

the Society and at the same time to Mr. Cordingley, the committee 

wishing to grant its patronage to both Exhibitions on precisely 

Sua! terms. The terms as put forward were accepted in toto by 
r. Cordingley, and were rejected in toto by the Society, without 
leaving any loophole for any further negotiations in the matter. 
In order, however, that the Society should receive every opportunity 
of re-considering its position, it having first approached the club in 
the matter of the club granting its patronage, it was further discussed 
on several occasions in committee, and eventually the Society, 
recognising that by the delay the club desired to give them another 
opportunity of resuming negotiations, addressed a letter, dated 
January 15th, suggesting that a sub-committee of the Society and a 
sub-committee ofthe club should meet to discuss the matter not for 
this year, but for the year 1905. The above-mentioned letter was 
discussed in committee on Monday, January 18th, and, having come 
to the conclusion that the Society was not serious in its first request 
nor in its subsequent action, the committee decided to grant its 
patronage to Mr. Cordingley, after having kept him waiting three 
months. 

In the light of these facts, the statement in 

A Grotesque a newspaper — to which Lord Russell draws 

Misrepresentation, attention in a letter in the current issue — 

that the club have given their patronage to 

the Islington Show for the sake of ^500 is seen to be a grotesque 

misrepresentation. The club throughout these negotiations has 

been actuated by the sole idea of benefiting the British automobile 

industry by securing to these annual Exhibitions the support which 

would have further increased their usefulness. That it should be 

now asserted by the parties who are responsible for the failure of 

these intentions that the club has sold its patronage, and that that 

statement should be credited in certain quarters, are matters that all 

those who are anxious for the future of the automobile movement 

will view with mixed feelings of indignation and regret. 

The following is the communication issued by the 
Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders upon the 
publication of this statement : — 

THE CLUB AND THE EXHIBITION QUESTION. 

To the Editor of The Automotor Journal. 

Sir, — The attention of my committee having been called to an 
article in the Automobile Club Journal of the 4th inst., pp. 97-8, 
wherein it is stated that this Society approached the committee of 
the club asking upon what terms the club would grant its patronage 
to their second Exhibition, to be held from the 12th to 24th of 
February inst., I am directed to forward you the enclosed copy of 
this Society's letter in question, the wording of which does not, in 
the first place, justify the statement that the Society merely asked 
on what terms the club would grant its patronage. 



Copy Letter from the Society of Motor Manufacturers 
and Traders to the Automobile Club. 

October 17th, 1903. 

My committee have asked me to bring before you the fact that 
the second annual exhibition of this Society will take place at the 
Crystal Palace from the 12th to 24th February, 1904, inclusive. We 
have already received entries from the enclosed list of firms, which I 
think you will admit, constitute the trade in this country. 

My committee hope that your club will formally support the 
show — as being the official trade show of the year — by giving your 
patronage to it, or such other formal support as is necessary and 
proper to be given by the leading organisation in this country to the 
only trade show. 

Now we are asking this for the very serious consideration of your 
committee, and trust that it will be put before them at your next 
meeting, as the whole industry is passing through a very critical 
period, and it is most important that it should have the support of 
the Automobile Club, which support my committee consider that 
under the circumstances it is fully entitled to expect. 

There are no private interests being served. by this Society, but it 
is an association supported by the great majority of the trade, as 
certainly practically without exception the show is. 

It is correct that two interviews then took place between the 
Club Secretary and the Secretary of the Society, at the second of 
which interviews the Club Secretary definitely stated the terms upon 
which the club would be prepared to extend its patronage to the 
Society's Exhibition. These terms were as follows : — 

(1.) Free admission of all Club Members during the Exhibition. 
(2.) An annual sum of ^500. 

(3.) Agreement by the Society not to hold trials, &c. 
(4.) Representation of Club on the Show Management Com- 
mittee. 

It will be observed from the nature of the conditions themselves 
that the intention was to extend the patronage to the Society's 
Exhibitions generally, and not limit it to any one particular Exhi- 
bition. 

These items were duly reported to the committee of this Society, 
at its next meeting, which was on the 19th November, 1903, and 
the same being unanimously considered impossible of acceptance, 
the Secretary of the Society was directed to write to the Club 
Secretary as follows : — "November 20th, 1903. The subject of 
our recent interviews was discussed at the committee meeting last 
night, and I was directed to inform you that my committee regret 
that they cannot see their way to accept the terms proposed." 

On the 14th January, 1904, the next date on which the Society's 
Committee met, it was decided to write the following letter to the 
club with reference to future Exhibitions, as the Society was, and 
is still, firmly of opinion that it is as much its duty to obtain for its 
exhibitors the patronage of the premier automobile body as it is the 
duty of the club to extend its patronage on proper terms to the 
representative Trade Society's Exhibition : — 

"January 15th, 1904. With reference to the correspondence on 
the Exhibition question, my committee desire me to inform you that 
they regret that the terms named by your club were such as to 
interrupt negotiations in respect of our forthcoming second Exhibi- 
tion, but in view of the great benefit which would doubtless result 
to automobilism generally, if the premier Exhibition of this country 
were 'patronised' by your Institution, my committee would be 
quite willing to appoint a small sub-committee to meet one of yours 
for the purpose of discussing possible terms for the Society's third 
Exhibition." 

This letter has never been replied to, nor is it known to this 
Society on what ground the Editor of the Automobile Club Journal 
presumes to say that the club committee came to the conclusion that 
the Society was not serious in its first request nor in its subsequent 
action, and, therefore, decided to grant its patronage to Mr. 
Cordingley's Exhibition, after having kept him waiting three months. 
I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

T. F. Woodfine, Secretary, 



The Chief Constable for East Sussex has been" pro- 
vided with a motor car by the Joint Committee at a 
cost of ^350. Motorists will learn with mixed feelings 
that the cost of this machine has been defrayed out of 
the fines inflicted on motorists in the division. It is 
rather too bad that police officials should be provided 
with such a direct incentive as this for laying motor 
traps, but perhaps as they become automobilists they 
will themselves grow more reasonable and considerate. 



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THE MIDLAND AUTOMOBILE CLUB.-This picture appeared on the menu 
of their annual dinner on Saturday last. 



Midland Automobile Club-— On Saturday evening last the 
Second Annual Dinner of this Club was held at the Grand Hotel, 
Birmingham, when Mr. W. Ballin Hinde, one of the Vice- 
Presidents, occupied the Chair. Amongst others he was supported 
by Messrs. Vernon Pugh, H. Barnsley, P. V. Vernon, Meredith, 
O. Harmer, Milburn, G. Dennison, N. F. L. Hemmings, S. H. 
Pinsent, F. W. Rainforth, E. M. Instone, Bullock, F. Lanchester, 
A J. W. Millership, C. P. Type, T. C. Aveling, H. Holder, 
H. B. Graham, A. J. Johnson, E. C. Lord, J. Wingfield, Harper, 
A. A. Remington, Windsor, A Whitfield, J. Whitfield, C. H. 
Palethorpe, H. Austin, W. E. Rogers, C. S. Baynton, K. Baynton, 
W. B. Davies, G. A. Cox, W. T. Stokes, W. H. C. Wood, &c. 
The Royal toast having been duly honoured, the toast of the 
"Visitors" was proposed in the happiest manner by Mr. C. Vernon 
Pugh, a characteristic response being given by Mr. Percy. Follow- 
ing this, a very interesting little episode was enacted by the pre- 
sentation to Mr. Frank Lanchester, the late indefatigable honorary 
secretary to the club, for the services which he had rendered during 
his occupation of that office. The toast of " the Club" was then 
proposed by Mr. Barnsley, and acknowledged by Mr. T. C. 
Aveling, honorary secretary. The " Automobile Club " was given 
by the Chairman, the response being placed in the hands of Mr. 
Rees Jeffreys. During the evening some excellent music and songs 
helped to enliven the night's entertainment between the various 
toasts. 



The Berkshire Automobile Club.— On Friday, February 5th, 
the Berkshire Automobile Club held their inaugural dinner in the 
Great Western Hotel, Reading, when the chair was occupied by 
Sir Gilbert Clayton-East, Bart., about 35 members of the Club and 
guests being present. 



RACES, RECORDS, AND TRIALS. 

GORDON BENNETT ITEMS. 

There will probably be about nine neutralised stretches 
on the Taunus course, including Usingen, Weilburg, Lim- 
burg, Esch, Koenigstein, Dornholzhausen, and the Saal- 
burg. The time allowed for these on each tour will be 
about 70 minutes, making for the four tours of the race 
about 4^ hours. Allowing about 6 hours for actual racing 
time, this gives about io£ hours from the start to the 
finish. 

The Luneburg Circuit, where it is hoped to run off 
the German eliminating trials, is about 61 60 kiloms. in 
length, starting from Soltau. This will be covered prob- 
ably five times. 

Inspection of the revised route for the Belgian- 
Ardennes Circuit has created a favourable impression. 
The new portion is reported to be superior to the rest of 



the circuit, and will increase the distance available for 
racing. The outer circuit will measure 126 kiloms., and 
the cross road in the centre will bring the entire length 
up to 154 kiloms. 



Baron de Caters, almost immediately after Mons. 
Gobron issued his challenge to Mr. Vanderbilt to run 
his Mercedes in France under the auspices of the A.C. 
de France against a Gobron-Brillie' car, expressed 
himself desirous of taking up the challenge with his new 
Mercedes by the end of February, in the absence of 
Mr. Vanderbilt from Europe. This, however, is not 
at all what Mons. Gobron desires or suggested. He 
points out in reply that his challenge is to Mr. Vander- 
bilt personally, in view of what appears to him the 
recent extraordinary performances in Florida. 



The Anti-Skid Trials of the A.C. Seine-et-Oise, which 
commence at Versailles on February 24th, are already 
receiving a number of adherents, and it will be interesting 
to see a comparison of the rapidly increasing anti-skid 
devices which are coming upon the market. Already 
thirteen different devices are entered, and the contest 
promises to be keen. A total of 740 kilometres will be 
traversed, spread over five days, starting from Versailles 
each day. 



The motor boat races, which are to take place during 
the Kiel Regatta week on June 25th, promise to be very 
popular. The Emperor will personally be present at the 
races, and the boats will be divided into six classes, 
viz. : — 

Class i. — Boats from 18 to 25 metres in length 

with no limit to motor power. 
Class 2. — (a), 12 to 18 metres long, no h.p. limit. 

(<£), 1 2 to 18 metres, 100-h.p. maximum. 
Class 3. — (a), 8 to 12 metres, no h.p. limit. (£), 

8 to 12 metres, 50-h.p. maximum. 
Class 4. — 6 to 8 metres, 30-h.p. maximum. 
Class 5. — (a), 6*50 metres and under, 16-h.p. 
maximum. (b), 6*50 metres and under, 6-h.p. 
maximum. 



Mr. Pollock will read a paper on " Aeronautics and 
Ballooning as a Sport " at the Automobile Club next 
Thursday evening. 



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*95 



A private track suitable for the side slip trials of the 
Automobile Club has been lent for the side slipping 
tests. The last day for entry 
is the 29th of this month, by 
which time drawings of the 
devices to be submitted must 
be sent in. A first prize of 
jQioo minimum will be 
awarded if the best device 
is considered worthy, other 
prizes being allotted accord- 
ing to the merits of the de- 
vices in the opinion of the 
judges. The trials will take 
place about March 25th. 



We learn that the first of 
the motor coaches built by 
the North-Eastern Railway 
Company underwent a very 
satisfactory official trial run of 
60 miles on the main line on 
Thursday, the 28th ult. This 
coach was described by us in 
our issue of January 23rd, 
when we gave an illustration 
of the 80- h. p. Wolseley petrol 
engine, coupled to the dynamo 
from which the power is trans- 
mitted electrically to the 
motor driving the wheels. 
The run was made without 
any hitch, at an average 
speed of 30 m.p.h., including 
four stops and re-starts. The 
speed attained was frequently 
nearly 40 m.p.h., and the 



An original front-page design 
the February issue 



coach had no difficulty in climbing a 1 in 95 bank on 
each journey. It weighs about 35 tons, and the fuel 

consumption works out ap- 
proximately at one pint per 

b;h p. per hour. 

I The Electromobile Com- 
pany invited a number of the 
automobile and general press 
to inspect their well appointed 
and extensive new garage at 
Curzon Street, Mayfair, on the 
afternoon of Monday last. The 
company has now 60 electro- 
mobiles of the brougham type 
(on the Contal system) in daily 
use, and is doing a large busi- 
ness both in hiringout vehicles 
for longer or shorter periods, 
and in supplying customers 
1 with these attractive town car- 
riages. Interesting demon- 
strations were given of the 
j rapidity with which the system 
adopted by the company en- 
ables the batteries of the car- 
riages to be detached and 
replaced. The garage and 
charging arrangements of the 
company were inspected by 
those present, who were im- 
pressed with the degree to 
which the increased business 
of the company gives evidence 
■ of the growing popularity of the 

of "Motor " (U.S.A.), for electromobile in the Metro- 

of that Journal. polis. 



?-• Flexibility in the springs is one of the features of the new light De Dion 6-h.p. Cars, and this particularly 
i— adapts them for use with solid tyres. The vehicle, which we illustrate, was accordingly fitted with 2J by 28-inch 
:rrr^«*oli<ls# on which it has been run a considerable distance, and has, we understand, given every satisfaction. 



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[February 13, 1904* 



The enormous degree to which the modern auto- 
mobile extends the power of the individual (for to go 
from place to place as you will is after all one of the 
highest and most satisfactory exercises of power) is well 
illustrated by the fact that Mr. H. R. Kirk, a prominent 
automobilist of Headingley, near Leeds, actually drove 
comfortably from Paris to Monte Carlo on a 24-h.p. 
De Dietrich car in four days. On the first day of the 
outward journey he ran from Paris to Dijon, on the 
following day Lyons was reached, the third day saw 
him at Avignon, and on the fourth day he ran through 
Cannes to Monte Carlo. Similar long stages were made 
in coming back, Valence being reached the first day and 
Dijon the second. The Channel was crossed from 
Boulogne to Folkestone, and the run completed back to 
Leeds in the most satisfactory way. Mr.. Kirk appears 
to have bad no breakdowns or serious mishaps, and it is 
in the pure joy of his heart that he has written a short 
appreciation of his tour. 

An excellent show of automobiles and cycles was got 
together last week in Liverpool, at the St. George's 
Hall. The chief exhibitors were the Road Carrying 
Company, Limited, who had a very large selection of 
different makes of motor vehicles, including the following : 
Daimlers, Georges-Richard Brasiers, L£on Bolide, Lan- 
chester, Siddeley, Oldsmobile, &c, a variety appealing to 
all classes of the public. Alldays and Onions were also 
prominent in their display, other exhibitors including 
Robinson and Price, Limited, the Star Cycle Company, 
Rudge Whitworth, William Lea, who made a speciality 
of Darracq cars and Werner motor bicycles ; the Belsize 
Motor Car and Engineering Company, Limited, who 
exhibited specimens of their well-known Belsize vehicles ; 
Francis Weighill, who staged some Ader cars; the 
Hercules Motor Wagon Company, who exhibited their 
patent steam wagon, which gained the highest award at 
the Royal Lancashire Show last year. Dunlop motor 
tyres were in several directions in strong evidence, and 
some fine specimens of motor tyres were shown by the 
North British Rubber Company, Limited. The popular 
element was catered ior by a strong feature being made 
of the Spencer airship, which was suspended from the 
roof of the building. An excellent programme of music 
throughout the Show was contributed by the Carmen 
Sylva Ladies' Orchestra. 

In New York a Mercedes Club is being formed, a 
necessary qualification being the possession of a car of 
this make. The leading American millionaires are 
named as already having joined this new club. 



An analysis of the exhibits at the Brussels Salon gives 
a total of 100 cars, 38 chassis, 86 motors, 7 motor boats, 
in motor bicycles, 4 heavy motor vehicles, 5 steam 
vehicles, and 2 electric vehicles. Last year only 78 cars 
were exhibited. 



Last Saturday the Turin Automobile Exhibition, the 
first of its kind ever held in Italy, was formally in- 
augurated by the Duke of Genoa, representing King 
Victor Emmanuel. The bad weather considerably 
militated against the event, but once inside the building 
an excellent show of machines repaid those who had 
braved the elements. Italian exhibits predominated, there 
being 40 Italian cars represented against 31 of foreign 
manufacture. In the latter the French were most 



strongly represented, other countries exhibiting being 
Austria, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, and America. 
England, unfortunately, was unrepresented in the Show. 
The finest exhibit was that of the Fiat, and, by way of a 
popular attraction, the Renard train had been imported 
from Paris. A number of conferences and fetes form 
part of the programme during the Exhibition, which 
closes on the 21st insL, whilst practical trials have not 
been forgotten, these including brake trials, reliability 
trials, &c. Every help has been given by the Govern- 
ment to the organisers of this fine Show, the enthusiasm 
both of King Victor Emmanuel and his Royal wife for 
automobilism having set an example of encouragement 
to official Italy generally. In our frontispiece we re- 
produce a photograph of the King and Queen of Italy 
in one of the King's automobiles, of which he is making 
almost continuous use. 



M. Andre A. Godin notifies us that owing to the 
growth of his business in Ducellier motor lamps he has 
now taken new premises at 1, Red Lion Square, which 
will be in perfect working order within the next three or 
four weeks. Under his new arrangements M. Godin 
will not only be able to keep a much more extensive 
range of stock, but he has provided for charging accumu- 
lators on the premises. 

In order to make room for new season's patterns 
Mr. Oscar C. Selbach announces that he is prepared to 
concede a considerable amount in the price on a small 
number of 3-speed Regal cars fitted with Aster or De 
Dion engines. 



Mr. Stanley W. Andrews, late Works Manager of the Motor 
Traction Company, Limited, has opened offices and showrooms at 
203, Regent Street, W., where he will make a feature of his Stanley 
Silencer in addition to conducting a general motor business in cars 
and accessories. 



Messrs. H. B. Nelson and Co,, of 7, Harrington Road, South 
Kensington, have opened a free garage for cars at the above address. 
Repairs and renewals can be executed on the premises, a source of 
revenue no doubt which will help to recoup the firm for their new 
departure. 



DOINGS OF PUBLIC COMPANIES. 



NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. 

[Taking powers to manufacture or deal in motors, motor cars, or 
accessories, either as their principal or part of their objects.] 



Auto-Cars and Accessories (Limited), 114, Long Acre, 
W.C. — Capital, ^"200 in £1 shares (100 preferred and 100 deferred). 
First directors, J. Portwine, J. Weller, and H. E. Weller. 

A, D. Barnett (Limited).— Capital, ^"8,000 in £1 shares. 
Object, to carry on the business of manufacturers of and dealers in 
motor cars, cycles, velocipedes, &c. 

Buchholtz Reversible Turbine Syndicate (Limited). 
— Capital, j£ 100,000 in £1 shares. Object, to adopt an agreement 
for the acquisition of patent rights in the Buchholtz Reversible Tur- 
bine or Rotary Motor ; also to manufactuie, sell, let on hire, or 
otherwise deal in turbine motors, bicycles, boats, launches, flying 
machines, &c. 

A Donaldson and Co. (Limited), (Scotch Company). — 
Capital, ,£3,000 in £1 shares. Object, to carry on the business 
of manufacturers, &c. , of motors, motor cars, launches, cycles, &c. 

Pioneer Motor Car Company of India (Limited). — 
Capital, £$, 000 in £1 shares. 

Powell and Hanmer (Limited), Chester Street, Aston -juxta- 
Birmingham.— Capital, ^50,000 in ^5 shares. Object, to acquire 
the business of manufacturers of lamps and cycle accessories carried 
on at Chester Street, Aston-juxta-Birmingham, under the style of 
Powell and Hanmer, and to carry on the business of manufacturers 
of motor lamps and motor accessories, &c. First directors, F. Powell 
and F. Hanmer. 



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The Automotor Journal, February 20th, 1904.] 



The AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL 



A RECORD AND REVIEW OF APPLIED AUTOMATIC LOCOMOTION. 

Circulates amongst Makers and Users of Motor Cars, Cycles, etc., in the United Kingdom, the 

Colonies, and the Continent. 



Offices: 44, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C. 



No. 163. (No. 8, Vol. IX.)] FEBRUARY 20TH, 1904. [^Ync^^ ] L 



Weekly. Price 3d. 
Post Free, 3*d. 



ORMOND-DAYTONA BEACH RACES —In the above photographs we reproduce pictures of the remarkable 
record races held recently on this Californian Beach, and which were reported by us in our issues of January 30th 
and February 6th. The top picture shows Mr. W. K. Vanderbilt, junior, on the 90-h. p. Mercedes making his 
record of 39 sees, for the mile, equal to 92-30 m.p.h. In the lower picture is seen the o miles race for gentle- 
men drivers, which Mr. W. K. Vanderbilt also won In 3 mins. 34| sees. He beat this time for 5 miles later 

In the day by 3£ sees., equal to 85*50 m.p.h. 



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198 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



[February 20, 1904. 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



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DIARY OF FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 



1904. 

Feb. 12-24 

Feb. 23-27 
•Feb. 25 

Feb. 25 



Feb. 27 
Mar. 4 



Mar. 7-12 
Mar. 10 
Mar. 15 

•Mar. 17 



Mar. 19-26 

•Mar. 24 

Mar. 

Apl. 



Mar. 25-30 

* il. 16 



May 

May 19-20 
June 1-7 
August 
Sept. ... 
Oct. -Nov. 



British Events. 

2nd Annual Exhibition of the Society of Motor 
Manufacturers and Traders at the Crystal Palace. 

Hull Cycle and Motor Show (Assembly Rooms). 

"The Manufacture and Use of Pneumatic Tyres," 
by Mr. J C. Siddeley (A.C. Paper). 

" Motor Vehicles for Goods Transport," by Mr. J. 
E. Thornycroft, A.M.I.C.E. (Glasgow Un. 
Engineering Society). 

44 Wire Wheels Tyred," by Mr. F. W. Lanchester 
(Mid. A.C). 

" Some Practical Notes on Electric Storage Bat- 
teries," by G. C. Allingham (Junior Institute 
of Engineers). 

Manchester Motor Show (St. James's Hall). 

Automobile Club General Meeting. 

44 Cost, Up-keep, and Care of an Autocar," by 
Messrs. J. Adam and J. H. Steen (Scottish A.C). 

44 Valves and Valve Mechanism of Internal Com- 
bustion Engines," by Mr. R. E. Phillips, 
M.I.M.E. (A.C. Paper). 

Cordingley and Co.'s Motor Car Exhibition at the 
Agricultural Hall. 

Smoking Concert. 

*Side-Slip Trials. ( Entries close Feb. 29. ) 

Examination of vJars for Gordon- Bennett British 
Eliminating Trials. 

British Gordon-Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 

Glasgow- London Non-Stop Run. 

Motor Bicycle Endurance Trial. 

British International Cup for Motor Boats. 

•Reliability Trials. 

•Light Van Trials (about 2,000 miles). 



Foreign Events (Trials, Races, Ac). 
(All French road racing fixtures are subject to confirmation by 
the French authorities. ) 
1904. 

Feb. 21 ... Coupe Sneyden 1 kilom. on flat (A.C. Algeria). 

Feb. 23-27 ... Anti-Skid Trials at Versailles. 

Feb. 29- Mar. 5 Cleveland Show. 

Mar Paris- Rome {La France Automobile). 

Mar. 3, 4, 5 .. Fuel Consumption Trials {UAuto). 

Mar. 6-12 ... Buffalo Show. 

Mar. 13-20 ... Cannes Automobile Week. 

Mar. 14-19 ... Boston Show. 

Mar. 15-16 ... A.C. America Commercial Vehicle Trials. 

Mar. 19-27 ... Frankfort Exhibition. 

Mar. 20-29 ... Nice Week (details, Oct. 31, p. 1168). 

Mar. 21-26 ... Washington (U.S.A.) Auto Show. 

Mar. 23-27 ... Electric Vehicle Trials {Monde Sportif). 

Apl. 5-15 ... Monaco Motor Boat Week (details, Jan. 2, p. 25). 

Apl. i6-May3i Vienna Auto Show. 

Apl. 17 .« Coupe Meyan Motor Boats). 

• Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland Event*. 



Apl. 18-23 ... 

May 8 

May (or July 25) 

May 

May ... 
May 1-12 
May 11-15 ... 
May 12 
May 12-15 ••• 
May 14-15 ... 
May 16-23 ... 
May 23-31 ... 
June 7 
June 17 
July 10 

July 

Tuly 16-17 ... 
July 17 

July 18-23 ... 
July 22 

July 23-25 ... 
July 23-Aug. 5 
Aug. 5-1 1 .. 
Aug. 12 
Aug. 13 14 ... 
Aug. 15 
Aug. 28 
Aug. * 

Sept 

Sept. 2 

Oct. 5 

Oct. 9 

Oct. 14-22 ... 

Nov. 20 

Dec 



Nice- Rome. 

Exelberg Hill Climb (A.C Austria). 

Circuit des Ardennes (A.C. Belgium). 

French Gordon-Bennett Race Eliminating Trials. 

Guadarrama Hill Climb (A.C Spain). 

A.C. Bordelais Automobile Fortnight. 

Milan Exhibition and Tourist Trial. 

Perigueux Hill Climb (A.C. Dordogne). 

Tours Tourist Trial. 

Nantes-Croisic ( Motor Boats), Monde Sportij. 

Circuit National Beige. 

Aix-les-Bains Week. 

Namur Week. 

Gordon-Bennett Race. 

Mont-Cenis Hill Climb (A.C Italy). 

Speed Trials ( CAuto). 

Ostende Motor Boat Races. 

Antwerp-Ostende Motor Boat Run. 

Ostende Week. 

Kiel Motor Boat Races. 

Lucerne Motor Boat Races. 

Spa Automobile FStes. 

Paris- Deauville Motor Boat Race. 

Motor Boat Race for Gaston Menier Cup 

Calais- Dover-Calais (motor boats). 

Calais- Boulogne- Calais (motor boats). 

Ventoux Hill Climb (Avignon). 

Paris Industrial Vehicles Trials (A.C. France). 

Deauville Automobile Meeting {VAuto), 

Chateau Thierry Hill Climb {CAuto). 

Dourdan Kilometre Trials {Monde Sport if). 

Gaillon Hill Climb {VAuto). 

Leipzig Cycle and Motor Show. 

100 Kiloms. Trial (A.C. Algeria). 

Paris Salon. 



CONTENTS 

• Page. 

Ormond-Daytona Beach Races (Frontispiece) 197 

Diary of Forthcoming Events 198 

Passing Events : — 

An Important Speech 199 

A Justification of our Attitude 199 

Reformation Needed . . . . . . . . . . 199 

A Plan of Action 199 

Not a Private Matter ^ 200 

An Important Hint to all Drivers .. 200 

An Unexpected Result .. .. .. 200 

The Deadly Horse 200 

Prospects of the Motor 'Bus 20: 

The Exhibition Question in Paris 201 

Examples Needed in South Africa .. .. 201 

The Crystal Palace Exhibition — Illustrations: — 

28->6-h.p. Daimler Side-entrance Covered Phaeton .. 202 

18-22 h.p Daimler Side-entrance Tonneau .. .. .. .. 202 

New 6-cylinder 18-h.p. Napier Car and a 24-h.p Napier " Pullman " 

Car . . 203 

6-h.p. Wolseley Light Car and a 6-cylinder Mars ton Sunbeam Car . . 204 

New Crossley Car and a Wilson and Pilcher 6-cylinder Car 205 

1 2-h. p. Standard Brooke Car .. .. .. 206 

18-h.p. Brush Petrol Cor and a 12-h.p. New Orleans Car .. 207 

1904 Dennis Tonneau Car . . . . 208 

Elswtck Petrol Landaulette . . 209 

7-h. p. Swift Light Car and Chassis .. .. .. .. 210 

Allday's Light Petrol Car 211 

James and Browne Double Phaeton and a British-built Duryea Chassis 21 2 
3-cylinder Panhard Landaulette .. .... ..212 

i8h.p. Germain Car and a Pritchetts and Gold Chassis . . . . . . 213 

Cadillac Delivery Van 214 

Inaugural Luncheon .. .. .. .. 214 

Lea and Francis Petrol Car ..215 

Langdon-Davies Change-speed-gear 216 

The 1904 F.I A.T. Petrol Cars # 217 

Fig. 1, View of Chssais ; Fig. 2, Engine from right side. 

The 1904 Mercedes Models 219 

Fig. 1, The 1904 40-h.p Car ; Fig. 2, View of the Dash ; Fig. 3, 
40-h.p. Engine from left side ; Fig. 4, 40-h p. Engine from right ; 
Fig 5. 18-28-0. p. Engine from left side ; Fig. 6, 18-28-h.p. Engine 
from right ; Fie. 7, 18-28-h.p. Car. 

Albany *• Silent Safety Petrol Car 223 

Fig. 1, "Silent Safety" Petrol Car; Fig 2, Plan and Side Elevation 
of Car ; Fig. 3, View of Engine from left side ; Fig. 4, io-h.p. 
Engine ; Fig. 5, The Change-speed -gear ; Fig 6, View of Crank- 
shaft ; Fig. 7, Cross Section through Crankshaft, &c. ; Fig. 8, 
View of Live Rear Axle ; Fig. 9, View of Carburettor ; Fig. xo, 
Cross Section of latest Carburettor; Fig. 11, The Steering Gear 
in parts. 

Crossley Variable Cut-off Valve 229 

A Motor Unicycle 230 

Club Doings . . . . m .. ^ 230 

How to Save the Automobile Club .. .. .. .. .. ..241 

British Automobile Industry, 1904. By T. C. Aveling .. .. - .. 232 

Development of Motor Traffic. Hy the Hon. C. S. Rolls 253 

Quarterly 100 Miles Trial .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 234 

Ormond-Daytona Beach Races .. .. .. .. .. .. 234 



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February 20, 1904.] 



THE AUTOMOTOR JOURNAL. 



199 



PASSING EVENTS. 



An Important Speech. 
It has been said with some plausibility that were 
London to be destroyed by an earthquake the survivors 
would meet and hold a dinner among the ruins to 
commemorate the event. At any rate, every public 
function of importance is in this country commenced 
by a dinner or lunch, and the Crystal Palace Exhibition 
was opened as consecrated by time immemorial usage 
in this way. Luncheons dispose to eloquence, and 
after the lunch was over a number of humorous, 
important and suggestive speeches were delivered in 
reference to the Exhibition, and the present and future 
prospects of automobilism. We have already said that 
the Exhibition itself is the most important automobile 
show that has been held in the British Islands, and 
its importance has been evidently recognised by the 
managers, who were successful in providing one of the 
most interesting team of spe